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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
NAHUM BEN SIMAI – Palestinian amora of the third century; a son of the tanna Simai. He is cited as "Menahem" in Pes. 104a and in M. Ḳ. 25b. Nahum was called "the most holy man" (Yer. Meg. i. 72b; Yer. 'Ab. Zarah iii. 42c) and "the son of the...
NAJARA (NAJAR, NIJAR, NAGAR, NAGARA) – Oriental Jewish family, originally from Najera, a Spanish city of Navarre, on the River Najerilla. In the history of rabbinical literature Najaras are found at Algiers, Tunis, Damascus, Gaza, etc.David Najar: Rabbinical writer...
NARESH – City in Babylonia, situated near Sura (Letter of Sherira Gaon, in Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 32) on a canal (B. M. 93b). It may be identical with the city of Nahras or Nahar Sar on the Tigris (Ritter, "Erdkunde," x. 191), and is...
NASHIM – Third order of the Talmud, treating of betrothal, marriage, divorce, and in general of all the relations of woman to man. It consists of seven "massektot" in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Palestinian and Babylonian Gemaras, the...
NATHAN – Palestinian tanna of the third generation (2d cent.); son of a Babylonian exilarch. For some unknown reason he left Babylonia and his bright prospects there for Palestine, where he was made chief of the school at Usha (Hor. 13b;...
NATHAN OF AVIGNON – Talmudist; lived in the second half of the fourteenth century. He was the author of "Hilkot Sheḥiṭah u-Bediḳah," containing laws concerning the slaughtering of animals and the examination of their carcasses with reference to...
NATHAN BEN JEHIEL – His Travels. Italian lexicographer; born in Rome not later than 1035; died in 1106. He belonged to one of the most notable Roman families of Jewish scholars. Owing to an error propagated by Azulai, he has been regarded as a...
NATHAN DE-ẒUẒITA, THE EXILARCH – According to Joseph b. Ḥama (Shab. 56b), Nathan de-Ẓuẓita is to be identified with the exilarch 'Uḳban b. Nehemiah, Joseph's contemporary (first half of the 4th cent.), who was a contrite sinner. The Seder 'Olam Zuṭa, too, in...
NATHANAEL OF CHINON – French tosafist; flourished about 1220. He was a disciple of Isaac ben Samuel of Dampierre. After 1224 Nathanael was director of the yeshibah in Chinon and was in correspondence with the most famous and learned of his...
NAṬRONAI II., B. HILAI – Gaon of the academy at Sura early in the second half of the ninth century; he succeeded Sar Shalom. His father had occupied the position about thirty years before. Although Naṭronai was of advanced age when he entered on the...
NAṬRONAI B. NEHEMIAH (MAR YANḲA) – Gaon of Pumbedita from 719 to 730; son-in-law of the exilarch Ḥasdai I. Vain of his family connections and secure in his position, he was so arrogant in his dealings with the students that many of them left the academy,...
NAZIR – A treatise of the Mishnah and the Tosefta and in both Talmuds, devoted chiefly to a discussion of the laws laid down in Num. vi. 1-21. In the Tosefta its title is Nezirut ("Nazariteship"). In most of the editions of the Mishnah...
NEBUCHADNEZZAR – Biblical Data: The son of Nabopolassar; became king of Babylon in 604 B.C. as Assyria was on the decline; died 561.His name, either in this spelling or in the more correct form, Nebuchadrezzar (from the original,...
NEDARIM – A treatise in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmuds, devoted chiefly to a discussion of the regulations contained in Num. xxx. 2-17. The place assigned to this treatise in the mishnaic order of Seder Nashim differs in the...
NEGA'IM – A treatise of the order Ṭohorot in the Mishnah and the Tosefta, which treats of the rules concerning leprosy and the infection of clothing and dwellings (Lev. xiii., xiv.). In most editions it is the fourth treatise of the...
NEHARDEA (NEARDA) – City of Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka; one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism. As the seat of the exilarch it traced its origin back to King Jehoiachin. According to...
NEHEMIAH – Son of Hachaliah; rebuilder of the walls of Jerusalem. The sole source of information about Nehemiah is the canonical book that bears his name, parts of which, at any rate, furnished Ben Sira with the matter for the short notice...
NEHEMIAH OF BETH-HORON – Amora of the first generation; lived in the third century at Beth-horon, a small town northwest of Jerusalem. In the different sources he has various names, being called either "Neḥunya [his correct name; Suk. 44a] from the...
NEHEMIAH BEN KOHEN ẒEDEḲ – Gaon of Pumbedita from 960 to 968. While his predecessor, Aaron b. Sargado, was still in office, Nehemiah tried to have him removed; but the college insisted on retaining him, as he was in every respect superior to his opponent....
NEḤUNYA BEN HA-ḲANAH – Tanna of the first and second centuries. It appears from B. B. 10b that Neḥunya was a contemporary, but not a pupil, of Johanan b. Zakkai. He was the teacher of Ishmael b. Elisha. Neḥunya was rich and had a large retinue of...
NEIGHBORING LANDOWNERS – The legal maxim "Sic utere tuo ut alienum non lædas" (So use your own that you may not injure another's [property]) is fully recognized in the Mishnah (B. B. ii.) by the imposition of the following restraints:(1) A man should...
NESEK – Wine consecrated to use in idolatrous worship and therefore absolutely forbidden to a Jew. In a broader sense "nesek," or "yayin nesek," denotes wine made and used by Gentiles as well as wine made by and for Jews but which has...
NEW-YEAR – Biblical Data: In the earliest times the Hebrew year began in autumn with the opening of the economic year. There followed in regular succession the seasons of seed-sowing, growth and ripening of the corn under the influence of...
NEZIḲIN – Order of the Mishnah and the Tosefta, in both the Babylonian and the Jerusalem Talmud. The name "Neziḳin," which occurs in the Talmud itself (Ber. 20a; Ta'an. 24a, b), is applied to this order because several of the treatises...
NIBHAZ – One of the deities worshiped by the Avites(II Kings xvii. 31), who had been imported into the country about Samaria after the fall of that city before Sargon II. in 722 B.C. The Avites worshiped Nibhaz and Tartak, both of which...