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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
RULES OF ELIEZER B. JOSE HA-GELILI, THE THIRTY-TWO – Rules laid down by R. Eliezer b. Jose ha-Gelili for haggadic exegesis, many of them being applied also to halakic interpretation.1. Ribbuy (extension): The particles 'et," "gam," and "af," which are superfluous, indicate that...
RULES OF HILLEL, THE SEVEN – Rules given to the sons of Bathyra by Hillel I. as the chief guides for the interpretation of the Scriptures and for the deduction of laws from them (Tosef., Sanh. vii.; the introduction to the Sifra, ed. Weiss, p. 3a, end; Ab....
RULES OF R. ISHMAEL, THE THIRTEEN – Thirteen rules compiled by Rabbi Ishmael b. Elisha for the elucidation of the Torah and for making halakic deductions from it. They are, strictly speaking, mere amplifications of the seven Rules of Hillel, and are collected in...
RUTH RABBAH – A haggadic and homiletic interpretation of the Book of Ruth, which, like that of the four other scrolls ("megillot"), is included in the Midrash Rabbot. This midrash, divided into eight chapters or sections ("parashiyyot"),...
SAADIA – Biblical commentator, whose native country and epoch can not be precisely determined. Rapoport (in "Bikkure ha-'Ittim," ix. 34-35) was the first to prove that the commentary on Daniel which is ascribed to Saadia Gaon does not...
SAADIA B. JOSEPH (Sa'id al-Fayyumi) – Gaon of Sura and the founder of scientific activity in Judaism; born in Dilaẓ, Upper Egypt, 892; died at Sura 942. The name "Saadia," which, so far as is known, he was the first to bear, is apparently an artificial Hebrew...
SABORA – Title applied to the principals and scholars of the Babylonian academies in the period immediately following that of the Amoraim. According to an old statement found in a gloss on a curious passage in the Talmud (B. M. 86a),...
SAMA B. RABBA – Babylonian amora; last head of the Pumbedita Academy. He was the successor of Raḥumai II., and officiated for about twenty years (456-476). He was a contemporary of Mar b. Ashi and of Rabba Tusfa'ah. Tradition relates that, in...
SAMA B. RAḲTA – Babylonian amora of the sixth generation. He was a contemporary of Rabina I., with whom he disputed concerning a halakah (Ḳid. 9a), and to whom he communicated a saying of Rab Awia (B. M. 10b, the correct reading in...
SAMSON – Biblical Data: One of the judges of Israel, whose life and acts are recorded in Judges xiii.-xvi. At a period when Israel was under the oppression of the Philistines the angel of the Lord appeared to Manoah, a man of Dan, of the...
SAMSON BEN ELIEZER – German "sofer" (scribe) of the fourteenth century; generally called Baruk she-Amar, from the initial words of the blessing which he delighted to repeat, even in boyhood, at the early morning service. He was born in Saxony, but...
SAMSON BEN ISAAC OF CHINON – French Talmudist; lived at Chinon between 1260 and 1330. In Talmudic literature he is generally called after his native place, Chinon (Hebr. ), and sometimes by the abbreviation MaHaRShaḲ. He was a contemporary of Perez Kohen...
SAMUEL – Biblical Data: Samuel was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, of Ramathaim-zophim, in the hill-country of Ephraim (I Sam. i. 1). He was born while Eli was judge. Devoted to Yhwh in fulfilment of a vow made by his mother, who had long...
SAMUEL, MIDRASH TO – Midrash Shemu'el, a haggadic midrash on the books of Samuel, is quoted for the first time by Rashi in his commentary on I Sam. ii. 30. In his "Ha-Pardes" (ed. Constantinople, p. 24b) Rashi again quotes from this midrash (xvii....
SAMUEL BEN ABBA – Palestinian amora of the latter half of the third century. Although a pupil of Johanan, he did not receive ordination (Yer. Bik. 65c). He declined to permit Hela and Jacob to do him honor by rising before him (ib.). He appears...
SAMUEL BEN ABBAHU – Babylonian amora of the fourth century. He engaged in a ritual controversy with R. Aḥai in regard to the use of the Circassian goat as food. Samuel was disposed to permit it to be eaten, but R. Aḥai opposed him. Finally it...
SAMUEL BEN AMMI – Palestinian amora of the beginning of the fourth century. He is known through his controversies with other scholars. He contended, for instance, that II Chron. xiii. 17 should be interpreted as meaning that King Abijah of Judea...
SAMUEL B. ḤIYYA – Palestinian amora of the second half of the third century of the common era. None of his halakic or haggadic maxims has been preserved; and he is known only through his quotations of the Statements of others. He is twice...
SAMUEL BEN ḤOFNI – Last gaon of Sura; died in 1034. His father was a Talmudic scholar and chief judge ("ab bet din," probably of Fez), one of whose responsa is extant (see Zunz, "Ritus," p. 191; Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl." xx. 132), and on whose...
SAMUEL BEN ISAAC OF UCEDA – Talmudist of Safed in the sixteenth century; descendant of a family of Uceda, which, when banished from Spain, settled at Safed. Samuel was head of the Talmudical school which was conducted in the latter city by the liberality...
SAMUEL BEN JACOB IBN JAM' – Rabbi of a North-African community ( ); flourished in the twelfth century. He was on intimate terms with Abraham ibn Ezra, who dedicated to him his "Ḥai ben Meḳiẓ" and mentioned eulogiously three of his sons—Judah, Moses, and...
SAMUEL BEN JONAH – Palestinian amora of the fourth century. He is perhaps identical with Samuel ben Inijah or Inia ( ). Samuel ben Jonah once gave an opinion concerning Samuel ben Naḥman's system of calculating the advent of the new moon (Pesiḳ....
SAMUEL BEN JOSE BEN BUN (ABUN) – Palestinian amora of the fourth century, in whose time the Jerusalem Talmud is said to have been arranged and completed by his father, Jose. Some of his sayings have been preserved in Yer. R. H. i. 5; Ber. i. 6; Soṭah ix. 5; and...
SAMUEL HA-ḲAṬON – Tanna of the second generation; lived in the early part of the second century of the common era. His surname "ha-Ḳaṭon" (= "the younger") is explained by some as an epithet given him on account of his extreme modesty, while...
SAMUEL BEN MARTA – Palestinian amora of the third century. The word "mishkan," twice occurring in Ex. xxxviii. 21, is explained by him as having reference to the fact that the sanctuary was twice confiscated as a pledge ("mashkon"; i. e., the...