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Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
BEET – This well-known biennial root-plant is not mentioned in the Bible; according to De Candolle, it was not cultivated before the sixth or fourth century B.C., although Wönig claims to recognize it in an Egyptian picture from the...
BEETLE – English equivalent in A. V. for the Hebrew "ḥargol" (Lev. xi. 22; R. V. "cricket"). It is here mentioned as a kind of locust, together with "'arbeh," "sal'am," and "ḥagab." According to the Talmud the ḥargol has a tail, and a...
BEHEADING – Biblical Data: As a regular capital punishment, Beheading does not seem to have been known to the Israelites before the time of the Greek dominion. Only cutting off the head of a slain or disabled enemy (I Sam. xvii. 51 et seq.)...
BELA – 1. An early king of Edom, having his royal seat at Dinhabah; son of Beor (Gen. xxxvi. 32, 33; I Chron. i. 43, 44). The name "Dinhabah" occurs in Palmyrene, Syria, and in Babylonia (Dillmann, "Genesis," ad loc.); and, since it...
BELIAL – Biblical Data: A term occurring often in the Old Testament and applied, as would seem from the context in I Sam. x. 27; II Sam. xvi. 7, xx. 1; II Chron. xiii. 7; Job xxxiv. 18, to any one opposing the established authority,...
BELSHAZZAR – Biblical Data: King of Babylon mentioned in Dan. v. and viii. as the son of Nebuchadnezzar and as the last king before the advent of the Medes and Persians. The Greek form Βαλτάζαρ is used both for the Hebrew "Belshasar," or...
BELSHAZZAR – Biblical Data: King of Babylon mentioned in Dan. v. and viii. as the son of Nebuchadnezzar and as the last king before the advent of the Medes and Persians. The Greek form Βαλτάζαρ is used both for the Hebrew "Belshasar," or...
BEMIDBAR – The Hebrew name for the Book of Numbers (see Numbers)J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEN-ABINADAB – Commissariat officer of Solomon who married a daughter of his royal master. He was stationed in the district of Dor; that is, the modern Tanturah (I Kings iv. 11, R. V.).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEN-DEKAR – Commissariat officer of Solomon, whose district in northern Dan included Makaz, Shaalbim, Beth-shemesh, and Elon-Beth-hanan (I Kings iv. 9).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEN-HADAD – Biblical Data: A name that would seem to mean simply "the son of Hadad," a well-known appellation of an Aramean and perhaps also of an Edomite deity (see Hadad). As found in the Old Testament, the name is applied to at least two...
BEN-HESED – Commissariat officer of Solomon with residence in Aruboth in Judah (I Kings iv. 10, R.V.). His district was Hepher and Sochoh. There being several places of the name "Sochoh," it is not easy to decide which one is meant. The...
BEN-HUR – Commissariat officer of Solomon "in the hill country of Ephraim" (I Kings iv. 8, R. V.).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEN-ONI – A play upon the name "Benjamin." According to Gen. xxxv. 18, it was the name given by the dying Rachel to her son Benjamin. See Benjamin.J. Jr. G. B. L.
BENAIAH – Biblical Data: 1. One of the Bene Parosh who took foreign wives (Ezra x. 25); in I Esd. ix. 26 he is called "Baanias."2. One of the Bene Pahath-moab in the same list (Ezra x. 30), called "Naidus" in I Esd. ix. 31.3. One of the...
BENE-BERAK – A town assigned to Dan (Josh. xix. 45). It was situated on the seacoast plain southeast of Joppa, and is to be identified with the modern Ibn Ibrak (Buhl, "Geographie," p. 196). The Danites, however, did not continue to hold the...
BEREA – Place where Bacchides encamped (I Macc. ix. 4). From the context it would seem to be near Jerusalem, though some scholars have identified it on unsatisfactory evidence with Beeroth (Josh. ix. 17; I Esd. v. 19).J. Jr. G. B....
BERED – 1. A son of Ephraim (I Chron. vii. 20). In the genealogy of Num. xxvi. 35 his place is taken by Becher. It may be that Bered and Becher are the same. See Becher.2. A place given in the story of Hagar (Gen. xvi. 14). Beer Laḥai...
BERŒA – Identified with the modern Haleb or Aleppo, the scene of the death of Menelaus, who was killed by being smothered in ashes in one of its towers said to be 55 cubits in height (II Macc. xiii. 4).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BEROTHAH (BEROTHAI) – A city of Hadadezer, from which David obtained much brass subsequently used by Solomon in making the brazen sea, pillars, and vessels of brass (II Sam. viii. 8). In the parallel account of I Chron. xviii. 8 it is calledChun,...
BERYL – A stone, ranging in color from blue to pale yellow and found all over the world; three kinds are to be distinguished—beryl, aquamarine, and emerald. According to Ex. xxviii. 20 and xxxix. 13, the beryl was the first on the...
BESOR – A wadi or river-bed where two hundred of the followers of David stopped while the rest of the force pursued the Amalekites (I Sam. xxx. 9, 10, 21). Guerin ("Judée," ii. 213), identifies Besor with the modern Wadi el-Ghazza,...
BETH-ANATH – A Canaanite city in the territory of Naphtali, the name of which contains, as one of its elements, the name of a god, Anath. Though the Israelites did not succeed in conquering this city, the Canaanitish inhabitants became...
BETH-ANOTH – City in the hills of Judah (Josh. xv. 59). It has been identified by both Conder and Buhl ("Geographie," p. 158) with the modern Beth Ainûn.J. Jr. G. B. L.
BETH-ARABAH – A town situated, according to Josh. xv. 61, in the wilderness of Judah. It was a border-town between Judah and Benjamin, and hence is credited to the former (Josh. ib.); while in Josh. xviii. 22 it is enumeratedamong the towns...