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Frants Buhl, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Philology at the Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark; Author of "Geographie des Alten Palestina."

Contributions:
EBAL – 1. A bare mountain 2,900 feet high, north of Sichem, opposite Mt. Gerizim. At the base toward the north are several tombs. The higher part is on the west, and contains the ruins of some massive walls called "Al-Kal'ah"; east of...
EDREI – Ancient city in the Jordan valley, at present Der'at, southeast of Muzerib. The city is apparently mentioned as "Otara" in Egyptian inscriptions. In the Old Testament Ashtaroth and Edrei are referred to as the capital cities of...
ELAH, THE VALLEY OF – Scene of the combat between David and Goliath (I Sam. xvii. 2, xxi. 9). It is identified with the fertile Wadi al-Sanṭ, rich in oaks, terebinths, and acacias. The older as well as the newer name refers to the trees growing in...
ELATH – Idumean port at the northern end of the Ælanitic Gulf, the later Aila. According to the Old Testament, the name of the place is also Elparan. In Deut. ii. 8 it is mentioned with Eziongeber (comp. I Kings ix. 26; II Chron. viii....
ELEUTHEROPOLIS – Greek name of a city called "Bet Gubrin" in the Talmud and "Baitogabra" by Ptolemy. In the Old Testament the name can not be identified, but it probably occurs in a corrupted form (see Josephus, "B. J." ed. Niese, iv. 8, § 1)....
ELIM – The second camping-place of the Israelites on the march from Egypt. It had twelve springs and seventy palm-trees (Ex. xv. 27, xvi. 1; Num. xxxiii. 9, 10). It is usually, but by no means with certainty, located in Wadi...
EPHRAIM, MOUNTAIN OF – The northern part of the mountain range west of the Jordan, extending from Beer-sheba to the great plain of Esdraelon. Its southern boundary is not expressly indicated in the Old Testament, and probably never constituted a...
ESAU – Biblical Data: Jacob's elder brother (Gen. xxv. 25-34, and elsewhere; comp. Josh. xxiv. 4). The name alternates with "Edom," though only rarely applied to the inhabitants of the Edomitic region (Jer. xlix. 8-10; Obad. 6; Mal. i....
ESDRAELON (ESRELON) – The later Greek form of the more ancient Jezreel, and the name of the boundary-plain between the Ephraimitic and the Galilean mountain-chain (Judith i. 8). It is frequently spoken of as "the great valley"—a designation, however,...
EUPHRATES – The main river of nearer Asia, often mentioned in the Bible (the fourth river of paradise, Gen. ii. 14), and frequently designated as "ha-nahar" (the river). It is formed by the union of two branches, the Kur (the western...
FOUNTAIN – A natural spring of water. Although Palestine as a whole is scantily supplied with water, it has a number of fountains. These often spring up in the hollows of cliffs; but sometimes wells have been dug. The Old Testament makes...
GADARA – Biblical Data: A Hellenistic city, situated southeast of the Sea of Gennesaret. It was rebuilt by Pompey, and afterward given to Herod the Great. After his death it became a free city under Roman sovereignty (Josephus, "Ant."...
GALILEE – Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: In the Greek period the customary name for the northern division of western Palestine. The name is formed from "ha-Galil," in the Old Testament (Josh. xx. 7, xxi. 32, LXX.; I Kings ix. 11; II...
GATH – One of the five principal cities of the Philistines (Josh. xiii. 3; I Sam. vi. 17). The name occurs in the El-Amarna tablets as "Gimta," "Gimti," "Ginti"; in the Egyptian inscriptions as "Kutu." Goliath came from this city (I...
GEBAL – A later designation for the northern part of the Edomite mountain, called "Gebalene" by the Greeks; it occurs in Ps. lxxxiii. 8 (A. V. 7), and, according to Winckler, also in Obad. v. 6. The Arabic word "Jibal," from which the...
GE-HINNOM – Name of the valley to the south and south-west of Jerusalem (Josh. xv. 8, xviii. 16; Neh. xi. 30; II Kings xxiii. 10; II Chron. xxxiii. 6; Jer. vii. 31 et seq., xix. 2, xxxii. 35). Its modern name is "Wadi al-Rababah." The...
GENNESARET, LAKE OF – Biblical Data: A lake which takes its name ("Gennesaret" or "Gennesar"; I Macc. xi. 67; Luke v. 1; and in Josephus) from the small fruitful plain which lies on its western side (Matt. xiv. 34; Mark vi. 53), the present...
GERAR – Seat of a Philistine prince (Gen. x. 19, xx. 1 et seq., xxvi. 20; I Chron. iv. 39 [LXX.]; II Chron. xiv. 12 et seq.). Following the statementin Gen. xx. 1 ("between Kadesh and Shur"), Trumbull ("Kadesh Barnea," pp. 255, 631)...
GERIZIM, MOUNT – Biblical Data: Mountain south of the valley in which Shechem was situated; the present Jabal al-Ṭur (Deut. xi. 29, xxvii. 12; Josh. viii. 33; Judges ix. 7). It is 2,849 feet high, declines sharply to the north, and is sparsely...
GEZER – Ancient Canaanitish city mentioned in Egyptian inscriptions and the Amarna letters as being the seat of a local prince (comp. Josh. x. 33, xii. 12). The Israelites failed to conquer it (Josh. xvi. 10; Judges i. 29; comp. II Sam....
GIBEAH – The name of several cities situated on hills. The difficulty of keeping these distinct is increased by the fact that sometimes "Geba" is used for "Gibeah," and vice versa (see Geba). In one passage, however, Isa. x. 29, "Geba"...
GIBEON AND GIBEONITES – Gibeon was one of the four cities of the Hivites, reckoned in Josh. xviii. 25 among the cities of Benjamin. That it was not, however, wholly in the possession of the Israelites until a late period is shown by Josh. ix. and II...
GILBOA – The ancient name given to the bow-shaped mountain chain situated north of the Ras Ibziḳ, separating the plain of Jezreel from the valley of the Jordan, and sloping off abruptly toward the Jalud ravine at the northwest. The...
GILEAD – 1. District, mountain, and city east of the Jordan. The name "Gilead" in Gen. xxxi. 48 is explained by popular etymology to mean "heap of witness," in connection with the story of the heap of stones which Laban and Jacob piled...
GILGAL – The first camping-place of the Israelites in the land west of the Jordan (Josh. iv. 19); the place to which they could retreat during their struggles for conquest (Josh. x. 6 et seq.); it was also a sanctuary, the origin of...