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Frants Buhl, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Philology at the Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark; Author of "Geographie des Alten Palestina."

Contributions:
BETH-EL – A city famous for its shrine, on the boundary between Ephraim and Judea—the site of the present little village of Bêitîn, on the southern slope of the Ephraimitic mountains. (See illustration on page 120.) Originally the town...
BETH GUBRIN – Name of a city mentioned in the Talmud and in the Midrash (Neubauer, "G. T." pp. 122 et seq.), called "Betogaboa" by Ptolemy and others. It does not occur in the Old Testament; but Reland shows that it was one of the Idumean...
BETH-HACCEREM – According to Neh. iii. 14, a Judean city; described in Jer. vi. 1 as a high place visible at a great distance. Jerome (on the passage) speaks of Beth-haccerem as a village still existing on the road between Jerusalem and Tekoa....
BETH-HORON – Name of two villages at the western end of the Ephraimitc mountains, called respectively "upper Beth-horon" (Josh. xvi. 5) and "nether Beth-horon" (Josh. xvi. 3, xviii. 13; I Kings ix. 17). They are nowadays spoken of as the two...
BETH-JAAZEK – According to the Mishnah (R. H. ii. 4), a large court in which the Sanhedrin awaited the announcement of the new moon. The Palestinian Talmud ascribes its name to the fact that the calculation of the calendar was settled ( )...
BETH-JESHIMOTH – Town in the district east of the Jordan, allotted to the tribe of Reuben according to Num. xxxiii. 49 and Josh. xii. 3, xiii. 20; but in Ezek. xxv. 9 it is mentioned as a Moabitish city. Josephus calls the city "Besimoth" ("B....
BETH-LEHEM-JUDAH – The modern Bait Laḥm, situated about 5 miles south of Jerusalem, some 15 minutes' walk east of the road to Hebron, on a range of hills surrounded by fertile and beautiful valleys. The city was also called "Ephratah" (Josh. xv....
BETH-PEOR – A place in the valley of the Jordan which, in Josh. xiii. 20, is apportioned to the Reubenites. In Deuteronomy (iii. 29, iv. 46, xxxiv. 6) it is stated that the people were in the valley of the Jordan, opposite Beth-peor, when...
BETH-REHOB – An Aramaic city which sent reenforcements to the Ammonites during the war with David (II Sam. x. 6, 8; compareI Sam. 14, 47, LXX.). According to Judges xviii. 28, the city of Dan was built in the plain of Beth-rehob. The latter...
BETH-SHAN – Fortified town of Canaan. The Baisân of to-day, in the lower part of the Jalûd chasm, 120 meters below the level of the sea. The Israelites did not succeed in conquering this city, which was strongly fortified by nature (Josh....
BETH-SHEMESH – Biblical Data: A city of the hill-country between Judea and the coast on the southern side of Wadi Sarâar, called to-day 'Ain Shems. According to Josh. xix. 41, it was one of the cities of Dan, and according to Josh. xv. 10, it...
BETH-ZUR – A city in southern Judea (Josh. xv. 58, I Chron. ii. 45; Neh. iii. 16) which was fortified by Rehoboam, (II Chron. xi. 7). It was a strongly walled place, situated on the eastern boundary-line of Judea. The town was repeatedly...
BETHABARA – An unidentified place mentioned in John i. 28. According to Origen's reading, the name is brought into connection with the Hebrew '"abarah" (crossing), and is supposed to refer to one of the many fords of the Jordan. Another...
BETHANY – A place referred to in the Gospels, and probably also in the Talmud, under the forms , and , but not mentioned in the Old Testament (Pes. 53a; Tosef., Shebi'it, ed. Zuckermandel, 30, 71). According to John (xi. 18), it was "nigh...
BETHESDA – A pool in Jerusalem. According to John v. 2—the only passage wherein it is mentioned—it was "by the sheep market," hence on the north of the Temple-hill. Its exact location can not be definitely fixed. The Pilgrim of Bordeaux...
BETHSAIDA – A town in northern Palestine not mentioned in the Old Testament, but referred to in the Gospels, and by Josephus, Pliny, and others. According to Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 2, § 1; 5, § 6; "B. J." ii. 9, § 1; iii. 9, § 7), Philip...
BETHULIA – Name of the city which, according to the Book of Judith, was besieged by Holofernes; the home of Judith. In the shorter version of the legend published by Gaster ("Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archeology," 1894, xvi....
BEZER – A city of refuge in the territory of Reuben (Deut. iv. 43; Josh. xx. 8). It was also one of the cities allotted the Levites by the tribe of Reuben (Josh. xxi. 36, Septuagint; I Chron. vi. 63 [A. V. 78]). In the Mesha inscription...
BEZETHA – According to Josephus, the name of a hill north of the Temple-mound, and separated from the latter by a valley. After the erection of the third wall it became part of the city of Jerusalem. Josephus ("B. J." ii. 15, § 5; ii. 19,...
CANAANITES, THE – Various Applications of the Term. The expressions "Canaan" and "Canaanite" ( ) are applied in the Old Testament sometimes to the collective non-Israelitish population west of the Jordan, or to the land itself (Gen. xii. 5; Josh....
CAPERNAUM – Small town by the Lake of Gennesaret, mentioned in the Gospels as the home of Jesus, where he resided after his rejection by his Nazareth townsmen (Matt. iv. 13, viii. 5-17, ix. 1, xi. 23, xvii. 24; Mark i. 21; Luke vii. 1 et...
CHELLUS – Place mentioned in Judith i. 9 as lying before Kadesh and the River of Egypt. Reland ("Palæstina ex Monumentis Veteribus Illustrata," p. 717) is probably correct in identifying it with the city of Elusa (according to the Targum,...
DAMASCUS – An ancient city of Asia Minor, situated at the foot of the Anti-Lebanon, 180 miles south by west of Aleppo; now the capital of the vilayet of Syria. In the Old Testament it is called (Dammeseḳ), or (Darmeseḳ, I Chron. xviii. 5...
DEAD SEA – Composition of the Water. Lake in southeast Palestine, and one of the curious natural phenomena of the earth. It occupies the lowest part of the great depression which extends from northern Palestine to the Gulf of Akabah. At...
DEBIR – 1. A king of Eglon referred to in Josh. x. 3 et seq. The Septuagint reads Δαβὶν. Debir was one of the five kings who joined Adonizedek, King of Jerusalem, against the city of Gibeon. In the battle which ensued, according to the...