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Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
BASILISK – The translation in the Revised Version of the Hebrew "ẓefa'" and "ẓif'oni" (Isa. xi. 8, xiv. 29, lix. 5; Jer. viii. 17; Prov. xxiii. 32), for which the Authorized Version has "cockatrice." The Septuagint uses the word βασιλίσκον...
BASIN – The following Hebrew words are rendered "bason" in English: "aggan," "kefor," "mizraḳ," and "saf." Of these "aggan" and "kefor" are rare, the former occurring in Ex. xxiv. 6 as the name of the vessel in which the blood of the...
BASKETS – Egyptian Baskets.(From Wilkinson, "Ancient Egyptians.")Four kinds of Baskets are mentioned in the Old Testament—"dud," "tene," "sal," and "kelub"—but unfortunately without any intimation whatever of the differences of shape or...
BAT – This well-known winged mammal (in Hebrew , Lev. xi. 19; Deut. xiv. 18; Isa. ii. 20) was considered by the Hebrews as belonging to the class of birds. The ancients in general considered it as a creature belonging both to the...
BATH-RABBIM – A term found only once in the Bible (Cant. vii. 4), apparently as the name of a gate at or near Heshbon. The passage is obscure; but of the various emendations that have been proposed—by Grätz," Schir ha-Schirim" ("Rabbath...
BATH-SHEBA – Biblical Data: The daughter of Eliam (II Sam. xi. 3; but of Ammiel according to I Chron. iii. 5), who became the wife of Uriah the Hittite, and afterward of David, by whom she became the mother of Solomon. Her father is...
BATH-SHEBA – Biblical Data: The daughter of Eliam (II Sam. xi. 3; but of Ammiel according to I Chron. iii. 5), who became the wife of Uriah the Hittite, and afterward of David, by whom she became the mother of Solomon. Her father is...
BDELLIUM – A precious stone mentioned in Gen. ii. 12 by the side of gold and the "shoham" stone as one of the chief products of Havilah. Since manna is compared in appearance to Bdellium (Num. xi. 7), it may be concluded that the latter...
BEAN, BÆAN – A tribe destroyed by Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. v. 4; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 8, § 1) on account of its persistent attacks upon the Jews.J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEANS – pol"): The well-known vegetable, mentioned twice in the Old Testament. In II Sam. xvii. 28 it is referred to as a foodstuff along with wheat, barley, and lentils. How it was prepared for the table is not known; it was probably...
BEAR – dob"): An animal often mentioned in the Old Testament, and evidently not rare in Palestine and Syria. Next to the lion, the Bear is regarded as the most formidable enemy of mankind (Amos v. 19), although he must be very hungry...
BECHER – 1. Son of Benjamin, mentioned in Gen. xlvi. 21 and in the genealogical list of I Chron. vii. 6, 8, but does not occur in the genealogies of Num. xxvi. 38 and I Chron. viii. 1. 2. Son of Ephraim and eponym of the Bachrites (Num....
BECHORATH – An ancestor of Saul, and son of Aphiah (I Sam. ix. 1).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BED – In early as in later times the Bed of the poor was the bare ground, and the bedclothes the simple gown worn during the day, which was wrapped about one at night (Ex. xxii. 25, 26; Deut. xxiv. 13). Hence a pledge of the "simlah"...
BEDAD – Father of Hadad, one of the early kings of Edom (Gen. xxxvi. 35, and corresponding list I Chron. i. 46).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEDAN – 1. A judge mentioned by Samuel in his farewell address (I Sam. xii. 11) among the judges that delivered Israel from their enemies. Though referred to along with Jerubaal, Jephthah, and Samuel, the name "Bedan" is not found in...
BEE – A honey-gathering insect frequently referred to in the Bible. Bee-keeping dates very far back, and it is quite probable that the ancient Hebrews were engaged in it, although there is no direct testimony on the subject either in...
BEELIADA – A son of David (I Chron. xiv. 7), who in II Sam. v. 16 and I Chron. iii. 8 is called "Eliada." This is due to an intentional change by the scribe, to whom the name "Baal" was hateful, and who therefore substituted "El" in its...
BEER – 1. A halting-place of the Israelites near Arnon, in Moab, where they stopped during their wanderings in the desert (Num. xxi. 16). On the finding of the well a song was composed (Num. xxi. 17, 18): one of the earliest poetic...
BEER ELIM – A Moabite town mentioned in the lament for Moab (Isa. xv. 8). It is probably to be identified with the Beer of the desert wanderings (Num. xxi. 16).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEER LAHAI RO'I – Name of a well in the desert south of Palestine on the road to Shur (Gen. xvi. 7 et seq.), known as the stopping-place of Isaac (Gen. xxiv. 62, xxv. 11). According to the rather artificial and not at all lucid explanation of...
BEER-SHEBA – A place situated on the southern boundary of Judea (compare Judges xx. 1; II Sam. xvii. 11; I Kings xix. 3) which was allotted to the tribe of Simeon (Josh. xix. 2). It is referred to in Gen. xxii. 19 as the dwelling-place of...
BEERA – An Asherite (I Chron. vii 37).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEERAH – Biblical Data: A descendant of Reuben, and head of the tribe at the time it was taken into captivity by Tiglath-pileser (I Chron.v. 6).J. Jr. G. B. L.—In Rabbinical Literature: Beerah, the prince of the tribe of Reuben, is...
BEEROTH – One of the cities of the Gibeonites (Josh. ix. 17) which after the conquest fell to the lot of Benjamin (Josh. xviii. 25). This possession, however, seems to have been but temporary; for in II Sam. iv. 3 we find that the...