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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Max Schloessinger, Ph.D.

Librarian and Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Contributions:
KAPOSI(V07p435002.jpg),ḤAYYIM – Dayyan in Egypt about 1600. He became known later as the "Ba'al ha-Nes," through a miracle which is said to have happened to him. He became blind. Some time afterward, being suspected of having taken bribes, he called upon...
ḲARA, JOSEPH BEN SIMEON – French Bible exegete; lived in Troyes, where, probably, he was born about 1060-70; died between 1130 and 1140. His uncle and teacher was Menahem benḤelbo, whom Ḳara often cites in his commentaries, these quotations being almost...
ḲAYYARA, SIMEON – Babylonian halakist of the first half of the ninth century. The early identification of his surname with "Ḳahirah," the Arabic name of Cairo (founded 980), was shown by Rapoport ("Teshubot ha-Ge'onim," ed. Cassel, p. 12, Berlin,...
KELLER, NAPHTALI – Austrian scholar; born at Tarnow, Galicia, Jan. 25, 1834; died at Rožnau, Moravia, Aug. 5, 1865; son of Israel Mendel Keller, a well-to-do innkeeper. Naphtali as a mere youth practised speaking Hebrew with his friend M....
KEREM ḤEMED – Hebrew periodical, edited and published in Vienna in 1833 and 1836 (vols. i. and ii.) and in Prague from 1838 to 1843 (vols. iii. to vii.) by Samuel Löb Goldenberg. A continuation or new series was edited and published in Berlin...
ḲINAH – Classes of Ḳinot. Lamentation chanted in honor of the dead; it has a halting movement peculiar to itself, and ranges from a dirge or wail to the elegiac form (comp. David's elegies on the deaths of Saul and Jonathan [II Sam. i....
KIRCHHEIM, RAPHAEL – German scholar; born in Frankfort-on-the-Main 1804; died there Sept. 6, 1889. For some time he was shoḥeṭ in the Orthodox congregation of Samson Raphael Hirsch in Frankfort, in which city he spent his whole life. He assented to...
ḲOHELET MUSAR – Hebrew weekly; founded at Berlin in 1750 by Moses Mendelssohn (at that time he was not more than twenty-one) and T. Bock. Only two issues appeared; these contained philosophical and moral reflections of the Leibnitz-Wolff...
KOHEN ẒEDEḲ II. KAHANA BEN JOSEPH – Gaon of Pumbedita from 917 to 935. Immediately after his appointment he took measures to change the existing system in the division of the revenues between the two schools of Sura and Pumbedita. Hitherto Sura had taken...
KOHN, JOEL BEER – Russian writer; born at Volozhin 1816; died in Wilna Nov. 17, 1871. He translated Fénelon's "Les Aventures de Télémaque" into Hebrew, under the title "Kebod Elohim" (books i., ii., Königsberg, 1851; books iii-xxi., Wilna, 1853);...
KOL NIDRE – Prayer recited in the synagogue at the beginning of the evening service on the Day of Atonement; the name is taken from the opening words. The "Kol Nidre" has had a very eventful history, both in itself and in its influence on...
KRON, JUDAH BEN ELEAZAR – Russian teacher and author; born at Tuckum, Courland, Feb. 1, 1793; died at Mitau 1831. He was educated by Rabbis J. W. Blumenfeld and M. Ezekiel and also in the district school of his native town, and occupied himself with...
LAZARUS, MORITZ – German philosopher; born at Filehne, in the Prussian province of Posen, Sept. 15, 1824; died at Meran, Tyrol, April 13, 1903; son of Aaron Levin Lazarus, a pupil of Akiba Eger, and himself president of the bet din and the...
LEHREN – Dutch family whose name is derived from Lehrensteinfeld, a village in Württemberg.Akiba Lehren: Dutch banker and communal worker; born July 30, 1795; died in Amsterdam Nov. 19, 1876; younger brother of Ẓebi Hirsch Lehren and...
LEVI BEN ABRAHAM BEN ḤAYYIM – French encyclopedist; champion of the liberal party in Provence in the struggle for the study of secular sciences; born at Villefranche-de-Confluent, Roussillon, between 1240 and 1250; died at or near Arles soon after 1315. He...
LEVY, LOUIS (ASHER BEN MOSES) – Poet and cantor of the Berlin synagogue; died Jan. 25, 1853. He wrote "Teḳufat ha-Shanah" (Berlin, 1842), poems on the four seasons, in imitation of Thomson's "Seasons." The preface includes "Na'al Yad," a translation of...
LOANS, JACOB BEN JEHIEL – Physician in ordinary to the German emperor Frederick III. (1440-93), and Hebrew teacher of Johann Reuchlin; died at Linz about 1506. Loans rendered lifelongfaithful service to the emperor, by whom he was knighted. At Linz in...
LONZANO, ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL DE – Austrian grammarian; lived at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He was baptized at Idstein and took the name of Wilhelm Heinrich Neumann. His Hebrew grammar, "Ḳinyan Abraham," was published in Zolkiev in 1723 (De le Roi,...
LONZANO, MENAHEM BEN JUDAH BEN MENAHEM DE – Palestinian Masoretic and midrashic scholar, lexicographer, and poet; died after 1608 in Jerusalem. His nativity is unknown, but it has been supposed that he was born in Italy. According to Jellinek, who identified Lonzano ( or...
MAGDEBURG – Under the Archbishop. Capital of the Prussian province of Saxony; situated on the Elbe. It has a population of 229,633, of whom about 2,000 are Jews. There were Jews at Magdeburg as early as the tenth century. The district...
MAHAMAD – Rules of Election. The board of directors of a Spanish-Portuguese congregation. The word is of Neo-Hebrew origin, and in the Talmud is applied to the representatives of the people present at the Temple service (Ta'an. 15b). The...
MALKA BEN AḤA – Gaon of Pumbedita from 771 to 773. The only fact known concerning him is that, with Ḥaninai Kahana ben Huna (765-775), he opposed Naṭronai ben Ḥabibai, who, for unknown reasons, endeavored to supplant the exilarch Zakkai ben...
MARI BEN DIMI – Second gaon of Pumbedita. When the Jewish scholars were compelled to leave the Babylonian academies, Mari, with others, went to Firuz-Shabur and there established a new academy which became associated with his name. After the...
MASARJAWAIH – One of the oldest Arabic Jewish physicians, and the oldest translator from the Syriac; lived in Bassora about 883. His name, mutilated in every possible way, has been transmitted in European sources; nor has it yet been...
MEÏR BEN SAMUEL (RaM) – French tosafist; born about 1060 in Ramerupt; died after 1135. His father was an eminent scholar. Meïr received his education in the Talmudical schools of Lorraine, his principal teachers being Isaac ben Asher ha-Levi and...