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Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
RABBAH TUSFA'AH (TOSEFA'AH) – Babylonian amora of the seventh generation. He was a pupil of Rabina I. (Suk. 32a; comp. Halevy, "Dorot ha-Rishonim," iii. 96) and a contemporary of Rabina II., with whom, sometimes, he is mentioned in the Talmud (Shab. 95a; M....
RABBAH B. UFRAN – Babylonian amora of the third century. He transmitted a haggadic aphorism of R. Eleazar b. Pedat (Meg. 15b); and an independent haggadic interpretation of Jer. xlix. 38 by him has also been preserved (Meg. 10b). Nothing further...
RABIN B. ADDA – Babylonian amora of the third generation; brother of Rabbah b. Adda and pupil of Judah b. Ezekiel of Pumbedita(Beẓah 33b). He transmitted traditions by R. Isaac (Ber. 6a; Pes. 8b, where he is called Abin) and a decision of...
RABINA I. – Babylonian amora of the fifth generation; died about 420. He was a pupil of Raba b. Joseph b. Ḥama, and his extreme youthfulness at that time is shown by the fact that his teacher designated him and Ḥama b. Bisa as "dardeḳi"...
RABINA II. (B. HUNA) – Babylonian amora of the seventh generation. He did not remember his father, R. Huna, who died while Rabina was still a child, but the Talmud states several times that his mother communicated to him the opinions held by his...
RABINA III. OF UMZA – Sabora of the first generation; died Adar, 508. Nothing further about him is known (Sherira Gaon, in Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 34; Grätz, "Gesch." iv. 377).W. B. J. Z. L.
RAFRAMI. (BEN PAPA) – Babylonian amora of the fourth century. In his youth he was a pupil of R. Ḥisda (Shab. 82a), in whose name he transmits various halakic and haggadic sayings (Ber. 26b; Shab. 81a; 'Er. 83a; Ta'an. 13a; Ḳid. 81b; Ber. 8a, 59a). He...
RAFRAM II. – Babylonian amora of the seventh generation; he was a pupil of R. Ashi, to whom he frequently addressed questions (Ket. 95b; Giṭ. 42a), and a colleague of Rabina II. (Yoma 78a). He succeeded R. Gebiha as head of the Academy of...
RAHAB – Originally a mythical name designating the abyss or the sea; subsequently applied to Egypt. Job ix. 13 and xxvi. 12 indicate that it is an alternative for "Tiamat," the Babylonian name of the dragon of darkness and chaos; Ps....
RAIN – Biblical Data: Palestine did not require such laborious artificial irrigation as Egypt; Yhwh supplied it with, "water of the rain of heaven" (Deut. xi. 11). The harvests were regarded as the gift of Yhwh, since they depended on...
RAINBOW – Biblical Data: This phenomenon of nature is mentioned but rarely in the Old Testament. The beauty of the rainbow is dwelt upon (Ecclus. [Sirach] xliii. 11 et seq., 1. 7), and the glory surrounding Yhwh is compared to the...
RAMI B. EZEKIEL – Babylonian amora of the third generation; younger brother of Judah b. Ezekiel, the founder of the Academy of Pumbedita. He studied under his father, Ezekiel (Sanh. 80b). Disregarding the opinion of his brother Judah that it was...
RAM B. ḤAMA – Babylonian amora of the third generation; a pupil of R. Ḥisda, and a fellow student of Raba, who was somewhat his junior (B. B. 12b; Suk. 29a; comp. Rabbinowitz, "Variæ Lectiones"). He frequently addressed questions to R. Ḥisda...
RAMI B. TAMRE – Babylonian amora of the third generation; a native of Pumbedita, and probably a pupil of R. Judah. He once went to Sura on the eve of the Day of Atonement, and attracted attention by conduct which was not regarded as permissible...
RANSOM – Captivity being considered a punishment worse than starvation or death (B. B. 8b, based on Jer. xv. 2), to ransom a Jewish captive was regarded by the Rabbis as one of the most important duties of a Jewish community; and such...
RECHABITES – Biblical Data: Members of a family descended from Hammath, the progenitor of the house of Rechab; otherwise known as the Kenites (I Chron. ii. 55), who were the descendants of Hobab (Jethro), the father-in-law of Moses (Judges...
REHOBOAM – Biblical Data: Son of Solomon by Naamah the Ammonitess (I Kings xiv. 21), and his successor on the throne in Jerusalem. Solomon's administrative policy had fostered dangerous principles. His ambition for the magnificence and...
REḤUMAI (I.), RAB – Babylonian amora of the fifth generation; pupil of Raba b. Joseph b. Ḥama. He addressed some questions to Abaye (Pes. 39a; Nazir 13a). He died on the eve of a Day of Atonement, and the manner of his death is told as follows: He...
REḤUMAI II. – Babylonian amora of the seventh generation; pupil of Rabina I., for whom he expounded a saying of Huna b. Taḥlifa (Zeb. 77a). After Rafram II., Reḥumai II. was the head of the Academy of Pumbedita from 443 to 456, dying during...
REḤUMAI III. – One of the early saboraim; died in 505, in the month of Nisan. In 'Er. 11a he is mentioned with his contemporary R. Jose; each of them gives a different explanation of an expression used by an earlier authority (Sherira, in...
REMAINDERS AND REVERSIONS – In Anglo-American law the owner of property (especially of land) may and often does grant or devise it to one person for years or for life, and then to other persons forever, or consecutively to several persons for life. The...
RESH KALLAH – The highest officer, except the president, in the academies of Sura and Pumbedita. In each of the two schools there were seven "reshe kallah," who sat in the first row (called "daraḳamma"), facing the gaon. According to the...
REUBEN – Biblical Data: Eldest son of Jacob (Gen. xlvi. 8, xlix. 9) by Leah (ib. xxix. 32), to whom he once carried mandrakes which he had found in a field during the wheat harvest (ib. xxx. 14). He wronged his father by his conduct with...
REVERTS, ADMISSION OF – The rabbinical law takes notice of apostates ("mumarim"; the popular name "meshummadim" is of somewhat modern origin); and apostasy is treated as the sum of all iniquities. But the person guilty of apostasy does not cease to be...
ROSH HA-SHANAH – Eighth treatise of the order Mo'ed; it contains (1) the most important rules concerning the calendar year together with a description of the inauguration of the months by the nasi and ab bet din; (2) laws on the form and use of...