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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
JUDAH I. – Patriarch; redactor of the Mishnah; born about 135; died about 220. He was the first of Hillel's successors to whose name the title of hereditary dignity, "ha-Nasi" (= "the prince"), was added as a permanent epithet; and...
JUDAH II. – Patriarch; son of Gamaliel III. and grandson of Judah I.; lived at Tiberias in the middle of the third century. In the sources he is called "Judah," "Judah Nesi'ah" (= "ha-Nasi"), and occasionally "Rabbi" like his grandfather;...
JUDAH III. – Patriarch; son of Gamaliel IV. and grandson of Judah II. The sources do not distinguish between Judah II. and Judah III., and, since the title "Nesi'ah" was borne by both, which of the two in any citation is meant by "Judah...
JUDAH IV. – Patriarch; son of Gamaliel V. and grandson of Hillel II. Beyond his name and the fact that he officiated during the last two decades of the fourth century, nothing is known of him. He is probably identical with the "Judah...
KALLAH – Name of a teachers' convention which was held in Babylonian academies, after the beginning of the amoraic period, in the two months Adar and Elul. The original meaning of the word is not known. It is always written with ה ( ),...
ḲONṬRES – Usual designation, among the Tosafists, of Rashi's commentary on the Talmud. Rashi himself uses the expression once to designate a written Talmudic interpretation by his "old teacher" (Jacob b. Yaḳar on Giṭ. viii. 82a). In the...
LAMPRONTI, ISAAC B. SAMUEL – Italian rabbi and physician; born Feb. 3, 1679, at Ferrara; died Nov. 16, 1756. His great-grandfather, Samuel Lampronti, emigrated from Constantinople to Ferrara in the sixteenth century. His father, a man of wealth, died when...
MAR – Aramaic noun meaning "lord." Daniel addresses the king as "Mari" (= "my lord"; Dan. iv. 16 [A. V. 19]; comp. Hebr. "Adoni," used in speaking to the king). In the Palestinian schools "Mari" and "Rabbi" were customarily employed...
MATAH MEḤASYA (MAḤSEYA) – Town in southern Babylonia, near Sura (see Schechter,"Saadyana," p. 63, note 1). Sherira Gaon regarded the two places as identical, for in his accounts of the geonim of Sura he uses the names of both Matah Meḥasya (or Meḥasya)...
MEÏR B. DAVID – Grammarian of the last third of the thirteenth century. He wrote, under the title "Hassagat ha-Hassagah," a criticism of Ibn Janaḥ's "Kitab al-Mustalḥaḳ." Meïr's work is known, however, only through passages quoted by Profiat...
MEÏR B. SOLOMON B. DAVID – Grammarian of the end of the thirteenth century. He wrote a short but interesting grammatical work, which is extant only in a manuscript formerly in the possession of Halberstam, but now in the Montefiore Library (No. 410, 3;...
MENAHEM BEN SARUḲ (MENAHEM B. JACOB IBN SARUḲ) – Spanish philologist of the tenth century. He was a native of Tortosa, and went, apparently at an early age, to Cordova, where he found a patron in Isaac, the father of the subsequent statesman Ḥasdai ibn Shaprut. At Isaac's...
MINDEN, JUDAH (LöB) B. JOEL – German lexicographer; lived at Berlin in the sixth decade of the eighteenth century. In 1760 he published there, with the approbation of the rabbinates of Berlin and Halberstadt, the first Hebrew dictionary produced by a Jew and...
MORDECAI – Biblical Data: Chief minister of Ahasuerus and one of the principal personages of the Book of Esther. He was the son of Jair, a Benjamite, and a cousin of Esther, whom he adopted as his daughter. He had previously been carried...
MORDECAI DATO (BEN JUDAH) – Italian payeṭan; lived in Ferrara in the sixteenth century. The name "Dato" is the Italian equivalent of "Nathan." He added some notes, under the title "Hagahot," to Samuel Gallico's "'Asis Rimmonim" (Venice, 1601). Azariah dei...
MORDECAI BEN ELIEZER JONAH – Austrian commentator; lived in Lemberg in the latter part of the sixteenth century. He published an ethical discourse on the "Shema'" under the title "Petil Tekelet" (Prague, 1618), in three parts, the first dealing with love of...
MORDECAI BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI – Chief rabbi of Cairo, Egypt; preacher and Biblical commentator; flourished in the seventeenth century; died at Jerusalem. He was the author of "Darke No'am" (Venice, 1698), responsa on the four parts of the Shulḥan 'Aruk,...
MORDECAI BEN JUDAH LÖB OF LEMBERG – Commentator; lived in the latter part of the seventeenth century. He was rabbi of Dobri, Bohemia. His commentary to the Pentateuch, "Ma'amar Mordekai" (Dyhernfurth, 1719), was edited by his son Judah Löb, "shammash" of...
MORDECAI BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH KREMSIR – Polish commentator; died in Cracow 1670. He was a disciple of Shabbethai Sheftel. His most important work is a commentary to Targum Jonathan and Targum Yerushalmi—"Ḳeṭoret ha-Sammim" (Amsterdam, 1671). He wrote also "Ḳinah," an...
MORDECAI B. SHABBETHAI – Liturgical poet of the thirteenth century; a native either of Italy or of Greece. His penitential prayers ("seliḥot"), which are remarkable both for their form and for their clear, flowing language, have been incorporated into...
MORENU – Term used since the middle of the fourteenth century as a title for rabbis and Talmudists; and the abbreviation (= ) was placed before the name of the scholar in question. Thus the abbreviation ("MaHaRaM") stands for "Morenu...
MORPURGO, SAMSON BEN JOSHUA MOSES – Italian rabbi, physician, and liturgist; born at Gradiska, Austria, in 1681; died at Ancona April 12, 1740. When a boy of seven he was taken by his father to Venice, where he received his elementary education. He then studied in...
MORTGAGE – Written document for securing a debt upon property, possession of which is not necessarily delivered to the creditor. The Greek word ὑποθήκη (hypothec) passed into the language of the Mishnah in the form , which afterward, with...
MOSES – Biblical Data: The birth of Moses occurred at a time when Pharaoh had commanded that all male children born to Hebrew captives should be thrown into the Nile (Ex. ii.; comp. i.). Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a...
MOSES B. ASHER – Masorite; father of Aaron; generally called Ben Asher; lived at Tiberias in the second half of the ninth century. His father, Asher, was a great-grandson of Asher the Great (or the Elder), one of the earliest Masorites of...