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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BUOL-SCHAUENSTEIN, JOHN RUDOLPH, COUNT VON – Austrian diplomat; born Nov. 21, 1763; died Feb. 12, 1834, in Vienna. He entered the diplomatic service, and was sent as ambassador to The Hague in 1790, to Basel in 1792, and finally to Dresden. In 1816 he was elected president...
BURDEN OF PROOF – In law, the obligation resting upon one or other of the parties to a suit to bring proof of a fact when the opposite party alleges the contrary. The Talmudic phrase is "'alaw ha-rayah" (on him is the proof). Of course, the...
BURG, MENO – German military officer; was born in Berlin Oct. 9, 1789; died there Aug. 26, 1853. His father was in very poor circumstances, but his cousin, S. Sachs, had secured an official position as government building inspector, and...
BURGDORF – Town in the canton of Bern, Switzerland. It contained a few Jewish inhabitants in the fourteenth century. In 1347 Simon, a Jew living there, loaned to the cathedral provost Ulrich forty pounds of pennies. On Feb. 16, 1349, the...
BURGEL (BURGIL), ELIJAH ḤAI VITA – Rabbi of Tunis; son of Nathan Burgel. He is the author of "Migdanot Natan," a work in two parts. The first part, printed with a literary production by his father (Leghorn, 1778), contains a commentary on the tractate Baba Meẓi'a...
BURGEL, JOSEPH – Rabbi of Tunis; son of Elijah Ḥai Burgel; born in 1791; died at Tunis in 1857. He was the author of "Zar'a de-Yosef," on the Tosafot (Leghorn, 1849), and of "Wa-Yiḳen Yosef," various responsa (Leghorn, 1852).L. G. M. K....
BURGEL, NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM – Rabbi at Tunis about 1750; pupil of Isaac Lumbroso. Considered a rabbinical authority, people from far and near brought him cases difficult to decide. When he was an old man he went to Jerusalem, where he died soon after his...
BÜRGER, HUGO – German dramatist; born in Breslau April 22, 1846; now (1902) living at Berlin. He came to Berlin at the age of twelve, and at seventeen began to produce short dramatic works, one of which, a one-act comedy entitled "Nur Nicht...
BÜRGER, SOLOMON BEN DAVID – See Borger, Solomon ben David.
BÜRGER, THEODOR – Rabbi and preacher in Szegedin, Hungary, 1843-47. Two years after entering upon his office he published a book, "Der Talmud und die Perfectibilität des Mosaismus vom Standpunkte der Reform," in which he completely denied the...
BURGLARY – Biblical Data: In English and American law burglary is the offense of breaking into a dwelling-house at night, with the intent to commit a felony, generally with the intent to steal. The Biblical passage on the subject (Ex....
BURGOS – City of Old Castile, having a long-established, large, wealthy, and cultured Jewish community up to the time of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. It is reported that the Jews of Burgos, who as early as 1070 had made...
BURGUNDY – See France.
BURIAL – Placing the corpse in the earth or in caves of the rock, the chief modes adhered to by the Jewish people of disposing of the dead (Gen. xxiii. 19, xxv. 9, xxxv. 8, xlix. 29 et seq.; Deut. xxxiv. 6; Josh. xxiv. 30; Judges viii....
BURIAL SOCIETY – Organization for providing proper burial rites. There is hardly a congregation of Jews in the world without an association specially organized for the following purposes: to conduct the burial service without charge; to be...
BURMANIA, BARTHOLD DOWE – Dutch statesman and ambassador to the court of Vienna; lived in the eighteenth century. He was a man of broad humanitarian sympathies and an especially stanch friend of the Jews. When, on Dec. 18, 1744, Maria Theresa ordered the...
BURNING BUSH – Biblical Data: The name commonly given to the tree from which the angel of Jehovah manifested himself to Moses in a flame of fire; the distinctive feature of the revelation being that the tree was not consumed (Ex. iii. 2-4).—In...
BURNING OF THE DEAD – See Cremation.
BURNT OFFERING – Biblical Data: The ordinary translation in modern versions of the Hebrew "'olah" ( ). This term does not mean literally "burnt offering," but "what is brought up" or presented to the Deity. The name is a translation of the...
BURY ST. EDMUNDS – Town of Suffolk, England, and seat of a monastery the ruins of which still exist. Under the rule of Abbot Hugh (1173-80) the monastery fell deeply into debt to the Jews, especially to Isaac Fil Joce, Benedict of Norwich, and...
BUSH – See Burning Bush.
BUSH (BUSCH), ISIDOR – Litterateur, publicist, and viticulturalist; born in Prague, Bohemia, Jan. 15, 1822; died in St. Louis, Mo., Aug. 5, 1898. His maternal great-grandfather was Israel Hönig, Edler von Hönigsberg, the first Jew raised to nobility...
BUSH, LEWIS – American soldier; born in Philadelphia; died 1777; member of the well-known Bush family, Jewish merchants of Philadelphia. He received the commission of first lieutenant of the Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion Jan. 9, 1776, and was...
BUSH, SOLOMON – American soldier; born in Philadelphia; son of Matthias Bush, one of the signers of the non-importation agreement (Oct. 25, 1765).Solomon Bush was an officer in the Pennsylvania militia, 1777-87. On July 5, 1777, he was...
BUSNACH, WILLIAM BERTRAND – French dramatist; born in Paris March 7, 1832; nephew of the composer Fromental Halévy. His father was associated with Bakri, to whom France was indebted to the amount of some twenty-odd million francs for provisions furnished...