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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
EXILARCH – Title given to the head of the Babylonian Jews, who, from the time of the Babylonian exile, were designated by the term "golah" (see Jer. xxviii. 6, xxix. 1; Ezek. passim) or "galut" (Jer. xxix. 22). The chief of the golah or...
GAMALIEL – Name which occurs in the Bible only as a designation of the prince of the tribe of Manasseh (Num. i. 10; ii. 20; vii. 54, 59; x. 23). In post-Biblical times the name occurs with special frequency in the family of Hillel. In a...
GAMALIEL I. – His Correspondence. Son of Simon and grandson of Hillel: according to a tannaitic tradition (Shab.15a), he was their successor as nasi and first president of the Great Sanhedrin of Jerusalem. Although the reliability of this...
GAMALIEL II – Appointed "Nasi." The recognized head of the Jews in Palestine during the last two decades of the first and at the beginning of the second century. He continued with great energy and success the work of restoration begun by...
GAMALIEL III. – Son of Judah I., who before his death appointed him his successor as nasi (Ket. 103a). Scarcely anything has been handed down concerning his deeds or concerning the whole period of his activity (within the first third of the...
GAMALIEL IV. – Son and successor of the patriarch Judah II., and father of the patriarch Judah III. The period of activity of these patriarchs can not be determined. Grätz puts Gamaliel IV. in the last third of the third century. According to...
GAMALIEL V. – Son and successor of the patriarch Hillel II.; celebrated in connection with the perfecting of the Jewish calendar in 359. From geonic sources ("Seder Tanna'im we-Amora'im") only his name and those of his two successors are...
GAMALIEL VI. – The last patriarch. The decree of the emperors Honorius and Theodosius II. (Oct. 17, 415) contains interesting data concerning him. By this decree the patriarch was deprived of all the higher honors which had been given him, as...
GAON – In Babylon: The title of "gaon," probably an abbreviation of (Ps. xlvii. 5), was given to the heads of the two Babylonian academies of Sura and Pumbedita, though it did not displace the title of "rosh yeshibah"(Aramaic, "resh...
GAON – In Babylon: The title of "gaon," probably an abbreviation of (Ps. xlvii. 5), was given to the heads of the two Babylonian academies of Sura and Pumbedita, though it did not displace the title of "rosh yeshibah"(Aramaic, "resh...
GIKATILLA, MOSES IBN – Grammarian and Bible exegete of the latter part of the eleventh century. His full name was "Moses b. Samuel haKohen," but Abraham ibn Ezra generally called him "Rabbi Moses ha-Kohen." His surname, which appears as early as the...
GIZA (GIZAI) – A sabora; head of the Babylonian school in the first half of the sixth century. In a very old source, the "Seder Tanna'im wa-Amora'im," he is mentioned, together with Simuna, as the last of the Saboraim (Neubaner, "Mediæval...
GOLDZIEHER, WILHELM – Hungarian oculist and ophthalmological writer, born at Köpcsény (= Kitsee), near Presburg, Jan. 1, 1849. He studied medicine at Vienna, Berlin, Prague, and Heidelberg, graduating (M.D.) at Vienna Dec. 25, 1871. In 1874 he...
GRAMMAR, HEBREW – Although Hebrew grammar, together with Hebrew lexicography—the two constituting Hebrew philology, and aiming at the systematic investigation and presentation of Biblical Hebrew—originated as an auxiliary science to Bible...
HALBERSTAM, SOLOMON JOACHIM – Austrian scholar; born at Cracow Feb. 23, 1832; died at Bielitz March 24, 1900. His father, Isaac Halberstam, was a prominent merchant who devoted his leisure time to study, and left in manuscript a work which Solomon published...
HILLEL – Doctor of the Law at Jerusalem in the time of King Herod; founder of the school called after him, and ancestor of the patriarchs who stood at the head of Palestinian Judaism till about the fifth century of the common era. Hillel...
IBN EZRA, ABRAHAM BEN MEÏR (ABEN EZRA) – First Period: to 1140. Scholar and writer; born 1092-1093; died Jan. 28 (according to Rosin, Reime und Gedichte, p. 82, n. 6, 1167 (see his application of Gen.xii. 4 to himself). His father's name was Meïr and his family was...
IBN EZRA, ISAAC (ABU SA'D) – Spanish poet of the twelfth century; son of Abraham ibn Ezra. He won fame as a poet at an early age, probably while still in his Spanish home. Al-Ḥarizi ("Taḥkemoni," iii.) says of him: "Like his father, Isaac also drew from the...
IBN JANAḤ, ABU AL-WALID MERWAN – Greatest Hebrew philologist of the Middle Ages; born at Cordova between 985 and 990; died at Saragossa in the first half of the eleventh century. He studied at Lucena, Isaac ibn Saul and Isaac ibn Gikatilla being his principal...
JACOB B. ELEAZAR – Spanish grammarian of the first third of the thirteenth century. The assumption that he lived in the first third of the twelfth century (Geiger's "Jüd. Zeit." xi. 235; Grätz, "Gesch." 3d ed., vi. 110; Winter and Wünsche,...
JEHUDI B. SHESHET – Hebrew philologist of the tenth century; pupil of Dunash b. Labraṭ. He is known exclusively through the polemic in which he defended his teacher against the attacks of the pupils of Menahem b. Saruḳ. The only manuscript which...
JOHANAN B. ZAKKAI – The most important tanna in the last decade of the Second Temple, and, after the destruction of Jerusalem, the founder and first president of the academy at Jabneh. According to the theory formulated in the Mishnah (Ab. ii. 8),...
JOSHUA B. HANANIAH – A leading tanna of the first half-century following the destruction of the Temple. He was of Levitical descent (Ma'as. Sh. v. 9), and served in the sanctuary as a member of the class of singers ('Ar. 11b). His mother intended...
JUDÆO-PERSIAN – Among the Jews of Babylonia. Language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. The earliest evidence of the entrance of Persian words into the language of the Israelites is found in the Bible. The post-exilic portions, Hebrew as...
JUDÆO-PERSIAN LITERATURE – Sources. At the present stage of research it is not possible to arrange the literature of the Jews written in Persian but in Hebrew characters either in chronological or even in geographical order, because the origin of the...