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ANTHROPOLOGY – The science of man, especially in his physical aspects, and of the climatic and social environments determining those aspects. The Anthropology of the Jews, who, either racially or socially, form a separate portion of mankind,...
ANTHROPOMORPHISM – Psychological Genesis. The ascription to the Deity of human forms or modes and of human feelings or moods, respectively. Such ascription is as old as religion. If, as Zeller correctly observes ("Philosophie der Griechen," 2d...
ANTIBI – Chief rabbi at Aleppo; died March 13, 1858. His book of responsa, "Ohel Yesharim" (The Tent of the Righteous), arranged according to the four Ṭurim (or legal code of Jacob ben Asher), was published at Leghorn in...
ANTIBLA – A family of proselytes living at Jerusalem in the first century B.C., which had been in prosperous circumstances, but was afterward reduced to poverty. From allusions to them contained in four Talmudic passages, in which the...
ANTICHRIST – Antichrist in Pauline Writings. Counterpart of the Messiah and opponent of God Himself; one of the most important personages in Christian eschatology. The name occurs for the first time in the Johannean Epistles (I John, ii. 18,...
ANTIGONUS (ANTONINUS) – Palestinian scholar of the last tannaitic generation (second and third centuries). Only two Haggadot (Mek., Beshallaḥ, introduction; idem to Ex. xiv. 7) and one Halakah(Yer. Hor. iii. 48a) have come down from him. In the...
ANTIGONUS, Son of John Hyrcanus – Born about 135 B.C., died 103. He was Hyrcanus' second son, and, though young, proved an able soldier during his father's lifetime. In conjunction with his brother Aristobulus, he besieged and captured Samaria about 109 (Soṭah,...
ANTIGONUS MATTATHIAS – Defies Rome. The last Hasmonean king of Judea; died 37 B.C. He was the second son of Aristobulus II., and together with his father was carried prisoner to Rome by Pompey in 63 B.C. Both escaped in 57, and returned to Palestine....
ANTIGONUS OF SOKO – The first scholar of whom Pharisaic tradition has preserved not only the name but also an important theological doctrine. He flourished about the first half of the third century B.C. According to the Mishnah, he was the disciple...
ANTI-JUIF, L' – A name assumed by nine different publications issued in France and Algiers and directed against the Jews. In nearly every case they were short-lived. The first "Anti-Juif," a weekly, published in Paris, describing itself as an...
ANTI-MAIMONISTS, THE – See Maimonists.
ANTINOË – City in the South of Middle Egypt, on the eastern bank of the Nile; founded by the emperor Hadrian in the year 122. Jews seem to have come to the city at the same time as did the Greeks, drawn thither by the trade with the port...
ANTINOMIANISM – The Law a Source of Sin. A term generally used to denote the opposition of certain Christian sects to the Law; that is, to the revelation of the Old Testa ment. The apostles were compelled, in response to the urging of Paul and...
ANTIOCH – Early Settlement of Jews. Ancient capital of Syria, situated in the northern part of that country, fifty-seven miles west of Aleppo, on the left bank of the river Orontes, about fifteen miles above its mouth. Antioch was founded...
ANTIOCHUS II – King of Syria (261-246 B.C.); date of birth unknown, but set by some chronologists at 286 B.C.; died 246. He is the first of the kings of this name referred to in the Bible. For many years he waged war against Ptolemy II.,...
ANTIOCHUS III. THE GREAT – King of Syria; born about 242 B.C.; reigned from 223; died 187. Eleven verses of Daniel (xi. 10-21) are supposed by critics to refer to the wars and fate of this monarch, who was the first Greek ruler to exercise considerable...
ANTIOCHUS IV., EPIPHANES – Silver Coin of Antiochus IV. Obverse: Head of Antiochus as Zeus, laureated. Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΠΟΡΟΥ. Zeus seated on throne, holding Nikē.(After Gardner, "Catalogue of Seleucid Coins.") Tetradrachm of...
ANTIOCHUS V., EUPATOR – Well-born"): King of Syria, son of Antiochus IV.; born 173 B.C.; died 162. He succeeded his father at the age of twelve (according to some at the age of nine), and reigned for two years (164-162 B.C.). Lysias made himself...
ANTIOCHUS VI. – King of Syria, son of Alexander Balas; died 142 B.C. Like his predecessor, Antiochus VI. was king only in name. He was proclaimed king while still a minor, 146 B.C., by Diodotus, called Tryphon, former general of Alexander...
ANTIOCHUS VII., SIDETES – King of Syria, son of Demetrius 1; born 164; died 129 B.C. In 138 B.C. he declared against the usurper Tryphon, who had taken the place of his brother Demetrius II., then a prisoner with the Parthians. One of the first acts of...
ANTIOCHUS VIII., GRYPHUS – King of Syria from 125 to 113 and from 111 to 96 B.C. Born in the year 141; died 96 B.C. For the first three years of his reign he was actively opposed by Alexander Zabinas, his rival for the throne. Of necessity, therefore, he...
ANTIOCHUS IX., CYZICENUS – King of Syria; died 95 B.C. He was the half-brother of Antiochus VIII., the preceding king. He rose against him in 113, and for two years was sole ruler of Syria. He was then, however, compelled to be satisfied with the district...
ANTIOCHUS XII., DIONYSUS – King of Syria. He was the youngest son of Grypos, and the last of the Seleucids to come in contact with Jews. In a campaign against Aretas, king of the Arabs, Antiochus intended to march through Judea, but Alexander Jannæus...
ANTIOCHUS, SCROLL OF – Book of the Hasmoneans." Name of a pseudepigraph, written in Hebrew, describing the revolt of the Maccabees, and depicting its glorious course. Saadia (892-942) was the first to make mention of this little book. He referred to...
ANTIPAS (HEROD ANTIPAS) – Seventh (not sixth, as stated in Graetz, nor third, as in Dean Farrar's biography of the Herods) and, at the time of his father's death, youngest son of Herod the Great by his Samaritan wife, Malthace. The exact date of his...