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In the broadest meaning of the term Jewish periodicals include all magazines as well as all newspapers which, either because of the language in which they are published or because of the special nature of their contents, appeal particularly to Jewish readers. Of the newspapers most of the dailies form a class by themselves in that they report the general news of the world and do not confine themselves to Jewish matters. The specifically Jewish newspapers (principally weeklies) may be characterized as political, social, religious, or communal, ranging from such as report current matters of moment in all parts of the world and of interest to the whole of Judaism to such as are devoted solely to local community and social gossip. Of the magazines, or periodicals in the narrower sense of the term, some are literary and belletristic, others scientific. The former contain essays, stories, and poems generally, but not always, of a specifically Jewish nature; with such magazines may be classed as special subdivisions some juvenile and a few humoristic publications. The scientific magazines include some which deal, most often in a semipopular fashion, with the general sciences—physics, astronomy, geography, etc. (these are principally found among the Judæo-Spanish journals of Turkey); economics and agriculture (chiefly those devoted to the subject of colonization); and the household sciences (mostly papers for women's interests). The larger part of the scientific periodicals, however, deals with the so-called "Jewish sciences": Jewish history, Bible exegesis, Hebrew philology, bibliography, pedagogics, theology, philosophy, and religion. In addition to all these there are publications for special classes of readers—e.g., cantors, students, members of athletic associations—while various charitable and other societies issue regular reports of their activities. Many periodicals do not belong to one or other of these various classes exclusively; some, indeed, can be classified only as general, so diversified are their contents. Most of the weekly newspapers, for instance, make a specialty of presenting, sometimes in feuilletons or even in separate supplements, stories, essays, and poems, as well as scientific articles, while the technical magazines often devote special columns to news items. Some of the magazines, too, are illustrated; indeed, one or two have been established especially in the interests of art. Calendars and annuals, in so far as they contain literary, scientific, and belletristic matter, may likewise be included under the term "periodicals."


In the latter part of the century that saw the beginnings of non-Jewish periodical literature two attempts were made to found Jewish newspapers, both of them at Amsterdam, the center of Hebrew typography until the nineteenth century. The first was the Judæo-Spanish "Gazeta de Amsterdam" (Jan. 24-Nov. 14, 1678); the second, the Judæo-German semiweekly ("Dienstagische" and "Freitagische") "Kurant" (Aug., 1686-Dec., 1687). Although it is of interest to note that the word "Zeitung" (in Hebrew characters) was used in 1688 in the title ("Zeitung aus Indien") of the Judæo-German translation of Moses Pereyra's "Notisias dos Judeos de Cochim," almost an entire century passed after the two Amsterdam publications ceased before another Jewish newspaper made its appearance.

But in the meantime the beginnings of magazine-journalism had likewise been made. Perhaps the "Peri 'Eẓ Ḥayyim" (1728-61)—also of Amsterdam—a monthly Hebrew bulletin containing the rabbinical decisions of the members of the Sephardic bet ha-midrash (Arbol de las Vidas), may be regarded as the first Jewish magazine. That honor is generally claimed, however, for the "Ḳohelet Musar," which Moses Mendelssohn, assisted by Tobias Back, started to issue in 1750 as a Hebrew weekly devoted to ethico-philosophical questions; only two numbers appeared. About this time Benjamin ben Zalman Croneburg of Neuwied planned to publish a general Jewish newspaper under the title "Der Grosse Schauplatz"; but only a fragment of one issue of the paper, in German with Hebrew characters, has been preserved. In 1771 was made another of these early attempts to establish Jewish newspapers—Jewish, however, only because of their readers, not because of their contents—this time in Germany. It was called the "Dyhernfurther Privilegirte Zeitung," and was a German weekly in Hebrew characters printed from Dec., 1771, until some time in the following year. It contained news from foreign parts, such as Warsaw and Constantinople, as well as market reports, etc. Above the title was pictured the coat of arms of the city of Dyhernfurth. The last of this class of periodicals for some time was one which appeared for half a year in Alsace, a political weekly entitled simply "Zeitung" (Metz, 1789-90).

Of an entirely different nature from these newspapers was "Ha-Meassef," which was founded in 1784 by Mendelssohn's disciples. As the successful monthly organ of the Maskilim, it really inaugurated the Hebrew press. It appeared in seven volumes, and then was forced to suspend by the successful issue of the very purposes for which it had been established; for the wider participation on the part of the Jews in the culture of their neighbors was attended by a growing disinclination to use Hebrew.

1801-30: Nineteenth Century.

The nineteenth century opened without the existence of any Jewish periodical; and when efforts were resumed to utilize this class of publications in furthering reforms in the internal and external status of Judaism, the necessity for the use of the vernacular was realized. Of the seventeen or eighteen attempts at founding periodicals in the first quarter of the new century, fourteen were in languages other than Hebrew, by far the larger proportion in German. In Bohemia the first Jewish magazine, the "Jüdische Monatsschrift,"German in Hebrew characters, was published by a literary society for a few months in 1802; and in 1811 appeared the "Jahrbücher für Israeliten und Israelitinnen," which was modeled on the annual "Taschenbücher" appearing in the non-Jewish world and contained literary and belletristic matter. In Holland a Dutch newspaper, "Sulamith," appeared from 1806 until 1808, and a "Jaarboek" was published in the latter year. In Germany the following periodicals in German were established: a successful Reform monthly with general contents, which was likewise called "Sulamith" and appeared fairly regularly for about nineteen years from 1806; "Jedidja" (1817-23), a religious, moral, and pedagogic semiannual; the "Zeitschrift für die Reifere Jugend" ("Ḳeren Tushiyyah," Fürth, 1817); the "Taschenbücher zur Belehrung der Jugend" (1818-1820; an annual), noteworthy as the first periodicals for the young; "Der Bibel'sche Orient" (1821), an unsuccessful attempt at establishing a cabalistic periodical; the "Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums" (1822), the first German literary-scientific paper, one which, despite its merits, failed to find a reading public; and "Geist der Pharisäischen Lehre" (1823-24), the first rabbinical magazine. In 1823, also, were published the first Jewish papers in England and America, both in English: the "Hebrew Intelligencer," an anonymous monthly in London, and "The Jew," a monthly in New York (the latter was continued for two years). In Poland there appeared "Der Beobachter an der Weichsel," in Judæo-German, printed at Warsaw in 1823-24.

Of the various Hebrew periodicals that were published in the course of this period one was a German attempt to continue "Ha-Meassef" under the title "Ha-Meassef he-Ḥadash" (1809-11); the second was the similar publication of the Dutch To'elet Society and called "Bikkure To'elet" (1820); the third, the Austrian "Bikkure ha-'Ittim" (1820-31), was one of the two periodicals thus far mentioned that outlived the first quarter of the century, although sporadic attempts were made within the following ten years to revive the two most successful of the German periodicals. The "Bikkure ha-'Ittim" marks the commencement of a new phase, locally, of Jewish history. What "Ha-Meassef" had been for Germany, the "Bikkure ha-'Ittim" became for Austria, where the Haskalah movement now first became active. Its general excellence attained for it a wide circulation; and though it was destined to live hardly more than ten years, it was nevertheless after a short interval followed by a line of worthy successors. Between 1825 and 1831 it was apparently the only regularly published periodical in the whole of the Jewish world.


Nevertheless in Germany the decade 1831-40 was to be one of great journalistic activity, both politically and literary-scientifically; no less than fifteen periodicals printed in German were established during this time, among them several which at least from the standpoint of longevity were eminently successful; one of them, indeed, is still being published. The first periodical of the decade was "Der Jude," almost exclusively political; despite a promising beginning in an important field it endured only four years (1832-35). In 1833 another volume of "Jedidja" was published, and "Zion," a religious paper, began a two years' career. In 1834 Philippson's "Israelitisches Predigt- und Schul-Magazin" appeared. In the following year "Das Füllhorn" (1835-36), with the object of furnishing instructive, useful, and entertaining reading matter and of discussing Jewish events of interest, furnished a new type of paper, being followed by "Die Synagoge" (1837-39). Of greater importance was the founding in 1835 of Geiger's "Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für Jüdische Theologie," in which the foremost scholars of the time united to popularize the "Jewish sciences." Its success was marked; it appeared, though with interruptions, until 1844, and then for a short time in 1847.

The "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums."

But these scientific, instructive, and edificative journals, apart from the irregularity of their appearance, left a want to be supplied, which Philippson, discontinuing his theological paper, in 1837 set about to fill. In the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums" was furnished the first successful paper to take part in the every-day life of the Jew, and in the course of its history it was instrumental in introducing many reforms and establishing several important societies and institutions. As it appeared at first three times and then regularly once a week, it was enabled to fulfil in part the duties of a newspaper also. The "Allgemeines Archiv des Judenthums" (1839-43) was a revival of "Jedidja"; Jost's "Israelitische Annalen" (1839-41) sought to be both a newspaper and a scientific and literary magazine; "Der Israelit des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts" (1839-1848), another Reform paper, was particularly religious, but had also a literary tendency at times. Even more active and more enduring was Fürst's "Der Orient" (1840-51), founded in the last year of this decade, with general contents, and with a separate" Litteraturblatt" which to-day still offers a veritable mine for the student of Jewish literature, history, and archeology. "Ẓiyyon" (1841-42), another scientific and religious (Reform) paper, and "Sinai" (1846), for "Jewish learning and ethics," may also be mentioned.

Outside of Germany the only periodical founded that survived the decade was the Austrian "Kerem Ḥemed" (1833-42), which was established as the successor of the Haskalic "Bikkure ha-'Ittim" and appeared as somewhat of an innovation in style, its articles on exegetical, archeological, and literary-historical questions being in the form of letters. In Switzerland appeared "Altes und Neues Morgenland" (1834-40), an exegetical monthly; in France, the "Archives Israélites de France"—the first successful French publication and the second oldest Jewish paper now in existence—and an earlier attempt, "Die Wiedergeburt" ("La Régénération," 1836-37) of Strasburg, probably the first bilingual Jewish paper; in England, the "Hebrew Review and Magazine for Rabbinical Literature" (1834-35); and in Holland, the "Jaarboeken voor de Israelieten in Nederland" (1835-40).


The religious activity of the fifth decade of the century was attended by correspondingly increasing journalistic productiveness, the numberof new periodicals being no less than seventy. Germany continued to lead in this respect; there was also a decided revival of interest in Hebrew, while both English and French journalism were likewise established on a permanent basis. As many as twenty-five new German periodicals appeared, five of them in Austria, and one each in England and America; about fifteen Hebrew, of which five appeared in Germany, an equal number in Austria, two or three each in Galicia and Holland, and one in England; and at least thirteen English, of which one in America and one in England were destined to endure a long time. Only the most noteworthy of these periodicals, such as introduced or established some phase of journalism, will receive particular mention.

"Jewish Chronicle."

The "Revue Orientale" (1841-46) was the first periodical in Belgium. The "Voice of Jacob" (1841-1848), with Reform tendencies, was the first English newspaper deserving of the term; but far more successful was the "Jewish Chronicle," with the opposite religious tendency at first, and which, established in the same year, is the oldest existing publication in English. "Pirḥe Ẓafon" (Wilna, 1841-44), for literary criticism, Biblical and Talmudical researches, and news, was apparently Russia's first periodical. In 1842 Isidor Busch of Vienna with his "Kalender und Jahrbuch für Israeliten" (1842-47; and 1854-67), containing a summary of the news of the year, as well as historical, scientific, belletristic, and other entertaining matter, made this class of publications a valuable addition to periodical literature. A Judæo-Spanish journal, the "Chronica Israelitica"—the first since the "Gazeta de Amsterdam"—was published in Gibraltar in 1842, and another, "Esperanza Israelitica," in 1843. "The Occident," a monthly of Conservative tendencies, was the first really successful periodical in the United States (Philadelphia, 1843-69). An important German publication of this period was Frankel's "Zeitschrift für die Religiösen Interessen des Judenthums" (1844-46, but continued later under a different title). Hungary as yet did not offer a promising field for journalistic enterprise; in 1844 Leopold Löw attempted to publish his "Ben Chananja" for the Jews of that country, but at Leipsic; fourteen years passed before he renewed his attempt. "Yerushalayimn" (Zolkiev, 1844; Lemberg, then Prague, 1845), in Hebrew, was the first Galician publication. "First Fruits of the West" is of interest because it was published in Kingston, Jamaica (1844).

The successful German papers until this time all had had Reform tendencies; as religious agitation increased, party lines were drawn more closely, and journals were established to serve as official organs of Orthodoxy and moderate Reform, as well as of Radicalism. The first successful Orthodox paper was "Der Treue Zionswächter" (1845-55), with a Hebrew supplement, "Shomer Ẓiyyon ha-Ne'eman"; "Ha-Yareaḥ" (1845) in Hebrew, and with the same tendency, lived but a short time. Another attempt at founding a periodical for mysticism—"Der Kabbalistische Biblische Occident"—ended with the first number. In France "L'Univers Israélite," Conservative, founded in 1844, takes its place beside the "Archives Israélites" among the oldest of existing periodicals; other, but short-lived, journals appeared there in the next two years. For the Austrian Haskalah, the "Kerem Ḥemed" having ceased publication in 1843, the "Kokebe Yiẓḥaḳ" (1845-73) was established, and proved to be the longest-lived of the "Bikkure ha-'lttim's" successors. In England the first literary magazine, entitled "Sabbath Leaves" (1845), and a religious paper, "The Cup of Salvation" (1846), were established, the latter with the patronage of Sir Moses Montefiore; but, like various other English papers of the next few years, they existed but a short time. The "Magyar Zsinagóga" (1846-47) and the "Evkönyo Zsido" (1848) seem to have been the first periodicals in Hungarian; the scientific "Rivista Israelitica" (published for a few years from 1845), the first in Italian, and the Judæo-Spanish "Puerta del Oriente," or "Sha'are Mizraḥ" (1846), the first in Turkey.

In 1847 the "Jewish Chronicle" of England from a fortnightly became a weekly, and Geiger's "Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift" resumed publication for a short time. In 1848 are to be noted "Die Zeitung"—this and "Die Jüdische Post" (1849) were the first Galician Judæo-German papers; "Die Zeitschwingen," "Die Zeitung für's Judenthum," and the "Centralorgan für Glaubensfreiheit"—the first German papers in Vienna, all edited by Busch and all unsuccessful; Einhorn's "Ungarische Israelit," the first German paper published in Hungary, and one which gave the first impulse to Reform in that country; and the "Liturgische Zeitschrift" (1848-62) in Germany, the first periodical devoted to synagogal music and to the interests of cantors. In Holland the weekly "Nieuws en Advertenticblaad," and the literary "Tijdschrift," were founded in 1849; the former, with various changes of title, continued to appear until 1893. In 1849, also, appeared in America "The Asmonean" (until 1858), the first weekly there; "Israel's Herold," short-lived, but noteworthy as the first German-American paper (both of these appeared in New York); and the "Jewish Advocate" (of Philadelphia); "The Hebrew Leader," a Conservative paper established in 1850, is noteworthy at least in that it continued to appear until 1882.


The decade 1851-60 was characterized by a steadily increasing attention on the part of German periodicals to the scientific aspect of Judaism, perhaps at the expense of purely religious interests, the comparative silence of the so-called official organs being noteworthy (in 1860 the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums" was practically the only paper making propaganda for Reform); there were also renewed attention to the Hebrew press, especially in Galicia, and marked journalistic activity in America. To the four or five German periodicals already established on a permanent basis were added in Germany and Austria eleven or twelve which were to have a life of ten years or more—three of them are still in existence. It is worthy of note, furthermore, that of the total thirty new German periodicals established in this period one-third were literary "Jahrbücher." Fourteen new Hebrew publications likewise were founded.

The "Monatsschrift." Page from the "Dyhernfurther Privilegirte Zeitung."(In the possession of Prof. Richard Gotcheil, New York.)

In 1851 Frankel, in reviving the "Zeitschrift für die Religiösen Interessen des Judenthums" and changing it to the more scientific "Monatsschrift für die Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums," took a step characteristic of the period, though for a time, it is true, the "Monatsschrift" was the only scientific journal in Germany. In the same year "Der Israelitische Volkslehrer," a family weekly of a superior belletristic character, was founded by L. Stern and continued to appear for about twelve years (from 1859 with Stern's "Der Freitagabend"). The "Deutscher Volkskalender und Jahrbuch," also established in 1851, proved to be one of the most enduring of its class, and is still being published as the "Jüdischer Volks- und Haus-Kalender" (Brieg, from 1853); it was joined in the following year by Pascheles' "Illustrirter Israelitischer Volks-Kalender" (Prague, 1852-94), apparently the earliest illustrated periodical. In 1852 "He-Ḥaluẓ," a scientific Hebrew year-book, was established in Galicia and was published successively in various places until 1889. In England a rival to the "Jewish Chronicle" appeared, in 1853, in the "Hebrew Observer"; but in the following year it united with the "Chronicle," which remained the only organ of the community for some years. In Italy was established the first successful Italian periodical, "Educatore Israelità," taking the place of the "Rivista Israelitica"; since 1874 it has been known as "II Vessillo Israelitico." In Constantinople the establishment of the Judæo-Spanish "La Luz de Israel" (1853) especially to report the Crimean war is significant.

In 1854 were established Philippson's "Jüdisches Volksblatt" (until 1866); Samson R. Hirsch's "Jeschurun," a valiant defender of Orthodoxy (the other Orthodox organ, the "Treue Zionswächter," ceased publication in the following year), which was of importance in the development of Judaism until 1870; and M. Letteris' "Wiener Mittheilungen" (1854-66), the first successful one of his several attempts. In the same year Busch's highly prized "Kalender und Jahrbuch für Israeliten" was continued by Wertheim as the "Jahrbuch." In 1851 the "Annuaire du Culte Israélite" (until 1870), in 1853 another Dutch weekly, "De Israeliet" (short-lived), and in 1855 another French journal, "Le Lien d'Israël" (until 1862), were founded.

"American Israelite."

In the United States the "American Israelite," supporting Reform, the oldest existing journal in that country, was established in 1854; and in the following year "Deborah," with the same objects, but to appeal to the large number of German Jews for whom English was not as yet the literary language, became one of a series of German and German-English papers. Thus in the eastern part of the country "Sinai" was published at Baltimore from 1856 to 1862; in the West "The Hebrew Observer," in English and German, was established, the oldest existing Jewish paper on the Pacific coast, and two years later a second journal was established there, "The Gleaner," which was succeeded by "The Pacific Messenger" (1860-61), likewise in German and English. In 1857 the "Jewish Messenger" of New York appeared, and until 1902 it occupied in the Conservative rank a position corresponding to that of the "American Israelite" among the Reform papers. "The Asmonean," however, ceased publication in 1858. In 1859 "The Corner-Stone" of New Orleans gave evidence that another section of the country had awakened to a realization of journalistic influence.

Kobak's "Jeschurun."

By the middle of this decade Galicia had become recognized as the center of a Haskalic influence which extended over Poland and Lithuania; among the Jews of this region, whose literary language was still Hebrew, the Crimean war had awakened interest in the world at large; and therefore when the weekly "Ha-Maggid" was established it met with instantaneous and lasting success. This was really the beginning of the Hebrew newspaper. Most of the Hebrew journals thenceforth established in Turkey and in Slavic countries contained political and mercantile news of the Gentile as well as of the Jewish world, while special literary and scientific supplements supplied the other demands of their readers. In Lemberg, too, "Jeschurun," a Hebrew journal for science and literature, was founded (1856-58; from 1859 it was published in Germany, partly in German and partly in Hebrew); likewise "Meged Yeraḥim," and later "Oẓar Ḥokmah," neither of which lived many years, however. "Ha-Mebasser" (1860-70) was eminently more successful. "Oẓar Neḥmad" (1856-64), another Hebrew periodical of the same class as those of Galicia, was published in Vienna.

The only other important journalistic event of 1857 was the appearance of the Rumanian "Israelitulu Romanulu" of Bucharest, the first journal in Wallachia. The Jews of Hungary were provided with a journal in the following year, when Löw revived his "Ben Chananja," but with a more scientific trend; it continued publication till 1867. Steinschneider's "Hebräische Bibliographie" was the first purely bibliographical periodical established; its importance is indicated by the length of its life (1858-82). "La Famille de Jacob" was one of the few Jewish journals of France published outside of Paris; "La Vérité Israélite" (1860-62) was an attempt to provide a French juvenile paper. The last year of the sixth decade was somewhat active, especially in Russia, where two important Hebrew weeklies, "Ha-Karmel" (until 1881) and "Ha-Meliẓ" (until 1904), and also "Razsvyet" (continued as "Zion" in 1861, then again as "Razsvyet" in 1879), a weekly and the first journal in Russian, met with success.


During the decade 1861-70 the comparative journalistic inactivity of Germany continued, though a temporary change was noted about the middle of the period in the establishment of a number of papers of brief existence. Of about a hundred new periodicals established—of which nine or ten were added to the list of permanent ones, and ten others enjoyed a life of ten years' duration or more—Germany supplied only about fifteen, one of which is still being published; and four others, with ten of those previously existing, outlived the decade. In America, too, the increased activity hardly kept the pace which the growth of the Jewish population and the journalistic conditions of the preceding decade would seem to have predicted;perhaps a dozen new periodicals were founded there, of which only three were to outlive the decade together with about five previously existent papers. England's activity was even less marked. On the other hand, the growth of the periodical press in Austria, including Galicia and Hungary, was steady, and resulted in a number of permanent additions to the list of Hebrew papers, of which between twenty and twenty-five new ones were founded in various parts of the Jewish world. A remarkable feature, too, was the number of Judæo-Spanish periodicals—at least ten-which made their appearance, although perhaps only one survived long. Furthermore, permanent papers were established in a number of the countries less prominent in the history of Jewish journalism.

Geiger's "Zeitschrift."

In Germany Geiger, fifteen years after the cessation of his "Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift," resumed its publication under the title "Jüdische Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und Leben" (1862-1873); in 1868 Kobak's "Jeschurun" was removed to Bamberg (until-1878), Grätz became editor of the "Monatsschrift für die Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums," and the "Israelitische Wochenschrift" (until 1894) made its appearance; and the following year "Die Jüdische Presse" was founded as a Conservative journal, one which is still being published.

Judæo-German Press.

In Austria and Hungary the cause of Reform received added and energetic journalistic representation in "Die Neuzeit" of Vienna (1861-1904), which at the same time became a rich source of material for the history of the Jews in Austria-Hungary. "Ben Chananja" increased its influence in Hungary by becoming a weekly in 1861; and its efforts were supplemented in the same year by those of the Hungarian "Magyar Izraelita." The "Izraelita Magyar Néptanitó" (1865-68) was pedagogic in character, as was the "Zsidó Iskolai és Hitköztégi Lapok" (1869-71); and the Orthodox interests were represented by the "Magyar Zsidó." In Austria, toward the end of this period, Smolenskin founded "Ha-Shaḥar" (1869-1884), an eminently successful periodical and one which inaugurated the epoch of original literature in modern Hebrew. In Galicia, however, a Hebrew weekly for political and general news, "Ha-'Ibri," had been founded in 1865, and it continued publication until 1890; in 1869 a still-existent German paper was established there as "Der Israelit," for moderate Reform; while the "Lemberger Jüdische Zeitung" represented the Judæo-German press for a number of years during this decade. The history of Judæo-German journalism had really begun in Russia in 1863. Until that time the better-educated classes of Russian Jews, for all of whom Hebrew was the literary language, had formed the bulk of the reading public; but now, as was the case in other countries, a vernacular press was demanded, and "Ha-Meliẓ," issued as a Judæo-German supplement "Ḳol Mebasser," for literature and belles-lettres. A Russian periodical, "Posrednik," also appeared for a short time from 1869. In Poland "Jutzrenka," the first Jewish paper in Polish, appeared from 1861 to 1863; its place was taken in 1866 by the still-existent "Izraelitá." This country played its part, too, in the history of the Hebrew press; "Ha-Ẓefirah" (1862-63, then 1874 until the present time), a weekly, ranking with the similar journals of Galicia and Russia. With these countries must be grouped in this respect Palestine, where "Ha-Lebanon" appeared from 1863 to 1864, but where "Ha-Ḥabaẓẓelet," a strongly Orthodox newspaper, was of greater importance and, though its publication has at times been interrupted, is still active.

Ladino Periodicals.

The "Jornal Israelith" (1860-71), whose editor Ezekiel Gabbai was the real founder of journalism in Turkey, owed its success to the fact that, being printed in Judæo-Spanish, it supplied a long-felt want of the Jews of Turkey, who were for the greater part uninstructed and without any knowledge of languages other than the vernacular. The Judæo-Spanish papers of Turkey which followed the "Jornal" were mostly of one character: they supplied information as to foreign and domestic affairs in general and Jewish communal affairs in particular; and, to such an extent as to be forced to suspend publication, fearlessly fought for reforms and protested against abuses even when connected with the grand rabbinate. The activity of the Judæo-Spanish press about 1864 was notable not only in Turkey, but also in other parts, particularly in Vienna, where the Judæo-Spanish colony published, in rabbinical characters, various journals intended for the Balkan Peninsula, especially Bulgaria. They include, peculiarly enough, what appears to have been the first Jewish comic paper, "Risi Bisi" (1867); "El Verdadero Progreso Israelito" (1863) appeared in Paris; and "Sema Israel" (1864) in Curaçao. In 1869 the first of five unsuccessful attempts to publish Jewish papers in Turkish was made with "Al-Sharḳiyyah." "Salonik" (1869) was printed not only in Judæo-Spanish and Turkish, but also in Greek and Bulgarian. In Rumania the "Israelitulu Romanulu" resumed publication in Rumanian and French, in 1867. In Corfu the "Chronica Israelitica," in Italian and Greek, was founded in 1861, and "La Famiglia Israelitica," in Italian, was published from 1869 to 1877; while in Italy the "Corriere Israelitico" (from 1863) appeared beside and eventually outlived the "Educatore Israelitico." In France Isidore Cahen became editor of the "Archives Israélites" in 1862; that this journal and the "Univers Israélite" were sufficient to supply the journalistic wants of Paris is shown by the end of "Le Lien" and "La Vérité" about this time, though the "Revue Israélite," a weekly, was founded in 1870, and appeared for several years. In Holland renewed activity was indicated by the appearance of the annual "Achawa" (1865-68) and of three new weeklies which are still in existence: the "Nieuw Israelietische Weekblaad" (from 1866), the "Onafhankelijk Israelietisch Orgaan voor Nederland" (from 1867), and the "Weekblaad voor Israelietische Huizgesinnen" (from 1870); in addition "Ibri," a literary weekly, existed for a short time in 1869. The "Israelitisk Tidende" (1865), published at Copenhagen for a short time, seems to have been the only Danish Jewish periodical published, unless the "Jödisk Almanak" (1861) be reckoned as such.

In the United States the "Zeichen der Zeit," a German monthly with a Reform tendency, soon paid the penalty for the caustic tone it adopted; on the other hand, "The Hebrew," (1863 to the present), in German and English, was another successful publication of the Pacific coast. "The Jewish Times" of New York (1869-79) was for a time the foremost representative of the Reform element; and in 1870 "Ha-Ẓofeh ba-Areẓ, ha-Ḥadashah" was founded as one of the most successful Hebrew periodicals ever published in America. In England the "Londoner Jüdisch-Deutsche Zeitung" was the first Judæo-German publication to appear in English-speaking countries; while the "Jewish Record" (1868-71) was the first penny Jewish paper. "The Guide" is to be noted as another journal of Kingston, Jamaica, and "The Australian Israelite" (1870-1882) as one of the longest-lived Jewish newspapers of Australia.


During the decade 1871-80 the increase in the number of Hebrew publications was maintained, principally in Galicia, but also in Palestine and Russia and, to a smaller extent, in Germany, Austria, Hungary, and the United States, though many of these publications suspended before the end of the decade; in the last-mentioned country both English and Judæo-German journalism likewise displayed a decidedly greater activity (about twenty-five new foundations in each language were made); furthermore, six or seven new journals in Russian appeared, and an equal number in Judæo-Spanish.

German Scientific Journals.

In Germany it is perhaps noteworthy that Geiger's "Jüdische Zeitschrift," which had been at least in part religious, came to an end in 1872, and that the "Jüdisches Literaturblatt" (Magdeburg, 1873-97; Cracow, 1897 to the present) was almost entirely scientific and literary. So, too, were Berliner's "Magazin für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums" (1874-93) and Brüll's "Jahrbücher für Jüdische Geschichte und Literatur." The "Predigt-Magazin" was a homiletical quarterly; while "Der Israelitische Bote" and "Die Reform" (each several years from 1875) were two new religious and literary papers, the former Orthodox, the latter progressive. "Joseph," edited for a number of years from 1879, was a special publication for the young, and "Der Jüdische Kantor" (1879-98), one of the most successful of the liturgical papers. "Die Neue Israelitische Zeitung" (1880) was a second attempt at Jewish journalism in Switzerland. Of Judæo-German papers in Germany the "Ḳol la-'Am," edited for several years from 1876 by Rodkinsohn, requires mention. In Alsace "L'Israélite Alsace-Lorraine" (1878-80) appeared partly in French and partly in German.

The principal new publications in Austria during this decade were Judæo-German and Hebrew; e.g., of the former, "Der Wiener Israelit," a newspaper published three times a week from 1873 for many years. Nor was the proverbial light-heartedness of the Austrian capital without its expression in Jewish journalism; as formerly the first Judæo-Spanish humoristic paper had been published there, so now the first Judæo-German, Wilhelm Weiss's "Jüdischer Kikeriki" (1877), which was, in addition, illustrated. In contrast "Ha-Emet" (1877), though only a few numbers appeared, is noteworthy as the first Hebrew socialistic paper. In Hungary the "Ungarisch-Jüdische Wochenschrift" (1871-72), especially "Der Ungarische Israelit" (1874 to the present—a general paper), and "Die Zeit" (1878-81; for theology and history), were important German publications; "Das Jüdische Weltblatt" (from 1878) was a successful semiweekly Judæo-German organ; "Ha-Yehudi" (1875-80), a Hebrew literary magazine; while "A Magyar Izraelita Orzágos Tanitó-Egylet Ertesitöje" (from 1875) was to prove itself the longest-enduring of the periodicals published in Hungarian. Bohemia, too, established a successful German periodical in this decade—the "Israelitischer Lehrerbote," continued as "Die Israelitische Gemeindezeitung" (1873), the oldest Jewish paper in Bohemia;" Der Fortschritt im Judenthume" (1880-85) likewise was published in Bohemia.

Title-Heading of the Humorous Section of the "New-Yorker Illustrirte Jüdische Zeitung."Galician Hebrew Press. Title-Headings of Jewish Illustrated Humorous Periodicals.

In Galicia the Judæo-German periodicals which reenforced the "Israelit" and the "Lemberger Jüdische Zeitung" were "Die Neue Jüdische Presse" (1872) and "Yisrulik" (1875-76). Except "Svjit," a Polish weekly, and "Ojczyzma," which appeared for five years in both Polish and Hebrew, all the other important new Galician papers were in the latter language; most of them appeared in the ranks beside the long-established "He-Ḥaluẓ," "Ha-Maggid," and "Ha-'Ibri," to combat which, however, the "Maḥaziḳe ha-Dat" was founded in 1879 as the organ of Ḥasidism. In Rumania—where the demand for journals in the vernacular was met by "Fraternitatéa" (1879) and the annual "Anuar Penetrul Israeliti" (1878) in Rumanian, and by "Ha-Yo'eẓ" (1876) in Judæo-German—Hebrew journalism was represented by "Ha-Ḥolek" (1878) and by "Yizra'el" (1877), which had as its object, as did "Ha-Yo'eẓ," the rousing of interest in the Holy Land. The Hebrew pressin Russia was likewise active for a time, although "Ha-Karmel" in 1871, more in keeping with its literary character, became a monthly; among the new journals were: "Yagdil Torah" (1871-81), "Bet Wa'ad la-Ḥakamim" (1875), "Ha-Boḳer Or" (1876-86), and "Dabar be'Itto" (1878). On the other hand, the Judæo-German "Ḳol Mebasser" ceased publication in 1871, and there seemed to be a growing fondness for languages other than Hebrew and Judæo-German; several Russian periodicals were established, including the highly successful "Voskhod," which, founded as a weekly in 1879 and changed to a monthly in 1881, has continued to appear with weekly and annual supplements until the present time, though not uninterruptedly. When the renewed activity of the Hebrew periodical press was most noted, "Ha-Ẓebi" (1876-1900) was founded as the most successful opponent of the very Conservative "Ha-Ḥabaẓẓelet," (which became a monthly in 1877), and fought twice a week for the introduction of modern civilization into the Holy Land and for the renascence of Hebrew as a spoken language. About the same time were established "Yehudah wi-Yerushalayim" (1877-78) and "Sha'are Ẓiyyon" (1876-80), and in 1880 "'Ammud ha-Yir'ah," as an organ of the rabbis; and Frumkin edited for a short time the first Judæo-German periodical of Palestine.

The Judæo-Spanish press of this decade was very active in its attempts to educate the Jews of the Orient. "El Tiempo" (from 1871) was one of the most widely circulated papers of the East. "El Nacional," which in 1871 became the successor of the "Jornal lsraelith," and "El Telegrafo" (from 1872) were of a similar nature. Of the other Judæo-Spanish periodicals—principally "La Epoca" (for many years from 1874), "El Sol" (1879), and "La Buena Espéranza" (1874; originally called "La Espéranza")—some were of a more general popular-scientific nature, treating in part the natural sciences and containing also translations of stories from the French and Hebrew. "La Politica" (1878) was published by the Judæo-Spanish colony in Vienna. "Zeman" (1872) and "Jeridiyyah Terjumah" were two more of the attempts to educate the Jews of Turkey to the use of Turkish as a written language.

In Italy the "Educatore Israelita," with a change in title to "II Vessillo Israelitico," received a new lease of life in 1874. "Mosè," an Italian monthly of Corfu, the third Jewish paper of that island, was established in 1878. In France one of the most valuable of the scientific periodicals in the whole of Jewish journalism—the "Revue des Etudes Juives"—began to appear in 1880; while in Holland, of five or six new publications, the scientific and literary "Israelietische Letterbode," with a news supplement, the "Israelietische Nieuwsbode," was published for fourteen years alongside its older contemporaries; and the "Echo de l'Orient" (1875), a French fortnightly and interesting on this account, appeared for a short time.

In English-Speaking Lands.

Of several papers established during this decade in England, one, "The Jewish World," founded in 1873, was destined to be of great importance in the development of English Jewry. "Der Londoner Israelit" (1878) was a successful Judæo-German socialist paper, and "Ha-Kerem," a Hebrew weekly. In Australia, of four English papers established between 1871 and 1875 one was edited by the Jewish schoolboys of Adelaide; in India the first Jewish journals appeared during this period: "The Jewish Gazette" (1874) of Calcutta and the "Light of Truth" (1877-1882) of Bombay, both in Mahrati (Hebrew characters) and English.

Title-Heading of the First Number of "Ha-Maggid."

In the United States several English papers appeared whose continued publication during a term of years allows the inference that the number of new journals published there was proportionate to a growing need, even if the literary and utilitarian character of many of the new productions was not such as to give them a high place in Jewish history. One of the most enduring of American juvenilepapers was "Young Israel" (later "Israel's Home Journal"), founded in 1871; another, which had a succession of distinguished scholars as editors, was "The Sabbath Visitor" (from 1874), edited at first with a German section. "The New Era," (1871-75) was the first of a number of monthly literary magazines established in succession in various cities under the same name. "The Occident" (Chicago, 1874), "The Jewish Record" (Philadelphia, 1874-87), "The Jewish Progress" (San Francisco, 1876), and "The Jewish Tribune" (St. Louis, 1879) were typical weeklies; "The American Hebrew," founded in New York in 1879, became with "The American Israelite" a representative of this class of journals. "The Jewish Advance" (Chicago, 1878-82) and "The Jewish Chronicle" (Baltimore, from 1876) were comparatively successful German-English papers; "Die Wahrheit" was published at St. Louis (1871), and "Der Zeitgeist," a German family paper, at Chicago (1880-83). "The Hebrew Review" (Cincinnati, (1880-90) was one of the few purely literary magazines published in America. Of the various Judæo-German papers—including one which had English, German, and Hebrew departments also, and another which was devoted to anarchism—only the "Jüdische Gazetten" in New York (from 1874) and the "Israelitische Presse" of Chicago (from 1876; with a Hebrew supplement, "Hekal ha-'Ibriyyah") were of much importance. The latter was strongly Orthodox; the former, which was Conservative but inclined toward liberalism, and which contained popular literary articles as well as news-items, was perhaps the most successful paper of its class published. "Ha-Ḳol" (New York, 1889-90), founded originally in 1876 in Königsberg by Rodkinsohn as a literary and news journal, deserves notice as one of the most radical Hebrew periodicals ever published.

1881-1900: Of Recent Years.

During the last twenty years of the nineteenth century a marked change was noticeable in the condition of the Jewish periodical press. Before the opening of this epoch all the various types of Jewish journalistic activity had been established; but from now on one type in particular, that of the newspaper, became predominant. At the same time there was a shifting in the preponderance of influence, which previously rested with the German press. Even here a change had gradually been taking place, in that the weekly half-news, half-literary paper had increased in numbers at the expense of the more strictly scholarly magazine. But it was especially in America and the Slavonic countries that the change was most noticeable. The new period was ushered in by the sudden increase in the immigration into the former from the latter, attended in the United States by a corresponding advance in the number of local English weeklies as well as the more-to-be-expected Judæo-German dailies and weeklies; the Judæo-German press becoming of wide significance in connection not only with Jewish questions, but also with the economic questions of the world at large. Exactly how great was the reflex influence of the new settlers in America upon affairs in their old homes can not be determined; at any rate, Russia and Galicia shared in the new movement, though not so much in the Judæo-German as in the Hebrew press. Zionism likewise contributed toward the increase in journalistic activity during this period.

Germany and Austria-Hungary:

Of the older periodicals in Germany the "Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift des Judenthums" ceased publication in 1881, the "Jahrbücher für Jüdische Geschichte und Litteratur" in 1890, the "Magazin für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums" in 1893, the "Israelitische Wochenschrift" in 1894, and "Der Jüdische Kantor" in 1897, in which year, too, the "Jüdisches Literaturblatt" removed to Cracow; there were thus left of the old foundations only the "Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums" (which, moreover, also suspended from 1887 to 1892), the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums," "Der Israelit," and "Die Jüdische Presse," and of the annuals only the "Jüdischer Volks- und Haus-Kalender."

However, at least thirty new German periodicals appeared in Germany during the twenty years. Of these "Die Laubhütte" (from 1883), the "Israelitisches Gemeindeblatt" (from 1888), the "Allgemeine Israelitische Wochenschrift" (from 1892), and the "Jüdisches Familienblatt" (from 1898) belong in the category of religious and social newspapers; the "Populär-Wissenschaftliche Monatsblätter" (from 1881), "Israelitische Monatsschrift" (1884-95; supplement of "Die Jüdische Presse"), and "Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland" (1887-1892) were scientific—the fact that only one of them outlived the century is significant. The "Zeitschrift für Hebräische Bibliographie" was founded in 1896 to replace Steinschneider's "Hebräische Bibliographie," which ceased publication in 1882. "Lehrerheim" (1895) was established as a special organ for teachers, and the "Israelitischer Jugendfreund" (1895) one for the young; the "Jüdische Turnzeitung" (1900) became the organ of the Jewish athletic societies; the "Berliner Vereinsbote" (1895), "Zion" (1895), and "Jeschurun" (1900) supported Zionism; "Palästina" devoted itself to the study of economic conditions in the Holy Land; the "Jüdische Moderne" (1897) is especially belletristic, and "Ost und West" (1900), an illustrated monthly for general interests.

Among the Hebrew periodicals in Germany "Ha-Medabber le-Yisrael" (1881-82) and "Ha-Ḥozeh" were short-lived; later, however, two scientific magazines, "Mi-Mizraḥ umi-Ma'arab" (published at first in Vienna) and "Ha-Shiloaḥ" (1896), were more successful; the latter was Zionistic.

In Austria the only long-established papers published during this period were "Die Neuzeit" (until 1902) and the "Mittheilungen der Oesterreichisch-Israelitischen Union" (1888, still appearing in 1904). Of the dozen or more new papers the most important perhaps was "Dr. Bloch's Oesterreichische Wochenschrift," founded in 1884 especially to combat anti-Semitism. The "Jüdisches Volksblatt" and the "Monatsschrift der Oesterreichisch-Israelitischen Union" (both in 1889) are likewise important. Two papers were founded to represent labor interests: "Die Welt" (1897) and "Der Jüdische Arbeiter" (1898), the former of which became the organ of Zionism, together with the "Zionistische Rundschau." A special periodical for cantors, as a supplementto "Die Wahrheit," was founded in 1881 under the title "Oesterreichisch-Ungarische Kantoren Zeitung." The "Monatsschrift für Literatur und Wissenschaft des Judenthums," like many similar scientific magazines in Germany, had but a short existence (1889-90). The few attempts at the publication of Hebrew periodicals in Vienna during this period met with little success. "Ha-Shaḥar" itself, despite its popularity, had to cease publication in 1884 for lack of subscribers; the most successful of the new Hebrew papers was "Bet Talmud" (1880-1886), a scientific monthly.

During the period under discussion there were added to the "Magyar Izraelita" as permanent publications in Hungarian "Egyenlöség" (from 1882), "Magyar Zsidó Szemle" (from 1884), "Pályázat" (from 1891), and "A Jövö" (only 1897). Of German papers in Hungary the "Mitteilungen der Freien Vereinigung für die Interessen des Orthodoxen Judenthums" (1887) and the "Ungarische Wochenschrift" (1895) were the only two of five or six to rival for any length of time "Der Ungarische Israelit." In Bohemia beside the older "Israelitische Gemeindezeitung" there appeared the "Jüdische Chronik" (1895), a literary monthly, and "Jüdisches Gefühl" (1900), a periodical for the young.

America—English Papers:

The number of new English papers which appeared for a longer or shorter duration of time during the period 1881-1900 was over seventy-five; as many as ten were estabished in the year 1895 alone. A few, such as "The Reform Advocate" of Chicago (1891) for example, took a place of influence beside the "American Israelite," "The Jewish Messenger," "The American Hebrew," and "The Hebrew," of San Francisco. By far the greater part of them, however, are of local interest only. Among the longest enduring and most important in the various centers of Jewish settlement the following may be mentioned: "The Chicago Israelite" (1884); the "Hebrew Standard" (1883) and "Hebrew Journal" (1885) of New York; "The Jewish Spectator" (1885) of Memphis; "The Jewish Exponent" (1887) of Philadelphia; "The Jewish Tidings" (1887) of Rochester; "The Jewish Voice" (1888) of St. Louis; "The Jewish Chronicle" (1890-93) of Boston; "The American Hebrew News" (1892-1901) of Portland, Ore.; "The Jewish South (1893) of Richmond; "The Jewish Sentiment" (1895) of Atlanta; "The Jewish Comment" (1895) of Baltimore; "The Jewish Ledger" (1895) of New Orleans; and "The Jewish Review and Observer" (1899) of Cleveland.

Of magazines "The American Jewess" (1895-1899) was especially devoted to women's interests; "The Rabbinical Review" (1881-82) and the "Menorah" (founded 1886) were among the last of the scientific-literary magazines in the United States (the latter became one of the foremost periodicals in the country), the "Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society" (since 1893) being entirely historical. "The American Jews' Annual" (1884-97) was one of the few of its class ever established in America. A single number of a magazine devoted to cabalistic science appeared in Boston in 1895. Of German papers in America "Sulamit" was a literary monthly; and "Freitag zu Nacht" (from 1888), a weekly. There were likewise several Zionist papers of brief existence, and two or three organs of the B'ne B'rith or other lodges.


The Jews who came to America from Slavonic countries during the great immigrations were not long in appreciating the usefulness of the newspaper. Ninety or a hundred Judæo-German journals were founded between 1885 and 1900, the period of greatest activity in this regard being around 1890, when many papers appeared in the interests of the working classes. The greater part of the journals enjoyed but a brief existence; the most important of all remained the first-established, the "Jüdische Gazetten," which, in full accord with the spirit of its adopted country, purchased and consolidated about twenty of the new papers, some of which, however, continued to appear as its daily (e.g., the "Jüdisches Tageblatt") or other special editions. Among the most important or interesting papers of this class which have appeared are: The "New Yorker Jüdische Zeitung" (1885-89), in the special Judæo-Hungarian dialect; Goldfaden's "New-Yorker Illustrirte Jüdische Zeitung" (1887), the first of its kind in America, in the Judæo-Polish dialect; "Der Volksadvokat" (from 1887); "Der Jüdischer Courier" (1887-1902); "Der Volksfreund" (1889); "Die Arbeiter Zeitung" (1890-1902), most important of the labor journals; "Sulamit (from 1890), a Zionist publication; "Der Telegraf" (1890-1899); "Der Täglicher Herold" (from 1891); and "Vorwärts" (from 1897), a socialist organ. Of the Judæo-German magazines the principal ones have been: "Yom-Ṭob Blätter" (1897-99), issued only for Jewish and American holidays; "Die Freie Gesellschaft" (1895-1902), an anarchist monthly; "Die Zukunft" (from 1892; still published), a socialist monthly; "Der Neue Geist," a monthly edited by Harkavy, which, like "Natur und Leben," had but a brief existence (in 1897); and, finally, "Der Land Ḥakam" (from 1893) and "Der Jüdischer Puck" (1894-96), two humoristic periodicals. In South America "Der Jüdische Phonograph" was founded at Buenos Ayres in 1897.


An attempt was made also to force the American Hebrew press to share the revival which took place in the native countries of the new-comers. No fewer than fifteen or twenty Hebrew periodicals were established between 1888 and 1900 in the United States, devoted in part to literature and science, in part to political and social topics. Only a few, however, had so long a life as "Ha-Pisgah" (founded in 1890 and continued as "Ha-Teḥiyyah" until 1900) and "Ha-'Ibri" (1892-98), or even as "Ner ha-Ma'arabi" (1895-97) and "Ha-Modia' le-Ḥodashim" (1900-2).

England: Title-Headings of the First Numbers of Current Jewish Periodicals.

Conditions in England reflected, but only to a small degree, those in America. "The Jewish Chronicle" and "The Jewish World" met with no serious rivalry in their field of activity. Of half a dozen new journals in English founded between 1882 and 1890, only "The Jewish Standard" (1888-90), an-Orthodox weekly, had any measure of success. "Palestine," the quarterly of the Chovevei Zion Association, and "Young Israel," a magazine for the young, were established in 1897. In the domain of science the "Jewish Quarterly Review" (from 1888) took a leading place among the few magazines of its class existing in the Jewish world during the period under discussion. The new Judæo-German publications were chiefly of the socialist and labor class; the most successful after the early immigration movement was "Der Arbeiterfreund" (1886-91); later "The Jewish Observer" (from 1894) and "Der Jüdischer Express" (from 1896) became the representatives of this class of papers; "Germinal" (1900) was anarchistic. The comic press was represented by "Pee-Pee-Fox." At Cardiff in 1904 "The South Wales Jewish Review" first appeared. Of Hebrew periodicals "Ha-Degel" (founded in 1897) became a successful newspaper; "Ha-Yehudi" (1898) was founded in the interests of Zionism and Orthodoxy. In English-speaking places outside of the United States and England Gibraltar established the "Voice of Jacob" in 1882; Sydney and Melbourne (Australia), "The Jewish Herald" in 1883, and the former "The Australian Hebrew" in 1895 and the latter "The Australian Hebrew" in 1897; and Montreal, "The Jewish Times" (the first in Canada) in 1898. In India Bombay has had at least three Mahrati-English papers and Calcutta two Arabic in Hebrew characters.


As was noticed above, toward the beginning of the period under discussion there had been on the part of Jewish readers in Russia a marked inclination toward non-Hebrew literature; indeed, it seemed to some that Hebrew as the language of periodicals was doomed; "Ha-Karmel" ceased publication in 1881, three years before "Ha-Shaḥar" in Vienna did the same. With the renewed persecution of the Jews, however, a decided change to earlier ideals took place; the Maskilim redoubled their efforts, and met a willing response. "Ha-Asif," a literary annual established in 1884, found 7,000 subscribers—a considerable number when compared with the 800 which "Ha-Shaḥar" had had in its most successful days. Other annuals and monthlies followed before 1886. A daily press of any kind had never been able to exist in Russia; and even the weeklies issued from time to time had been so restricted as to be without importance. The measure of the change in conditions in the new era, therefore, can be estimated from the fact that in 1886 a Hebrew daily, with paid contributors—the first in the history of Jewish journalism—was established as "Ha-Yom," and that in the same year "Ha-Meliẓ" and "Ha-Ẓefirah" likewise became dailies, with thousands of subscribers (see also Russia, Periodicals in). Of the Judæo-German publications in Russia, Zederbaum's "Jüdisches Volksblatt," a weekly, was published from 1881 to 1889; and "Der Jüdischer Arbeiter" (from 1897) represented the interests of the Russian Social Democrats. Of periodicals in Russian several were attempted before the revival of Hebrew, but the "Voskhod," which became a monthly in 1881, found no important rival until "Budushchnost" appeared (1900-2).

Galicia shared in the revival of Hebrew to a greater extent even than Russia. Between twenty and twenty-five periodical publications of various classes, principally literary weeklies and monthlies, were published there. Among the most noteworthy are the weekly "Ha-Maggid le-Yisrael" (since 1893); the monthly "Ahabat Ẓiyyon" (since 1894); the quarterly "Ha-Eshkol" (since 1898); "Gan Sha'shu'im" (from 1899), a weekly for children. "Oẓar ha-Sifrut" (1887-96) was an annual for literature, belles-lettres, and science. Of the half-dozen Judæo-German periodicals founded in Galicia toward the close of the century, "Der Jude" (since 1899) is a general news weekly. Of German paperṣ, "Jerusalem" (founded in 1899) for literature, and the "Krakauer Jüdische Zeitung" (1898) for science and Zionism, may be mentioned. In the South-Slavonic provinces of the Austrian empire there was never an active Jewish press, although Moritz Grünwald's "Das Jüdische Centralblatt" (1882) appeared for seven years. In Moravia the "Jüdische Volksstimme," a labor journal, was founded in 1900. In Rumania seven or eight Rumanian journals—principally Zionist—and half as many Judæo-German were established, most of them near the beginning of the new century. The first journal in Bulgarian was "El Tresoro" (1894-96), although within the following few years several others appeared.


The new period brought several Hebrew papers to the aid of Ha-Ḥabaẓẓelat" and "Ha-Ẓebi" in Palestine, the latter of which ceased publication in 1900 and was continued as "Hashḳafah." Luncz's annual "Yerushalayim," scientific, and "Torah mi-Ẓiyyon" (1886-87, 1896-99), rabbinical, are examples of the most important of the new foundations.

Ladino Press.

The activity of the Judæo-Spanish press noted during the preceding decade continued during 1881-1900 (Bulgaria having a share therein from 1894), though toward the close of the period all Turkish journals were compelled to suspend publication for a time. Of the older papers, "El Tiempo," "El Lunar," "El Telegraf," and "La Esperanza" continued publication into the new century, together with several out of fifteen or twenty new ones that were established; viz., "La, Verdad" of Smyrna, "El Novelista," "Carmi," "El Avenir," "El Messerrit," and "La Verdad" of Sofia. "El Luzero de la Paciencia" (Turn-Severin, 1886-87) was the first Judæo-Spanish journal of the East printed in Latin characters; "El Progresso" (1899) was founded in Vienna, "El Sabado Segreto" in Mexico (1889), and "El Colono Israelita" in Buenos Ayres. "O Israelitis Chronographos" of Corfu is the only Jewish periodical recorded which has a Greek title, though some of the Judæo-Spanish papers have been issued with Greek departments. In Italy "Or ha-Lebanon" (1886), an Arabic monthly, was edited by a native of Algiers.

In North Africa several Arabic journals were founded: "Al-Mubashshir" (1884) and "Al-Bustan" (1889) in Tunis (the former of which was forced by the government to suspend issue), and "Al-Faraḥ" (1900) in Egypt. The "Vigio Israélite" (1885-93), in Arabic and French, and "La Jeunesse Israélite" (1890), "Ha-Shofeṭ" (1894), and "L'Israélite Algérien" (1900) in French were established in Oran. Aside from annuals and bulletins, the few new periodicals which appeared in France during this period were: in French," La Vraie Parole" (1893), "Kadimah" or "En Avant" (1896; by the students of theNationalist party), and two Zionist papers, "Le Flambeau" (1899) and "L'Echo Sioniste" (1900); in Judæo-German, "Die Pariser Allgemeine Jüdische Volkszeitung" (1892) and "Ha-Tiḳwah" (1897); and in Hebrew, "Ha-Ḥoḳer" (1891). In Holland the principal new papers were "Achawa" (1888), pedagogic, and the "Centraal Blad voor Israelieten in Nederland" (1885), a successful weekly.

Since 1900:

The Jewish press in the new century has continued to develop along the lines laid down in the closing decades of the nineteenth. The increase in the number of English and Judæo-German periodicals in America is steady, though of Hebrew magazines "Ha-Le'om" seems to stand alone. Russia's daily press has been increased by at least one Hebrew and one Judæo-German paper, and another Hebrew journal appears several times a week. In Germany the short-lived "Ha-Ḳeshet," a Hebrew illustrated journal devoted especially to art, was especially noteworthy. New Hungarian, Rumanian, Bulgarian, and Judæo-Spanish journals have likewise been founded. The Italian "Rivista Israelitica" has been established as a companion journal to the "Revue des Etudes Juives" of France and the "Jewish Quarterly Review" of England. In Switzerland several Zionist organs are now being published in various languages. In more distant countries the "Message Zioniste" (French) of Alexandria and "Al Miẓrayim" (Arabic and Judæo-Spanish) of Cairo; "Shoshannah" (Arabic) and "The Voice of Sinai" of Calcutta; the "South African Jewish Chronicle" (English) and the "Jewish Advocate" (Judæo-German) of Cape Town, and, finally, "Israel's Messenger" of Shanghai are the latest established.

Title-Page of "Jung Juda."

Detailed accounts of the more important Jewish periodicals are given in The Jewish Encyclopedia under the respective captions. The list of periodicals herewith annexed includes the available data concerning every periodical publication of which any notice could be found; it has been revised and augmented by Dr. Meyer Kayserling of Budapest, Dr. N. Porges of Leipsic, Dr. Samuel Posnanski of Warsaw, Moïse Schwab of Paris, M. Franco of Rumelia, Dr. Aaron Freimann of Frankfort-on-the-Main, S. Seeligman of Amsterdam, Dr. Samuel Krauss of Budapest, and Rabbi Ehrenpreis of Sofia. The supplementary table on page 640 recapitulates the number of journals (including newspapers, but excluding year-books, calendars, and other annuals), in each language, founded in the various countries, the figures in parentheses indicating the number now being published (so far as can be ascertained; the actual numbers are in excess of those given). See also Almanacs.

Title-Page of "'Olam Ḳaṭan."
  • American Israelite, June 8, 15, 22, 29, 1893;
  • American Jews' Annual, 1888, p. 90;
  • Bockler, Presse und Judenthum, in Giese, Die Judenfrage, Berlin, 1889;
  • Davidson, The Genesis of Hebrew Periodical Literature, Baltimore, 1900;
  • Franco, Essai sur l'Histoire des Israélites de l'Empire Ottoman, pp. 277 et seq., Paris, 1889;
  • Freidus, in American Jewish Year Book, i. 271-282, Philadelphia, 1899;
  • Geiger, in Wiss. Zeit. Jüd. Theol. iv. 286, 459; v. 372;
  • Grünbaum, Jüdisch-Spanische Chrestomathie, pp. 148-158, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1896;
  • Harris, in Jewish Chronicle (London), May 6, 1904;
  • Jacobs and Wolf, Bibl. Anglo-Jud. pp. 369 et seq., London;
  • Jüdische Gazetten, xx. 43 et seq. (April 20, 1894);
  • Kayserling, in Winter and Wünsche, Die Jüdische Litteratur, iii. 860-880;
  • Lippe, Bibliographisches Lexicon, i. 662 et seq., new series, i. 457 et seq., Vienna, 1881, 1899;
  • Markens, The Hebrews in America, pp. 265-274, New York, 1888;
  • in R. E. J. xl. 271;
  • Sablozki, in Oẓar ha-Sifrut, 1896, v. 270-283;
  • Singer, Presse und Judenthum, Vienna, 1882;
  • Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. i. 6, xv. 63;
  • idem, in Zeitschrift für die Religiösen Interessen des Judenthums, 1846, iii. 28-33;
  • Weissberg, Die Neuhebräische Aufklärungs-Literatur in Galizien, pp. 49-77, Vienna, 1898;
  • Wiener, History of Yiddish Literature, pp. 357-360, New York, 1899;
  • Wise, in Judaism at the World's Parliament of Religion, pp. 402-409, Cincinnati, 1894;
  • Zeitschrift für Hebräische Bibliographie, i. 35, v. 159, vii. 25.
G. W. P.LIST OF PERIODICALS. Abbreviations.
Languages.Countries.Periods of Issue.
FFrench.RRussian.BsBosnia.HoHolland.SSouth America.IIrregularly.WWeekly.
GrGreek.SpJudæo-Spanish.CCanada.IItaly.SwSwitzerland.* Still published.‡ See last column.
Title. (Titles in capitals indicate special articles under the respective captions.)Language.Country.Issue.Place of Publication.Date.Editors, Characteristics, etc.
Abendblatt vun die Arbeiter ZeitungJADNew York1894 - 1902.Organ of the Socialist Labor Party. See "Arbeiter Zeitung."
Abendland, DasGBoFPrague‡1864 - 69Daniel Ehrmann. ‡ Then Brünn.
Abne ha-NezerHAuQVienna1853Meïr Halevi Letteris. Literary sup. of "Wiener Vierteljahrs-Schrift." 3 numbers.
AchawaGGALeipsic1864 - 67Leopold Stein. Pedagogic, literary, historical. Year-books for 1865-68.
AchawaDHoMAmsterdam1888 -Teachers' Society Achawa. Pedagogic.
Advance, The.........................................See "Jewish Advance" (Chicago).
Aggudat ha-ZobehimHHu..Nagy-Surany1904 - *Organ of the Jewish butchers.
Ahabat ẒiyyonG, HGaMCracow‡1894 -Zechariah Shapira, for the Ahabat Ziyyon Colonization Society; at first with "Ha-Maggid," then with "Ha-'Ibri." First numbers in German, Hebrew, and Polish.
Aḥare ha-Meassef.........................................See "Meassef he-Hadash."‡ Then Lemberg.
AḥiasafHPoAWarsaw1893 - *Ahiasaf Society. Literary, belletristic.
'Ale HadasHRM‡Odessa1865M. E. Belinson. Literary, scientific. One volume. ‡ Irregular.
Allgemeine Illustrirte JudenzeitungGHuWPest1860 - 62Joseph Bärmann and David Schwab. Literary, scientific, religious, news; illustrated.
Allgemeine Israelitische WochenschriftGGWBerlin1892 - *A. Levin (1892-97); M. A. Klausner. News; religious, social, belletristic. Scientific supplement: "Jeschurun."
Allgemeine Jüdische ZeitungGHuWBudapest1887 - *Continuing "Pester Jüdische Zeitung."
Allgemeine Zeitung des JudenthumsGGWBerlin1837 - *Ludwig Philippson (1837-89); G. Karpeles. Literary, scientific, general.
Allgemeines Archiv des JudenthmusGGMBerlin1839 - 43Jeremiah Heinemann. Historical. See "Jedidja."
Alliance Club News.........................................See "Alliance Review."
Alliance ReviewEAMNew York1899 - *Clubs of the Educational Alliance. Reports; literary. Founded as "Alliance Club News."
Almanach für die Israelitische JugendGGABerlin1818 - 20Jeremiah Heinemann.
Altes und Neues MorgenlandGSwMBasel1834 - 40Samuel Preiswerk. Exegetical.
AltneulandGGMBerlin1904 - *S. Soskin. Economic (Palestine); Zionistic.
Alvorada, LaSpBs‡WSarajevo‡1898 - 1902Abraham Cappon. Organ of Jews of Bosnia. Literary. ‡ Sofia, Sept., 1898, then suppressed; No. 2 and a few succeeding numbers appeared in Rumania: resumed in Sarajevo, 1901.
'Am, Ha-HGaMKolomea1891 - 92D. I. Silberbusch.
'Am, Ha-JGa...................................Kolomea Political, religious, industrial. ‡ Three times per month.
Ametican Hebrew, TheEAWNew York1879 - *Editorial board. News, literary; conservative. Now (1904) "The American Hebrew and Jewish Messenger."
American Hebrew NewsEA..Portland, Ore1892 - 1901R. Farber.
Ametican Israelite, TheEAWCincinnati1854 - *Isaac M. Wise, then Leo Wise. General. Reform. Until 1874 "The Israelite." See "Chicago Israelite" and "Deborah, Die."
American JewessEAQNew York1895 - 99Rosa Sonnenschein. Religious, social, literary.
American Jewish AlmanachEAACincinnati1887 - 93.
American Jewish SentimentEAWLittle Rock.
American Jewish Year BookEAAPhiladelphia1899 - *Cyrus Adler and Henrietta Szold. Statistical, historical.
American Jews' AnnualEAACincinnati1884 - 1897Leo Wise. Literary, belletristic.
Amerikaner, DerJ‡AWNew York1904 - *General, literary. ‡ With English supplement.
Amerikanischer Volks-Kalender, Der.........................................See "Jüdisch-Amerikanischer Volks-Kalender."
Ami des Israélites, L'FFMStrasburg1847Jérome Aron. Religious, moral, literary.
Amigo de la FamiliaSpTWConstantinople1886David Fresco and Moses Delmedigo. Historical, geographical, literary; illustrated.
Amigo del Pueblo, ElSpSeM‡Belgrade1888 - 1893Samuel Bekor Elias. Religious, social, historical, literary. ‡ Fortnightly, 1890-93.
BuWSofia; Rustchuk1893-1902
'Ammud ha-Yir'ahHPaMJerusalem1880 -Akiba Joseph Schlesinger. Religious; organ of the rabbis.
Analele Societatii Istoriel y BaraschRmRm..Bucharest1887.
Anglo-Jewish MagazineEEMLondon1848Successor of "Voice of Jacob."
Annuaire des Archives IsraélitesFFAParis1882 -H. Prague.
Annuaire du Culte IsraéliteFFAParis1851 - 70A. Créhange. ‡ Literary, portraits.
Annuaire IsraéliteFFAParis1876 -
Annuaire de la Société des Etudes JuivesFFAParis1881 - 84Société des Etudes Juives. Statistical, scientific.
Annuario IsraeliticoI..ACorfu1870Flaminio Servi. Literary, historical.
AnuarRmRmAJassy1885 -Moses Schwarzfeld.
Anuar Penetru IsraelitiRmRmABucharest1878 -Moses Schwarzfeld. With literary supplements.
Anzeiger, DerJAWBrooklyn1897 - 99V. E. Pomeranz.
Anzeiger, DerJGWHamburg1882‡M. L. Rodkinsohn. Political, literary. ‡ Two months.
Arbeitende Jüudische Jugend, DieGAuMVienna1903 - *Zionistic. For youthful laborers.
Arbeiter Welt, DieJAWNew York1904 - *United Hebrew Trades of the State of New York.
Arbeiter ZeitungJAWNew York1890 - 1902Sunday edition of "Abendblatt" since 1894.
Arbeiterfreund, DerJEWLondon1886 - 91International Workingmen's Educational Club. At first a monthly.
ArbeiterstimmeJR.....................................Published by the "Bund."
Archiv des JudenthumsGGS-ABerlin1839 - 43Continuation of "Jedidja."
Archiv für die Gesch. der Juden in Böhmen.........................................M. Grünwald. See "Jüdische Centralblatt, Das."
Archives Israélites de FranceFFM, WParis1840 - *Samuel Cohen (1840-62) ; Isidore Cohen (1862-1902) ; H. Prague. Political, religious. historical, literary.
Ariel, Ha-HPaMJerusalem1870 - 80Michael Kohen and A. Sussmann. Literary.
Ashmedai, DerJAWNew York189Morris Rosenfeld and Abraham Sharkansky. Last number called "Der Haman Klapper."
Asif, Ha- (Ha-Asif)HPoAWarsaw1884 - 93Nahum Sokolow. Literary, historical, biographical, popular-scientific. 6 vols.
Asif, Ha-HiEiiGAi London; ii Leipsic1847 - 49Hirsch-Filipowski. Scientific. With Meldola's "Luaḥ."
Asifat ḤakamimHGMKöonigsberg1877 - 78Michael Rodkinsohn. Supplement of "Ha-Kol." 8 numbers.
Asmonean, TheEAWNew York1849-58Robert Lyon. Political , religious, literary, news.
Associate, TheEAMPhiladelphia1901 - *Organ of the Young Men's Hebrew Association.
Association BulletinEAB-MPhiladelphia1881 -Organ of the Young Men's Hebrew Association and kindred societies.
Atlantic Coast Jewish AnnualEAAPhiladelphia1896 -J. S. Levy.
Australasian HebrewEAlWSydney1895 - 96Jacob Goldstein.
Australasian Jewish ChronicleEAl..Melbourne1861.
Australian HebrewEAl..Melbourne1897.
Australian Israelite, TheEAl..Melbourne1870 - 82S. Joseph.
Avenir, ElSpTWSalonica1898 -D. Florentin. Political, commercial, literary.
Baltimore Wegweiser, DerJAWBaltimore1897 - *.
Ben 'AmmiHRMSt. Petersburg1886Judah Löb Kantor. Literary, scientific. Supplement of "Ha-Yom." 8 numbers.
Ben ChananjaGGILeipsic1844Leopold Löw. For religious affairs of Hungary (Reform).
Ben ChananjaGHuM, WSzegedin1858 - 67Leopold Löw. Rabbinical; scientific, critical, theological.
Bene Israelite, TheE, MIn..Bombay1894 -Literary, news.
Beobachter, DerGHu..Presburg1873 - 74I. Back.
Beobachter an der Weichsel, Der (Dostrzegacz Nadwiślańnski).P, G‡PoWWarsaw1823 - 24A. Eisenbaum. ‡ In Hebrew characters. 44 numbers.
Berliner AnzeigerG‡GWBerlin1881J. Taubes. ‡ In Hebrew characters.
Berliner Kalender für IsraelitenGGABerlin1878 - 79H. Itzkowski.
Berliner VereinsboteGGWBerlin1895 -E. Flanter. Organ of Jewish associations in Berlin; continued as "Israelitische Rundschau."
Berliner Volkskalender für IsraelitenGGABerlin1861 -M. Poppelauer.
Berliner WochenblattGGWBerlin1857David Cassel. A few months.
Berliner Zeitung für die Gesammten Interessen des Judenthums.GGWBerlin1870S. Nascher.
Bet LeḥemHHuABudapest1871 - 72I. Reich. Agricultural.
Bet ha-MidrashHAuMVienna1865Isaac H. Weiss. Historical, scientific. 4 numbers.
Bet ha-MidrashHGaICracow1888M. J. Berditchewsky. 1 number.
Bet Oẓar ha-SifrutHGa..Cracow1887 - 92.
Bet TalmudHAuMVienna1880 - 86Isaac H. Weiss and M. Friedmann. Rabbinical; literary, historical. 5 vols.
Bet Wa'ad la-ḤakamimHAMNew York1903Dob Bär Abramowitz. Rabbinical.
Bet Wa'ad la-ḤakamimHEMLeeds1902 - 4O. Ch. Daiches. Exegetical, Talmudical, scientific.
Bet Wa'ad la-ḤakamimHHuMPresburg1875Leopold Landesberg. Historical, literary. 1 number.
Bet YisraelHAuMVienna1888Jacob Kopelovitz. Literary, scientific. 4 numbers. German supplement: "Der Familientisch."
Bevis Marks Gazette, TheEE..London1886H. Guedalla.
Bibel'Sche Orient, DerGG..Munich1821Isaac Bernays. Mystical.
Biblioṭeḳa 'IbritHPoWWarsaw.
Bijdragen Betrekkellijk de Verbeter v. d. Maatschappilijken Staat d. Joden.DHoWThe Hague1806 - 7‡‡ Eleven months. 2 vols.
Bikkoret ha-'IttimHGMLeipsic1864Dob Bär Fischer. Humoristic and satirical political review.
Bikkure Ha- 'IttimH ‡AuAVienna1820 - 31Shalom J. Cohen (1820-22): then, at different times, M. J. Landau, S. Pergamenter, J. Jeiteles, B. Schlesinger. Literary. ‡ i- viii. also German.
Bikkure ha-'Ittim (new series)GAu..Vienna1844M. E. Stern. Exegetical, belletristic. 1 number. Continued as "Kokebe Yiḥak."
Bikkure ha-'Ittim ha-HadashimG, HAuAVienna1845I. S. Reggio and I. Busch. 1 volume. Continuation of "Bikkure ha-'Ittim."
Bikkure ha-ShanahH, DHoAAmsterdam1843Gabriel Polak. Literary almanac.
Bikkure To'eletHHoWAmsterdam1820Samuel Mulder. Literary.
BikkurimHAuAVienna1864 - 65Naphtali Keller. With literary and scientific supplement.
Blätter für Israel's Gegenwart und ZukunftGG..Berlin1845 - 47Three volumes. 8vo.
Blätter für Jüdische Gesch, und LiteraturGGMMayence1860 - *Leopold Löwenstein (since 1900). Supplement of "Der Israelit."
Blumengarten, DerJAWChicago1903 - *.
Blumengarten, DerJA..Pittsburg189 - 99Joel Liebling.
B'nai B'rith AdvocateEA..Houston.
B'nai B'rith JournalEAMLittle Rock.
B'nai B'rith MessengerEAWLos Angeles1897 - *Victor Harris (until 1901). Formerly "The Emanu-El."
B'nai B'rith MirrorEAHVicksburg- *Intellectual Advancement Committee, District Grand Lodge No. 7, I. C. P. B.
Boḳer Or, Ha-HRMWarsaw‡1876 - 86Abraham B. Gottlober. Literary, belletristic. ‡ Lemberg, 1876-79; Warsaw, 1880-81, 1885-86.
Bril's TelephonJEWLondon1902 -News.
BudushchnostRRWSt. Petersburg1900 - *S. O. Gruzenberg. Historical, literary; Zionistic. With annual supplement.
Buena Esperanza, LaSpTWSmyrna1874 -Aaron de Joseph Hazan. Founded as "La Esperanza."
Bulletin, TheEAMNew York1900 -Joseph Hirschman. Organ of the Y. M. H. A.
Bulletin de l'Association des Etudes IsraélitesFF
Bulletin Mensuel de l'Alliance Israélite UniverselleFFMParis1861 - *Isidore Loeb and successors.
Bund, DerJR.........................*Published by the "Bund."
Bustan, Al-A‡....Tunis1889Uzan and Castro. ‡ In Hebrew characters.
Calendarul Israelit IllustratRmRm..Bucharest1903.
Calendrier à a l'Usage des IsraélitesFFAParis1863 - 93Leopold Blum.
Calendrier Annuaire IsraéliteFFAToulouse1895R. Hirschler.
Calendrier IsraéeliteFFABordeaux.
Cap-Makers' JournalE, JAMNew York1903 - *William Edlin. For trade-unions in general.
CarmelGHuWPest1860 - 61W. A. Meisel. News, literary. Third year with "Allgemeine Illustrate Judenzeitung."
CarmelFBu..Philippopolis1895 - 96Joseph M. Baruk, Zionist. With fortnightly Judæo-Spanish supplement.
Carmi.........................................See "Karmi."
Centraal Blad voor Israelieten in NederlandDHoWAmsterdam1885 - *Van Creveld & Co. News, essays, fenilleton. First year called "Israelnisch Vnegenblad."
Central-Anzeiger für Jüdische LitteraturGG..Frankfort o. M1891Nehemiah Brüll. Continuation of Steinschneider's Hebräische Bibliographic." One volume.
Centralblatt für die Interressen des Judentums.........................................See "Jüdische Centralblatt, Das."
Chabazeleth.........................................See "Habaẓẓelet."
Charity WorkEAFNew York1902 - *Max cohen, for the United Hebrew Charities.
Chicago Israelite, TheEAWChicago189 - 99Jewish news. Chicago edition of the "American Israelite."
Chicagoer Jüdischer TageblattJADChicago189 - 99Leon Zolotkoff. News. English title, "Chicago Jewish Daily News."
Chicagoer WochenblattJAWChicago1885 - *Sarasohn & Son. News. Weekly edition of "Der Jüdischer Courier" since 1892.
ChorebDHoMRotterdam............Rabbi T. Tal. Literary; illustrated. 1 vol.
Chronica Israelitica (Ha-Mazkir)Sp....Gibraltar1842Judah Zarfati.
Chronicle of the Hebrew Orphan AsylumEA..New York1904Literary Society of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum.
Colonial Jewish MonthlyEAl..Melbourne1874Nahum Barnat ben Isaac Dob.
Colono Israelita, ElSpS..Buenos Ayres............P. J. Grunblat. Zionistic.
Corner-Stone, TheEA..New Orleans1859 -Solomon Jacobs.
Correo de ViennaSpAuWVienna1870 -Adolf Zomlinski; then A. Semo and J. Saxel. Political and general news; supplement: literary, historical, belletristic ("El Tresoro de la Casa"). At first fortnightly. Several years.
Corriere IsraeliticoIAuMTriest1862 - *A. di S. Curiel; then A. V. Morpurgo. Historical.
Cronica IsraelitaGr, IGrMCorfu1861 - 63M. D. Levi and Z. Nacamalli General.
Cronica IsraelitaRmRmWBucharest1901Josef R. Petriant. News.
Cup of SalvationEEMLiverpool1846D. M. Isaacs and Moses Samuel. Orthodox.
Dabar be-'IttoHR..Wilua1878Höschel Lewin. Theological, homiletical. One year.
Daily Jewish Herald.........................................See "Der Täglicher Herold."
Darkest RussiaEEILondon1891Record of Russian persecution.
De Hirsch School JournalEA..Woodbine, N. J.1901 - *Supplement: "Farmers' Leaflet," four times a year.
Deborah, DieGAWCincinnati1855 - 1900Isaac M. Wise (continued as monthly, 1901-2, by G. Deutsch). Belletristic.
Degel, Ha-HEWLondon1897 - *Isaac Suwalski. Jewish news; literary.
Degel Mahaneh YehudahJRmWJassy1901 - *News; Zionistic.
Degel YeshurunH
DenRRWOdessa1869 - 71S. Ornstein.
Derek ṬobimHE..London1852 - 53Hirsch Edelmann. Scientific (1853 called "Dibre Hefez").
Deutsche Israelitische Zeitung.........................................See "Laubhütte, Die."
Deutscher Volkskalender und JahrbuchGGABrieg; Breslau1851 - *M. Breslauer (1851-52); H. Liebermann (1853-88); continued as "Jüdisher Volksund Haus-Kalender," with a "Jahrbuch zur Belehrung und Unterhaltung," by M. Brann, Breslau.
Dia, ElSpBuWPhilippopolis1897 -Joseph B. Pardo. News; Zionistic; with Bulgarian supplement.
Dialectic, TheEAlMMelbourne1875.
Dibre ḤakamimHG..Metz1849Eliezer Ashkenazi. Literary, scientific One year.
Dibre Ḥefeẓ.........................................See "Derek Ṭobim."
Dor, Ha -HGaWCracow1900 - 01David Frischmann.
Dostrzegacz Nadwislanski.........................................See "Beobachter an der Weichsel, Der."
Dr. Bloch's Oesterreichische WochenschriftGAuWVienna1884 - *Josef Bloch. Political (against anti-Semitism), news, religious polemics (conservative); belletristic feuilleton.
Dragoman, ElSp ‡AuFVienna1865Josef Calvo. ‡ In square characters.
DrepturileRmRmWFocsani1897 -M. Botoseneanu.
Drohobyczer ZeitungG ‡GaWDrohobyez1883 -Aron H. Zupnik. News; promotion of culture. ‡ In Hebrew letters.
Dyhernfurter Privilegirte ZeitungG ‡GS-WDynernfurth1771 - 72General news (including letters from Warsaw, Constantinople, etc.), market reports. ‡ In Hebrew characters.
East-Side LifeEAWNew York1903 - *
Echo, DeDHoWAmsterdam1885 - 86News. 29 numbers.
Echo de l'OrientFHoFAmsterdam1875S. Carmelin.
Echo des JudenthumsGAWNew York1892Emil Herzfield. Fraternity news.
Echo Sioniste. L'FFMJ'aris1900 - *A. Mamorcḳ. Organ of the French Zionists.
Eco JudaicoSpBuSofia1901 - *A. Piperno; then M. Ehrenpreis. Organ of Jewish consistory.
Educatore IsraelitàIIMVercelli1853 - 74Giuseppi Levi and Esdra Pontremoli. Religious. Continued as "ll Vessillo Israelitico."
EgalitateaRmRmWBucharest1882 -M. Schwarzfeld.
EgyenlöségHuHuWBudapest1882 - *Moritz Bogdány; then M. Szabolesi.
Einige Israel, DasGHuWPest1872Josef Natonek. Religious, political. A few numbers.
'Eked SippurimHGaFLemberg1887 -Reuben Braudes and Joshua Meisach. Stories.
Emanu-ElEAWSan Francisco1895 - *Jacob Voorsanger. News.
Emanuel BulletinEAMPaeblo*.
Emes, DerJAWBoston1895 - 99Morris Winchevsky. Socialistic, literary.
Emet, Ha-HAuMVienna1877Aaron Liebermann. Socialistic. Two numbers.
Emet, Ha-HAMNew York1894 - 95Ḥayyim Enowitz.
Emigrant, DerJGa..Galatz............Eliezer Rokeah.
Epoca, LaSpTWSalonica1874 - *Sa'ndi ha-Levi. Political, commercial, literary.
Ertesitö.........................................See "Magyar Izraelita Orzágos Tanitó-Egylet Ertesitöje, A."
Eshkol, Ha-HGaQCracow1898 - *J. S. Fuchs and E. Ginzig (alone since vol. iii.). Scientific, literary, belletristic; Zionistic.
Esperanza, La.........................................See "Buena Esperanza, La."
Esperanza IsraeliticaSp....Gibraltar1843.
'Et, Ha-HGaWLemberg1871 - 72 ‡.Moses Schulbaum. Supplement: "Kol ha-'Et." ‡ Two years.
EvkönyoHHuABudapest1895 - 1901W. Bacher and Fr. Mezey (1895-1900); then Jos. Bánóezi. For the Jewish-Hungarian Literary Society.
Evkönyo ZsidoHuHu..Budapest1848Jewish community of Budapest.
Evreiski GlassBBuWSofia1896 -Joshua Caleb. Zionistic.
'Eẓ ha-Da'atHAMNew York- 96Ch. Enowitz.
'Eẓ ḤayyimHGa ‡MLemberg ‡1881; 1884David Ephrati and Israel Hildesheimer. Rabbinical. ‡ Berlin, 1884.
Famiglia Israelitica, LaI..MCorfu1869 - 77G. Nacamulli. Religious.
Familien-BlattGGWMagdeburg1884 -M. Rahmer. Feuilleton-supplement of "Israelitische Wochenschrift."
Familienfreund, DerJPo..Warsaw1887 - 88M. Spektor.
Familien-JahrbuchGGALeipsic1894M. A. Altschüler and C. Schott.
Famille de Jacob, LaFFMAvignon1859 - 91Benjamin Mossé. Religious.
Faraḥ, Al-AEgMAlexandria1900 - *Faraj Mizraḥi.
Farmer Zeitung.............................1885.
Farmers' LeafletEAIWoodbine1903 - *Supplement of "Hirsch School Journal."
FeierabendGG.....................................Supplement of "Israelitische Schul- und Jugend-Bibliothek."
First Fruits of the West (Bikkure ha-Yam)E..MKingston, Jamaica1844M. N. Nathan and Lewis Ashenheim. Historical, religious.
Flambeau, LeFFMParis1899Jacques Bahar. Socialistic, Zionistic.
Foia IsraelitaJRmWBucharest1877 - 79M. Spiresco.
Fortschritt im JudenthumeGBoFBilin ‡1880 - 85J. Baum. General. ‡ Lobositz, 1882-85.
Foyer Israélite, LeFFM.......................1862 - 65Isaac Lévy. Juvenile, supplement of "La Vérité Israélite."
France Israélite, LaFFIParis1855E. Carmoly. Biographical.
Frankfurter Israelitisches FamilienblattGGWFrankfort o. M1902 -Saly Geis. Jewish news.
Frankfurter Israelitisches Gemeindeblatt.....................................See "Israelitisches Familienblatt."
FraternitatéaRmRm..Jassy1879 -Elias Schwarzfeld.
Free PressEA..St. Louis.
Freie Arbeiter StimmeJAWNew York1900 - *Anarchistic; news.
Freie Gesellschaft, DieJAMNew York1895 - 1902M. Leontiev and M. Katz. Anarchistic.
Freie Stunde, DieJAMNew York1904 - *.
Freie Welt, DieJEMLondon1891 - 92Freie Welt. Socialistic.
Freies BlattGAuWVienna1892 -Ernst Victor Zenker. Directed against anti-Semitism.
Freind, DerJRDSt. Petersburg1902 - *S. M. Ginzburg and S. J. Rapoport. News.
Freitag zu NachtGAWNew York1888 -Louis Schnabel.
Freitagabend, DerGGWFrankfort o. M1859 -Leopold Stein. Family paper; belletristic.
Friend of IsraelE, MInMBombay1898 -A. Reuben.
Frühling, DerJE..London............M. D. Goldmann.
Füllhorn, DasGGFBamberg1835 - 36Samson W. Rosenfeld. Religious (Reform).
Gal'ed.........................................See "Hebrew Review and Magazine for Rabbinical Literature, The."
Galizische Bote, DerG ‡Ga..Lemberg1861Political, commercial. ‡ In Hebrew characters.
Gan, Ha-H..W...................................Jacob Fischer. News; Literary, belletristic.
Gan, Ha-HGMFrankfort o. M............Judah Aryeh le-Bet Friedland. Rabbinical.
Gan Sha'shu'imHGWLyck1899 -Abraham Piyourka. Juvenile.
Gazeta de AmsterdamSpHo..Amsterdam1678 ‡Printed by David Tartas. News. Small 8°. ‡ Jan. 24-Nov. 14.
Gegenwart, DieGGWBerlin1867Carl Hirsch. News; literary, scientific; feuilleton.
Gegenwart, DieGHuWPest1867M. Kilényi.
Gegenwart, DieGBoFPrague1868News; literary.
Gegenwart, DieGAWPhiladelphia1895David Apotheker. News; belletristic.
Geist der Pharisäischen LehreGGMMayence1823 - 24Michael Creizenach. Rabbinical.
Gemeindebote, DerGG..Leipsic.
Gemeinde-ZeitungGBoFPrague1873 -B. Brandeis. General.
General-Anzeiger für die Gesammten Interessen des Judenthums.GGWBerlin1902 - *Dr. Julius Moses. Jewish news.
GerminalJEFLondon1900 -R. Rocker. Anarchistic.
Gil'ad.........................................See "Hebrew Review and Magazine for Rabbinical Literature , The."
Gleaner, TheEAWSan Francisco1858Julius Eckmann. Religious.
Gleaner, TheEAMDoylestown, Pa1901 - *William J. Serlin and students of the National Farm School.
Glos BunduPSw..Geneva*Published by the "Bund."
Goren, Ha-HRABerdychev1898 - *S. A. Horodetsky. Scientific.
Grosse Baitsch, DerJA.........................1880David Apotheker and Joseph Petrikovski. 15 numbers.
Guerta de HistoriaSpAu..Vienna1864Shem-Tob b. David Semo.
Guerta de JerusaleïmSpPaMJerusalem1902 - *Ben Zion Taragau and Israel Cherezli. Literary, historical.
Guide, TheE..MKingston, Jamaica1865Raphael d'C Lewin. Literary.
Ḥabaẓẓelet, Ha-HPaW ‡Jerusalem1869 ‡ - *Israel Frumkin. Jewish news; Ultra-Orthodox. ‡ Fortnightly until 1877. Founded by Israel Back in 1863, but suspended by the government in 1864.
Haḳiḳ, Al-AEg..Alexandria1902Faraj Mizraḥi.
Halumy.........................................See "Le'ummi, Ha-."
Ḥaluẓ, He-H..A.......................1852 - 89Joshua Schorr. Year-book with scientific articles. 13 vols.
Haman Klapper, Der.........................................See "Ashmedai, Der."
Hamon, DerJG..Berlin1903 -Society Herut. Zionistic.
Har SinaiSp, H‡RmWTurn Severin1894‡ And Rumanian.
Ḥarsah, Ha-HGa..Kolomea1888 -Hirsch Löb Gottlieb. Literary; news.
HashḳafahHPaWJerusalem1900 -Eliezer Ben-Judah. News; literary. Continuation of "Ha- Ẓebi."
Hashḳafah Shebu'itHPaWJerusalem1897 -News.
Hausfreund, DerJAWNew York1889 - 90J. Jaffa (Nos. 1-8); then Joseph Petrikovski. 20 numbers.
Hausfreund, DerJPoAWarsaw1888 - 96M. Spektor. Historical, literary.
Ḥayye 'OlamHAu ‡MVienna; Paris1878 - 79Ber Goldberg and M. Adelmann. Scientific; for publishing ancient manuscripts. [‡ i. Vienna; ii. Paris.
HebraicaEAMNew York1879Supplement of "Jewish Messenger."
Hebräische Bibliographie (Ha-Mazkir)GG..Berlin1858 - 82M. Steinschneider. Bibliographical. Continued as "Central-Anzeiger für Jüdische Literature" and then as "Zeitschrift für Hebräische Bibliographie."
Hebrew, The.........................................See "'Ibri, Ha-."
Hebrew, TheE, GAWSan Francisco1863 - *Philo Jacoby.
Hebrew Citizen, TheEA
Hebrew Globe, TheEAWSyracuse1894 -Aaron B. Levi.
Hebrew IntelligencerEEMLondon1823Anonymous. 3 numbers.
Hebrew Journal, TheEAWNew York1885 -Joseph Davis. Conservative.
Hebrew Leader, TheE, GAWNew York1850 - 82Jonas Bondy (1859-74). Conservative; masonic news.
Hebrew Leader, TheEA..Danbury, Conn1898.
Hebrew National, TheEEWLondon1867Hirsch Filipowski. 6 months.
Hebrew Observer, TheEE..London1853 - 54Abraham Benisch. United with "The Jewish Chronicle," Jan. 12, 1855.
Hebrew Observer, TheE, GA..San Francisco1856 -William Saalburg. News. See "Jewish Times and Observer."
Hebrew Observer, TheEAWCleveland ‡1889 -Hiram Strauss (‡ from 1892 also in Pittsburg, ed. George Strauss). News.
Hwbrew Review, TheEAQCincinnati1880 - 82Max Lilienthal; then Kaufmann Kohler. Literary. Organ of the Rabbinical Literary Association of America.
Hebrew Review and Magazine for Jewish Literature, The (Ha-Meassef).EEWLondon1859 - 60Marcus Breslau. Continuing "Hebrew Review and Magazine for Rabbinical Literature".
Hebrew Review and Magazine for Rabbinical Literature, The.EE..London1834 - 35Morris J. Raphall. Rabbinical. See also "Hebrew Review." New series: "The Hebrew."
Hebrew StandardEAlWSydney.
Hebrew Standard, TheEAWNew York1883 - *J. P. Salomon. Conservative. Successor to "The Hebrew Leader."
Hebrew Union College AnnualEAACincinnati1904 - *
Hebrew Union College JournalEAMCincinnati1896 - *Edmund A. Landad.
Hebrew Watchword and InstructorEAMPhiladelphia1897 -Henry S. Morais. Sunday-School.
Hebrew World, TheEA
Hekal ha-'IbriyyahHAWChicago1877 - 79N. B. Ettelsohn and S. L. Marcus. Supplement of "Israelitische Presse."
Helpful ThoughtsEAMNew York1897 - 1903Julia Richman and Rebecca Kohut, later with Richard Gottheil, M. Harris, and G. Kohut successively. Juvenile. See also "Jewish Home, The."
Ḥemdah GenuzahHG..Königsberg1856Hirsch Edelmann.
HermonHGaALemberg1902G. Bader. Literary.
Hirsch School JournalEAIWoodbine1901 - *Faculty and pupils of the Baron de Hirsch Agricultural and Industrial School. Local news, literary, agricultural. Supplement: "The Farmers' Leaflet."
Historisches Taschenbuch für Israeliten und Israelitinnen.JBoAPrague1814Markus Fischer.
Hitközségi HivatalnokHuHuMBudapest1882 - 97Moritz Friedmann and R. Goldberg. Organ of the community officials.
Hoda'ot ha-Hebrah Ahabat Ẓiyyon.........................................See "Ahabat Ẓiyyon."
Hoffnung, DieJRm..Botoshani............Eliezer Rokeaḥ.
Ḥoḳer, Ha-HGaMCracow1891 - 95Isaac Solomon Fuchs. Rabbinical, scientific. Merged with "Ha-Maggid." 2 vols.
Holek, Ha-HRmWJassy1878 - 79Moses Orenstein. Scientific.
Homiletische Beilage.........................................See "Ungarische Israelit, Der."
Homiletische MonatsschriftGBoMPrague1868S. Sonneshchein. Theological, exegetical, homiletical.
Homiletisches und Literarisches BeiblattGG..Berlin1870 - 72M. Kayserling. Homiletical. Issued together with Kayserling's "Bibliothek Jüdischer Kanzelredner." i., 1870; ii., 1872.
Hosafat Madda'itHR..St. Petersburg1871 - 72Z. G. Rabbinowicz. Scientific. Supplement of "Ha-Meliz."
Ḥozeh, Ha-HGWBerlin1881M. L. Rodkinsohn and Moritz Taubes. Political, literary.
IbriDHoWDordrecht1869L. Landsberg. Literary. 12 numbers.
'Ibri, Ha-JGaF ‡Lemberg1898Moses Ewinger. Zionistic. With "Ahabat Ziyyon" as supplement (‡ from Jan., 1899, three times per month).
'Ibri, Ha-HAWNew York1892 - 1902Gerson Rosenzweig. Literary, political,
'Ibri, Ha-, and 'Ibri AnokiHGaWBrody1865 - 90Baruch Werber (1865-76) and Jacob Levin; Jacob Werber (1877-90). Political, general.
Idea Sionista, L'IIMFerrara1901 - *Carlo A. Conigliano; then Carlo Levi (1904 - ). Zionistic.
Idish, Idisher. See Jüdisch, Jüdischer.
Ikkar, Ha-JPa..Jerusalem1893 - 96M. Meierowik and A. M. Lunez. Agricultural, statistic. Supplement: Kolonist" numbers).
Ikkar ha-Yehudi, Ha-H, FPaWJerusalem............See "Zebi, Ha-."
Illustra Guerta de HistoriaSpAuWVienna1877 -A: Semo and J. Saxel. Illustrated; literary, historical.
Illustrirte Gemeinde-ZeitungGAu..Vienna1891Ad. Tanto. General.
Illustrirte JudenzeitungGHu..Pest............Joseph Bermann and David Schwab.
Illustrirte Monatshefte für die Gesammten Interessen des Judenthums.GAu..Vienna1865 - 66Arnold Hilberg. Scientific.
Illustrirte Wiener Jüdische PresseJAuWVienna1877 - 79Leo Fein.
Illustrirter Israelitischer VolkskalenderGBoA.......................1880 -Jacob Brandeis. Historical, belletristic, popular-scientific.
Illustrirter Israelitischer Volks-KalenderGBoAPrague1852 - 94Wolf Pascheles; then Jacob Pascheles and Samuel Pascheles successively. Scientific, historical, belletristic.
Illustrirter Jüdischer FamilienkalenderGGAHalberstadt1878 -Julius Meyer.
Illustrirtes Israelitisches Jahrbuch für Ernst und ScherzGHuABudapest1859 - 60S. Winter. Historical, literary, scientific; illustrated.
Im Deutschen ReichGGMBerlin1895 - *Alfred Levy for the Centralverein Deutscher Staatsbürger Jüdischen Glaubens.
Independent Hebrew, TheEAWNew York1876S. N. Leo. 3 months.
Independent Order Free Sons of IsraelEAMChicago1903 - *Isaac A. Loeb.
InfratereaRmRm..Bucharest1887Adolf Weinberg.
Instructor, ElSpTWConstantinople1888David Fresco. Illustrated; historical, geographical, scientific, literary.
Ish YehudiJGa..Kolomea1896 -Zionistic.
IsraelJGWLöban1879S. Schreiber and Can. Congregational news.
IsraelEEMLondon1897 - 1901L. J. Greenberg and Joseph Jacobs. "Young Israel" until March, 1899. Two supplements beginning 1899: "Israel's Budget" (juvenile) and "Messenger of Zion."
Israeliet, DeDHoWRotterdam1880 -
Israeliet, DeDHoWMeppel1853 - 54News. 39 numbers.
Israelietisch AdvertenticbladDHoWRotterdam1901 - 029 numbers.
Israelietisch Nieuws- en AdvertenticbladDHoWAmsterdam1901 - *News.
Israelietisch Weekblad.........................................See "Nieuwsblad voor Israelieten."
Israelietische LetterbodeDHoQAmsterdam1875 - 89M. Roest. Historical, literary. 11 vols.
Israelietische NieuwsbodeDHoWAmsterdam1875 - 93With "Israelietische Letterbode." 18 vols.
Israelit, DerG‡GS-WMayence1860 - *Meïr Lehmann; then Oscar Lehmann. ‡ At first weekly; for a time in Judæo-German. Supplements: "Ha- Lebanon" (for a short time); "Blätter für Jüdische Geschichte und Literatur." See also "Jeschurun."
Israelit, DerG ‡GaFLemberg1869 - *J. Klein. Organ of the society Shomer Yisra'el. ‡ In Hebrew characters.
Israelit, DerJAWBaltimore1891 - 93William Schur.
Israelit des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, DerGGW ‡Hersfeld ‡1839 - 48Mendel Hess (later with S. Holdheim). Reform. ‡ Until 1841 fortnightly in Meiningen.
Israelit und Jeschurun.........................................See "Jeschurun."
Israelita, ElSpTConstantinople1866Ezekiel Gabbai.
Israelite.........................................See "American Israelite, The" (vols. i. -xxii.).
Israélite Algérien, L'F..FOran1900 -Moïse Netter. Jewish news; progressive.
Israelite Alliance ReviewEAMNew York1904 - *Nissim Behar. American organ of the Alliance Israélite Universelle. For Jewish rights.
Israélite Alsace-Lorraine, L'F, GFMMülhausen1878 - 80Isaac Wurmser.
Israélite Français, L'FFAParis1817 - 18A society. Moral, literary.
Israelitis Chronographos, OGr..MCorfu1899 - *M. Caïmi.
Israelitische AnnalenGGWFrankfort o. M1839 - 41I. M. Jost. Historical, literary. 3 vols.
Israelitische Bote, DerGGWWürzburg ‡1875 - 80Moritz Baum. Religious (Orthodox), scientific, pedagogic. ‡ First in Bonn, then Frankfort o. M.
Israelitische Gemeindeblatt, DasGGWCologne1880 - 90Carl Brisch. General.
Israelitische Gemeinde- und FamilienzeitungGGWLöbau1879 -Emanuel Schreiber. Reform.
Israelitische Gemeindezeitung ‡GBoFPrague1873 - *J. B. Brandeis, for the Israelitisches Lehrerverein in Böhmen. General and pedagogic. Supplement: "Israelitisches Familienblatt." ‡ Founded as "Israelitischer Lehrerbote" (D. Stransky; 1873-*).
Israelitische Haus- und Schulfreund, DerGGMMünster1858A. Treu and Emanuel Hecht. General.
Israelitische LehrerzeitungGGFLöban1881 -M. Rahmer and Th. Kroner. Pedagogic, religious.
Israelitische Merkur, DerGGWHechingen1837Samuel Mayer. Religious.
Israelitische MonatsschriftGGMBerlin............D. Hoffmann (1884-95); E. Biberfeld. Scientific. Supplement of "Die Jüdische Presse."
Israelitische NeuigkeitsbotenJHu..Budapest1878.
Israelitische PresseJAWChicago1879 -N. B. Ettelsohn and S. L. Marcus. Orthodox. Supplement: "Hekal ha-'Ibriyyah."
Israelitische RundschauGGWBerlin1895 ‡-*R. Wohlberg; then Heinrich Löwe. Organ of German Zionist Union. ‡ Formerly "Berliner Vereinsbote" (fd. 1895); since Oct. 1, 1902. "Jüdische Rundschau."
Israelitische Schul- und Jugend-BibliothekGG..Mayence1858R. Klein. Pedagogic, Juvenile; supplement: "Feierabend."
Israelitische Volksfreund, DerGAMCincinnati1858G. M. Cohen.
Israelitische Volkslehrer, DerGGMFrankfort o. M.1851 - 62Leopold Stein; later with S. Süsskind. Homiletic, religious (Reform) ; news. During its latter years appeared with "Der Freitagabend."
Israelitische Wochenschrift, DieGGWBerlin1892 -M. A. Klausner.
Israelitische Wochenschrift, DieGGWMagdeburg ‡1868 - 94A. Treuenfels (‡ Breslau, 1868-78); then M. Rahmer (1878-94). Religious, social. Organ of the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau. Supplements: Jüdisches Familienblatt," "Jüdisches Litteraturblatt," and "Homiletische Beiage."
Israelitische Wochenschrift für Elsass-LothringenGGWStrasburg1904 - *.
Israelitische Zeitbote, DerGBoAPrague1864 -Belletristic; calender.
Israelitischer AnzeigerJGWBerlin ‡1881 - 82M. L. Rodkinsohn. Political, literary. ‡ Hamburg, 1882.
Israelitischer JugendfreundGGFBerlin1895 -E. Flanter. Juvenile, pedagogic.
Israelitischer LehrerGGWMayence1861 - 72J. Klingenstein. General; Reform.
Israelitischer Lehrer und CantorGGWBerlin1881 -S. Meyer. Supplement of "Die Jüdische Presse."
Israelitischer Lehrerbote.........................................See "Israelitische Gemeindeszeitung."
Israelitischer MusenalmanachGGADinkelsbühl1840Samuel Mayer.
Israelitischer Volksfreund für das Grossherzogthums Posen.GGMTrzemesno1846.
Israelitisches FamilienblattGBo..Prague............J. B. Brandeis. Supplement of "Israelitische Gemeindezeitung."
Israelitisches FamilienblattGGWHamburg1898 - *Alb. Jacoby, for the Verband der Jüdischen Lehrervereine im Deutschen Reich.
Israelitisches FamilienblattGG..Frankfort o. M.1900 - 01L. Heller. General. Title in 1901 (Nos. 1-9): "Frankfurter Israelitisches Gemeindeblatt."
Israelitisches Familienblatt.........................................See "Die Laubhütte. ".
Israelitisches GemeindeblattGGWElbing1876 - 79Emanuel Schreiber and J. Caro. Continued as "Israelitische Gemcinde- und Familienzeitung."
Israelitisches GemeindeblattGGWCologne ‡1888 -Karl Brisch, then S. Simchowits (‡ Mühlheim); Julius Kauffmann General.
Israelitisches Predigt-MagazinGGQ.......................1875 -M. Rahmer. Homiletic.
Israelitisches Predigt- und Schulmagazin, DasGGMMagdeburg1834 - 36Ludwig Philippson. Homiletic, pedagogic.
Israelitisches SamstagsblattGGWHechingen1837Samuel Mayer.
Israelitisches VolksblattGG.........................1854 - 66Ludwig Philippson.
Israelitisches VolksblattJGa..Kolomea1890E. Laufer.
Israelitisches Wochenblatt für die SchweizGSwWZurich1900 - *M. Littmann and David Strauss.
Israelitisk Tidende....Copenhagen1865Short time. ‡Danish.
Israelitulu RomanuluRm‡Rm..Bucharest1857 -Julius Barasch. Political. ‡Since 1867 Rumanian and French.
Israel's HeroldGAWNew York1849Isidor Busch. General. Organ of B'ne B'rith. Three months.
Israel's Home JournalEAMNew York1901‡ - *M. C. Gunsberg. Illustrated. Successor to "Young Israel" (founded ‡ 1871).
Israel's MessengerE..FShanghai1904 - *M. Meyer. General. Organ of Shanghai Zionist Association.
Israel's Stimme.........................................See "Voix d'Israël."
Isralik.........................................See "Yisrulik."
'Ittur SoferimHR..Wilna1888 - 89Abraham Isaac ha-Kohen.Religious, literary.
IzraelitaPPoWWarsaw1865 - *S. H. Peltyn (1865-97); then N. Sokolow (with Grosglek since 1901).
Izraelita Hitközségi és Iskolai LapokHuHu..Budapest1873 - 74Nathan Fischer. Communal news, pedagogic.
Izraelita KözlönyHuHu..Budapest1866 - 70Moritz Mezei; Heinrich Deutsch. Religious (Reform).
Izraelita Magyar NéptanitóHuHu..S. A. Ujhely1865 - 67Nathan Fischer. Pedagogic, with "Der Jüdische Schulbote."
Jaarboeken voor de Israelieten of Joden binnen het Koningrijk Holland.DHoAAmsterdam18081 vol.
Jaarboeken voor de Israelieten in NederlandDHoB-MThe Hague1835 - 40Jakob Belinfante. News; literary. 4 vols.
JahrbuchGGA.......................1856Adolph Hlawatsch. Pedagogic.
JahrbuchGGABerlin1858 - 59Philip Wertheim.
Jahrbuch der Jüdisch-Literarischen GesellschaftGGAFrankfort o. M1903 -Literary.
Jahrbuch des Deutschen-Israelitischen GemeindebundesGGABerlin1888 - *Statistical.
Jahrbuch des Nützlichen und UnterhaltendenGGABrieg ‡1841 - 65K. Klein; then J. K. Buchner. ‡ Then Breslau, Dresden, Darmstadt, Leipsic.
Jahrbuch für die Geschichte der Juden und des Judenthums.GGALeipsic1860 - 69Institut zur Förderung der Israelitischen Litteratur. 4 vols.
Jahrbuch für IsraelitenGAuAVienna1854 - 65Josef Wertheim (1854-64); Leopold Kompert (1864-65). Continuation of "Kalender und Jahrbuch für Israeliten."
Jahrbuch für Israeliten und IsraelitinnenGBoAPrague1811Marcus Fischer.
Jahrbuch für die Israelitischen Cultus-Gemeinden in Ungarn.GHuAArad1860Leopold Rosenberg.
Jahrbuch für die Israelitischen Kultusgemeinden Böhmens.GBoAPrague1894Centralverein zur Pfiege Jüdischer Angelegenheiten.
Jahrbuch für Jüdische Geschichte und literaturGGABerlin1898 - *Union of the societies for Jewish history and literature. Scientific.
Jahrbuch für die Jüdischen Gemeinden PreussensGGABerlin1859Ph. Wertheimer.
Jahrbuch zur Beförderung des Ackerbaus, Handwerks, und der Industrie unter den Israeliten Ungarns.GHuABudapest1872Ignaz Reich.
Jahrbuch zur Beförderung einer Wissenschaftlichen Kenntniss des Alten Palästina..........................................See Yerushalayim."
Jahrbücher für Judische Gesch. und LitteraturGGAFrankfort o. M1874 - 90N. Brüll. Historical. literary. 10 vols.
JedidjaGGS-ABerlin1817 - 33 ‡Jeremias Heinemann. Religious, moral, pedagogic. ‡ 1817-1823, 1831; continued as "Allgemeines Archiv des Judenthums," 1839-1843.
JedidjaDHoWRotterdam1887Juvenile. 1 vol.
JehudithSpFWParis1864 - 65Ezra Benveniste.
Jeridiyyah TarjumahTTConstantinople1876Nissim Niego.
Jerusalem.........................................See "Yerushalayim."
JerusalemGGaMCracow1899 -J. Kreppel. Literary, belletristic, religious.
JerusalemEE..London1882H. Guedalla. 1 number.
JeschurunGGMFrankfort o. M.1854 - 70.Samson R. Hirsch. Isaac Hirsch.Religious (Orthodox), exegetical. congregational news.
WHanover1883 - 86Continued as "Der Israelit." New series (xvi.) No. 1 issued as "probenummer. "Dec. 1, 1882. and again Jan. 4, 1883.
JeschurunG, HG ‡I ‡1856 - 78Josef Kobak. Scientific. ‡i., ii., Lemberg. 1856-58 ; iii., Breslau 1859; iv., v., Fürth, 1864-66 ; vi., vii., viii., ix., Bamberg, 1868-71, 1872, 1873-78.
JeschurunGGWPleschen1900 - 04Königsberger. onigsberger. Religious, social. Zionistic since 1903.
JeschurunGHuWBudapest1882 - 83Kaim Pollak. Supplement of "Allgemeine Israelitische Wochenschrift."
JeschurunGGWBerlin1892 - *A. Levin. News, religious, social, belletristic.
Jeunesse Israélite, LaFWOran1890.
Jew, TheEAMNew York1823 - 25Solomon H. Jackson. Anti-missionary.
Jewish. See also JüdischMost Judaeo-German periodicals whose titles begin with "Jewish" are given under "Jüdisch (e, er, es)."
Jewish Abend-PostJADNew York1899 - *George Selikovich. News. Weekly edition, "Der Jüdischer Journal."
Jewish Advance, TheEAWBuffalo1893 -J. Feybush. Local news.
Jewish Advance, TheEAMDetroit1904 - *N. E. Aronstam. News.
Jewish Advance, TheG, EAWChicago1878 - 82News.
Jewish Advocate, TheEAF ‡Rochester1898 - 1900Isaac M. Brickner. Local news. ‡ At first monthly.
Jewish AdvocateEANew York1870.
Jewish AdvocateEAMNew York1879 - 86Raphael d'C. Lewin. News, literary.
Jewish AdvocateEAPhiladelphia1849Isaac Leeser.
Jewish AdvocateJWCape Town1904 - *General. ‡ South Africa.
Jewish American, TheEAWDetroit1901 - *S. M. Goldsmith. News; Reform.
Jewish CharityEAMNew York1902 - *Joseph Jacobs, then Leo K. Frankel for The United Hebrew Charities. Formerly "Charity Work."
Jewish ChronicleEAWBoston1890 - 93Solomon Schindler. Religious (radical).
Jewish Chronicle, TheEAWMontgomery, Ala1899 - *.
Jewish Chronicle, TheE, GAWBaltimore1876 -D. Binswanger.
Jewish Chronicle, TheEEW ‡London1841 - 42D. Meldoia and M. Angel (1841-42; ‡ fortnightly); Joseph Mitchell ("The Jewish Chronicle and Workingman's Friend," 1844-54; ‡ weekly after 1847); M. H. Bresslau ("The Jewish Chronicle and Hebrew Observer," 1847-55); A. Benisch (1855-69); Michael Henry (1869-75); A. Benisch (1875-78); Asher I. Myers (1878-1902); M. Duparc (1902-*). News, literary; illustrated; conservative.
1844 - *
Jewish Chronicle and Hebrew Observer.........................................See "Jewish Chronicle, The" (London).
Jewish Chronicle and Workingman's Friend, The.........................................See "Jewish Chronicle, The" (London).
Jewish Citizen, TheEAMOmaha1903 - *Charles L. Schless. General, religious, literary.
Jewish CommentEAWBaltimore1895 - *Max Myers; then Louis H. Levin. News, literary; conservative.
Jewish Conservator, TheEAWChicago1904 - *.
Jewish Criterion, TheEAWPittsburg1895 - *Samuel Greenfield (1895-99); Charles H. Joseph (1899-1901); Leonard Levy (1901-*). News; Reform.
Jewish Exponent, TheEAWPhiladelphia1887 - *Charles Hoffman and editorial board. News; conservative. Organ of the Chautauqua and of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.
Jewish Expositor.
Jewish Express, TheJAWSt. Louis1903.
Jewish Free Press.........................................See "Jüdische Freie Presse."
Jewish Free PressEA..St. Louis............See "Jewish Tribune, The" (St. Louis).
Jewish Gazette, TheM ‡In..Calcutta1874‡ In Hebrew letters.
Jewish Guide, TheEAWPeoria1893David B. Rich.
Jewish Herald, TheEAlMMelbourne1880 - *E. Blaubaum and M. Benjamin. News.
Jewish Herald, TheEAlFSydney1883 - *News.
Jewish Herald, TheEA..New York1882 - 85Aaron Wise (1884). Boston edition, "The Boston Hebrew Observer."
Jewish Herald, TheEAWDes Moines1903 - *.
Jewish Home, TheEAMNew York1903 - *George A. Kohut ‡. For family and religious school. Formerly "Helpful Thoughts." ‡ Bought by Philip Cowen 1904.
Jewish Home Journal, TheEAWLigonier, Ind1896 - 1900.Julius M. Magil.
Jewish IndependentEA
Jewish IndexEAWPhiladelphia1872Samuel Mendelsohn.
Jewish Ledger, TheEAWNew Orleans1895 - *M. J. Lehman. Moderate reform.
Jewish Literary Annual, TheEEALondon1903 -Literary.
Jewish Messenger, TheEAWNew York1857 - 1903Samuel M. Isaacs (1857-78); Abram S. Isaacs (1878-1903). General (Orthodox); literary. Supplement from 1879: "Hebraica." Merged with "The American Hebrew."
Jewish News, TheEAFSyracuse............Local news.
Jewish Observer, The.........................................See "Jewish Review and Observer, The."
Jewish Opinion, TheEAWIndianapolis.
Jewish Orphan Asylum Magazine, TheEAMCleveland1903 - *.
Jewish Outlook, TheEAW ‡Denver1903 - *William Friedman. Religious (Reform), literary. ‡ First two numbers monthly.
Jewish Post, TheEA..Pittsburg.
Jewish Press and ProgressE, JAS-WChicago ‡1903 - *Joel Liebling. Orthodox. ‡ Founded at Cleveland (1890-94) as "Die Jüdische presse" and "Der Jüdischer Progress."
Jewish ProgressEAWSan Francisco1876 -Hugo Bacharach. General news (Reform); belletristic.
Jewish Progress of the Twin Cities, TheEAWMinneapolis1904 - *First numbers: "The Israelite of the Twin Cities."
Jewish Quarterly ReviewEEQLondon1888 - *I. Abrahams and C. G. Monteflore Scientific.
Jewish Record, TheEAWPhiladelphia1874 - 87Alfred Jones and Henry Morais. Conservative.
Jewish Record, TheEAWNew York1862 -Abraham S. Cohen; Jonas Bondi. Orthodox.
Jewish Record, TheEAWAlbany.
Jewish Record, TheEAWKansas City1899 - *.
Jewish Record, TheEEWLondon1868 - 71L. B. Abrahams.
Jewish Record, TheEE..Manchester1887 -
Jewish Reformer, TheE, GA..New York1886K. Kohler, E. G. Hirsch, and Adolph Moses.
Jewish Review TheEAWCleveland1893 - 99Jessie Cohen, . News; belletristic. Merged with "The Observer."
Jewish Review, TheEAMSt. Joseph, Mo.
Jewish Review and Observer, TheEAWCleveland1899 -Jessie Cohen. See "Jewish Review, The"and" Jewish Observer, The."
Jewish Sabbath JournalEEWLondon1855Mrs. Hartog. 14 numbers.
Jewish Schoolfellow, TheEAl..Adelaide1873Schoolboys.
Jewish SentimentEAWAtlanta1895 - 1901Frank J. Cohen. News. Merged with "The Southwestern Jewish Sentiment," 1901.
Jewish SentinelEA..St. Louis1868.
Jewish SocietyEEW.......................1890Personals.
Jewish South, TheEAWNew Orleans ‡1880 - 82J. B. Browne, ‡ Atlanta; then J. H. C. Chumaceiro, New Orleans. News, literary; Reform Merged with "The American Israelite."
Jewish South, TheEAWRichmond1893 -Herbert J. Ezekiel.
Jewish Spectator, TheEAWMemphis1885 - *M. Samfield.
Jewish StandardEEWLondon1888 - 91Harry S. Lewis. Orthodox.
Jewish StarJ..Johannesburg*‡ South Africa.
Jewish TelephoneJEWLondon.
Jewish TidingsEAWRochester1887 - 97S. Brickner (1887-89) and Louis Wiley (1887-94); Isaac Brickner. News; radical.
Jewish TimesEEWLondon1876.
Jewish Times, TheE, GAWNew York1869 - 79Moritz Ellinger; then Harry H. Marks (1878-79). Scientific, rabbinic, literary; news; Reform. Title, "The Reformer and Jewish Times," 1878-79.
Jewish Times, TheEAWSan Francisco............Jacob Voorsanger; Emanuel Katz. Reform.
Jewish Times, TheECFMontreal1898 - *.
Jewish Times and ObserverEAWSan Francisco1855 - *M. S. Lovy and William Saalburg. News; belletristic; conservative. Formerly "The Jewish Times" and "The Hebrew Observer."
Jewish Tribune, TheEAWSt. Louis1879 -M. Spitz. Reform. Succeeded by "The Jewish Free Press," and then "The Jewish Voice." German monthly supplement for a time: "Sulamith."
Jewish Tribune, TheEAWPortland, Ore1903 - *N. Mosessohn, News; literary; conservative.
Jewish Voice, TheEAWSt. Louis1888 -M. Spitz. Founded as "The Jewish Tribune" (1879), continued as "The Jewish Free Press."
Jewish Weekly ReviewEAWSt. Joseph, Mo1898 -Charles Schless.
Jewish WomanEAMPhiladelphia1892 - 93Herman Brunswick.
Jewish World, The.........................................See "Die Jüdische Welt."
Jewish World, TheEEWLondon1873 - *Myer Davis (1873-75); George Lyon; various others; John Raphael. News; political, literary; illustrated; Zionistic.
Jewish World, TheEAWNew York............G. L. Löwenthal
Jewish World, TheEAWOmaha- 1902.
Jewish Year, TheEA..Philadelphia1895Louis E. Levy.
Jewish Year Book, TheEEALondon1896 - *J. Jacobs (1896-1900); I. Harris. Statistical, literary.
Jew's College Journal, TheEE..London1875Pupils of the Jews' College School. 3 numbers.
Jidisch. See Jüdisch
Jodisk Almanak....ACopenhagen1861M. Mielziner.
Joodsche Courant, DeDHoWThe Hague1902 - 04General.
Joodsche Letterkundige BijdragenDHoAmsterdam1867 - 68Meyer Roest. Literary. Supplement of "Nieuw Israelietische Weekblad." ‡ 8 numbers per year. 10 numbers.
Joodsche StuiversbladDHoWAmsterdam1903Literary; illustrated. 5 numbers.
Jornal Israelith, ElSpTConstantinople1860 - 71Ezekiel Gabbal. ‡ At first weekly, then three times a week. Continued as "El Telegrafo."
JosephGGFKattowitz1879 -S. Fredthal.
Journal de Salonique, LeFTFSalonica1895 - *Sa'adi ha-Levi.
Journal Scientifique de la Théologie JuiveF
Jövö, AHuHuWBudapest1897 - 98Jul. Weissburg. Scientific; news.
Jude, DerGAWNew York1895M. Singer. Title changed to "Jüdischer Anzeiger" with No. 11.
Jude, DerGGF ‡Altona1832 - 35Gabriel Riesser. Political, religious. ‡ Irregular.
Jude, DerJGaFCracow1899 - *Ahiasaf. General. With feuilleton.
Jude, DerGHu..Kassa1886.
Jude, DerGAWNew York1887 -S. Wiener.
Jüdisch. See also Jewish.
Jüdisch-Amerikanischer Volks-Kalender, DerJAANew York1894 - 97Alexander Harkavy. First two volumes called "Der Amerikanischer Volks-Kalender.
Jüdisch-Deutsche MonatsschriftJBoMPrague ‡1802‡ And Brünn.
Jüdisch-Israelitische ZeitungG ‡Hu..Pest1869‡ In Hebrew characters.
Jüdische Arbeiter, DerGAuMVienna1898 -S. R. Landau. Industrial; Zionistic.
Jüdische Bibliothek, DieJPo ‡S-A ‡Warsaw ‡1891 - 95‡J. L. Perez. Literary, social, agricultural. 3 vols. ‡ Since 1904 Cracow, monthly.
Jüdische Centralblatt, DasGHuFBelovar ‡1882 - 89Moritz Grünwald Popular-scientific. (Founded as "Centralblatt für die Interesdes Judenthums"; title changed to "Studien und Kritiken" iii. and iv., then to "Jüdisches Centralblatt, Zubleich Archiv für die Gesch. der Juden in Böhmen"). ‡ viii. Prague, 1888.
Jüdische ChronikGBoMSaaz; Teplitz1895 - *Adolf Kurrein (with S. Stern and I. Ziegler until 1896). Literary, belletristic; Zionistic.
Jüdische FamilieJGaMCracow1902J. Lurie.
Jüdische FrauenweltJGa..Cracow1902 -Moses Deutscher. Women's interests. Supplement of "Jüdische Volkszeitung."
Jüdische Freie PresseJGa..Przemysl.
Jüdische Freie Presse, DieE, JA..Cleveland1902 - *
Jüdische GazettenJ ‡AWNew York1874 - *K. H. Sarasohn. News; conservative. Weekly edition of "Jüdisches Tageblatt." ‡ English page since Sept. , 1897.
Jüdische Gazetten fun der WestJAWChicago1894 - 96George Selikovitsch.
Jüudische Geist, DerJRmJassy1898 -L. Rokeah. General. ‡ Three times per week.
Jüdische Gemeinde- und SchulzeitungGHu..Budapest1869 - 71
Jüdische GemeindezeitungGHu..Budapest1882.
Jüdische Illustrirte Zeitung.........................................See "New Yorker Illustrirte Jüdische Zeitung."
Jüdische Kantor, Der (Kantor, Der Jüdische)GGWBromberg1879 - 98A. Blaustein. For cantors; musical, pedagogic.
Jüdische Kantor, DerGG.........................1860H. Ehrlich. See "Liturgische Zeitschrift."
Jüdische Moderne, DerGGFBerlin1897 -Max Jungmann; then Birnbaum. Belletristic, critical.
Jüdische Monats-BlätterGAMNew York1899 -William Broch. Zionistic.
Jüdische MonatsschriftG ‡AuMBrünn; Prague1802‡ In Hebrew letters.
Jüdische NächstenliebeGHu..Marmaros-Sziget1896.
Jüdische News, DieE, G, H, J,AWNew York1871Jacob Cohen. News.
Jüdische Phonograph, DerJSWBuenos Ayres1897 -General.
Jüdische Post, DieJAWNew York1872Henry Gersoni.
Jüdische Post, DieJAWPittsburg1903 - *J. S. Glick. News; Zionistic.
Jüdische Post, DieG ‡Ga..Lemberg1849A. N. Blücher. Political, commercial. ‡ Corrupt German.
Jüdische Presse, DieJA..Chicago1885 - 86A. B. Ettelson.
Jüdische Presse, DieJAWPhiladelphia1892 - 94John Paley.
Jüdische Presse, DieJRmWBucharest............B. Suffrin. General.
Jüdische Presse, DieGGWBerlin1869 - *S. Enoch; Israel Hildesheimer; Hirsch Hildesheimer. General; Orthodox, Supplements: "Israelitischer Lehrer und Cantor"; "Israelitische Monatsschrift"; "Sabbat-Stunden."
Jüdische Rundschau.........................................See "Israelitische Rundschau."
Jüdische Schulbote, DerGHu..S. A. Ujhely1865 ‡Nathan Fischer. Pedagogic. With "Izraelita Magyar Néptanitó." ‡ Then, after interruption, 1867.
Jüdische Student, DerGGMBerlin1902 - *Heinrich Löwe for the Bund Jüdischer Corporationen. Academic, literary, sociological.
Jüdische TurnzeitungGGMBerlin1900 -Herman Jolowicz. Organ of the Bar Kockba athletic association. Zionistic.
Jüdische Volksbibliothek, DieGR..Kiev1888 - 89S. Rabinowitsch. Literary, scientific, critical.
Jüdische VolksschuleGHuFArad1863Moritz Ehrentheil.
Jüdische VolksstimmeGAuFBrünn1900 - *Solomon Rubinstein; then Samuel Bock; then Max Hickl. Industrial; news; with feuilleton.
Jüdische VolkszeitungGGWLeipsic1873I. Klingenstein. Pedagogic.
Jüdische VolkszeitungJGaWCracow1902 -M. Spektor and Ḥayyim Hurwitz. General. Supplement: "Jüdische Frauenwelt."
Jüdische VolkszeitungJGaWStanislawow1903.
Jüdische Volkszeitung, DieJAWNew York1878M.Taplowsky and G. Landau. Socialistic, atheistic.
Jüdische Welt, Die (Jewish World, The)E, JADNew York1902 - 04 ‡Bukanski. For Americanization of Russian immigrants. One page English, edited by Joseph Jacobs, then Jacob de Haas. ‡ United with "Der Morgen Journal."
Jüdische Weltblatt, Das.........................................See "Jüdisches Weltblatt."
Jüdische Wiestnik, DerJ
Jüdische Zeitschrift für Wissenschaft und LebenGGQBreslau1862 - 73Abraham Geiger. Scientific, religious.
Jüdische Zeitung.........................................See "New Yorker Jüdische Zeitung."
Jüdische ZeitungJGaWLemberg1863 - 67S. Kugel.
Jüdische Zukunft, DieJE..London1904 *Ch. Wortsmann. Zionistic.
Jüdischen ArbeiterJSw..Geneva.....*Published by the "Bund."
Jüdischer Adler, DerJAWBoston1893George Selikovitsch. News.
Jüdischer Anzeiger.........................................See "Jude, Der."
Jüdischer Arbeiter, DerJR.........................1897Industrial; socialistic.
Jüdischer Courier, DerJAD ‡Chicago1887 - 1902Leon Zolotkoff. News. (‡ Weekly until 1892.) Weekly edition: "Chicagoer Wochenblatt."
Jüdischer DemokratJAWNew York1888 -Julius Bloomenson. Political.
Jüdischer Express, DerJED ‡London ‡1896 - 1901Ginsberg Bros. News. ‡ And Leeds; weekly to 1899; then daily and weekly.
Jüdischer Farmer, DerJAMNew York1892 - 93Herman Rosenthal.
Jüdischer Herold, DerJADNew York1890George Selikovitsch. News. 26 numbers.
Jüdischer Journal, DerJAWNew York1899 - *Saphirstein and Rosenbaum. Weekly edition of "New Yorker Abend-Post."
Jüdischer KikerikiJAuFVienna1876Wilheim Weiss; then Mor. Dornbusch. Humoristic, political; illustrated.
Jüdischer Kol, DerJADChicago190
Jüdischer Observer, DerJEWLondon1894 -J. A. Meczyk.
Jüdischer Progress, DerJA..Baltimore1889Alexander Harkavy.
Jüdischer Puck, DerJAWNew York1894 - 96Nahum Sharkewitz and M. Seiffert. Humoristic.
Jüdischer Recorder, DerJAWNew York1893Gustav Mentz.
Jüdischer Volks- und Haus-KalenderGGABreslau1853 -Brann. See "Deutscher Volkskalender und Jahrbuch."
Jüdischer VolkskalenderJGaALemberg1895 -G. Bader.
Jüdischer VolkskalenderGGACologne1897 - 1900.
Jüdischer VolkskalenderGAuABrünn1902 - *Literary; Zionistic; illustrated.
Jüdischer Wächter, DerJAWNew York1898S. Schnur. Organ of the Kolel Amerika Tif'eret Yerushalayim.
Jüdischer Wecker, DerJR..Odessa1887M. L. Lilienblum.
Jüdisches CentralblattJG..Frankfort o. M1902H. Slobotzki. General.
Jüdisches FamilienblattGG..Hamburg1898 - *M. Deutschländer (in 1902 called "Israelitisches Familienblatt").
Jüdisches GefühlGBoPrague1900 -Juvenile.
Jüdisches LitteraturblattGGaCracow ‡1873 - *M. Rahmer (1873-1904); C. A. Rosenthal (1904-*). ‡ Magdeburg, 1873-97, weekly; Ezekiel Caro and Landau, Lemberg, 1897- , every ten days; new series, quarterly, Cracow, 1897-*. Literary, scientific. Supplement for a time of "Die Israelitische Wochenschrift."
Jüdisches TageblattE, JADNew York1885 - *M. Jalonistein. News. Sunday edition: "Jüdische Gazetten."
Jüdisches VolksblattGAuWVienna1899 - *Alois Munk and Committee of Jüdisches Volksverein. News.
Jüdisches VolksblattGGWBreslau1895 -Louis Neustadt. News, feuilleton.
Jüdisches VolksblattGG..Leipsic1854 - 66Ludwig Philippson. Literary, belletristic. Absorbed by " Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums."
Jüdisches VolksblattGGWBerlin1870Nathan Schlessinger. Religious.
Jüdisches VolksblattJRWSt. Petersburg1881 - 89A. Zederbaum (1881-87); L. O. Cantor (1888-89). Literary, political.
Jüdisches WeltblattJHuS-WPresburg1878 -Jos. Waltuch (1878-80); M. Dornbusch (from 1880-). General.
Jüdisches WochenblattJAWNew York1885 -Sarasohn & Sons. News. Page 7 has separate title: "Der Jüdischer Auswanderer."
Jung JudaGBoFPrague1900 - *Siegmund Springer; Emil Eisner. Juvenile.
JutrzenkaPPoWWarsaw1861 - 63Daniel Neufeld. Historical, belletristic.
Kabbalistische Biblische Occident, DerGG..Hamburg1845S. L. Schwabacher. Cabalistic. 1 number.
KadimahFFF ‡Paris1896 - 97Joseph D. Mosseri. Organ of Jewish Nationalist students. ‡ Irregular.
Kadimah, Ha-HAMNew York1899Gerson Rosenzweig. Literary. 6 numbers.
Kalender für IsraelitenGAuAVienna1892 - *M. Waitzner, for the Oesterreichisch-Israelitische Union. Literary.
Kalender und Jahrbuch für IsraelitenGAuAVienna1842 - 47Isidor Busch. Historical, scientific, belletristic. Continued as "Wiener Jahrbuch."
Kanfe Yonah.........................................See "Yonah, Ha-."
Karmel, Ha- (Ha-Karmel)HRM ‡Wilna1860 - 80S. J. Fünn and H. L. Markon. Literary, scientific, critical. Supplement: "Ha-Sharon." also Russian supplements. ‡ Weekly (irregular) until 1871.
Karmi (Carmi)H, SpT..Adrianople ‡1882Baruch Mitrani. Literary. ‡Printed at Presburg.
Kebod ha-LebanonH.......................................Published with "Ha-Lebanon."
Keneset ha-GedolahHRQWarsaw1890 - 91I. Suwalski. Literary, historical, scientific. 4 volumes.
Keneset Ḥakme YisraelHRIOdessa1891 - 97A. J. Abelsohn and M. Belinsohn. Rabbinic, halakic.
Keneset YisraelHRAWarsaw1886 - 88Saul P. Rabinowitz. Literary, historical, scientific; illustrated. Supplement: "Liwyat Ḥen."
Keneset Yisrael.........................................See "Yonah, Ha-."
Kerem, Ha-HRAWarsaw1888E. Atlas. Historical, literary, belletristic.
Kerem, Ha-H..A.......................1887 -L. Altmann. Supplement of "Ha-Meliẓ."
Kerem, Ha-HGaMLemberg1870Michael Wolf.
Kerem, Ha-HGWKönigsberg1879Julius Jacoby.
Kerem, Ha-HEWLondon1878Naphtali Levi.
Kerrem ḤemedHAu..Vienna ‡1833 - 56Samuel Löb Goldenberg (Vienna, 1833, 1836; ‡ Prague, 1838-43); Senior Sachs (‡ Berlin, 1854-56). Scientific, historical, literary, belletristic. 9 volumes.
Ḳeren OrahHAMChicago1889Leon Zolotkoff, for the Hebrew Literary Association of Chicago. 2 numbers.
Keshet, Ha-HGMBerlin1903Joseph Lin. Artistic, literary; illustrated. 3 numbers.
Ḳiḳayon YonahHF..Paris1860Senior Sachs. Continuation of "Ha-Yonah." 1 number.
Ḳiryat SeferHGaB-M ‡Cracow1903 - *B. Z. Scheinfinkel Bibliographical; scientific. ‡ Irregular.
KischenewRGMBerlin1903M. Sukennikow.
Ḳobeẓ 'al YadHGA ‡Berlin1885 - *Mekize Nirdamim. Scientific. ‡ Irregular.
Ḳobeẓ Ẓiyyon wi-YerushalayimHPaIJerusalem1897 -Isaac Badhaw. Rabbinical, scientific; for printing MS. material.
KodimoRR.........................1904 - *Zionistic.
Ḳohelet, Ha-HGaWPrzemysl1872Arthur S. Weissmann. Scientific. Supplement of "Neue Jüdische Presse." 3 numbers.
Ḳohelet MusarHGWBerlin1750Moses Mendelssohn and Tobias Back. Moral. 2 numbers.
Kokabim, Ha-HRQWilna1865Israel Wohlmann. Literary, historical, exegetical. 1 number.
Kokebe YiẒḥaḳHAuA ‡Vienna1845 - 73Max E. Stern (1845-69); Marcus Weissman (1873). Exegetical, literary, scientific, belletristic. 37 numbers. ‡ Irregularly at first.
Ḳol, Ha-HGS-WKönigsberg1876 - 80Michael L. Rodkinsohn. Literary; news: political, radical. At first weekly, then several times per week, then weekly again. Monthly supplement: "Asifat Ḥakamim" (1878- ). 1 number appeared at Chicago (Sept. 24, 1893).
AWNew York1889 - 90
Ḳol ha-'EtHGa..Lemberg1870 - 71Moses Schulbaum. Literary; Jewish news.
Ḳol ha-'IrHAWNew York1889Michael L. Rodkinsohn. Forming with "Ha-Ḳol" a semiweekly. A few numbers.
Ḳol Ha-TorHGaFCracow1878 -Jenkel Beer. News; literary.
Ḳol la-'AmJGWKönigsberg1876 - 79Michael L. Rodkinsohn. Political; Jewish news.
Ḳol MebasserJRWOdessa1863 - 71A. Zederbaum and A. I. Goldenbaum. Literary, belletristic. Supplement of "Ha-Meliz."
Ḳol von der Ghetto, DerJADNew York1901Political.
Ḳol Ya'akob.........................................See "Voice of Jacob" (London).
Ḳ YisraelA..WOran1882David Benadi.
KompassJRmWBucharest1896 -L. Rokeah and Lowy Segal. General.
Korem, Ha-HE..London1878Louis Levy .
Ḳorot ha-'IttimJRmS-WJassy1855I. Singer.
Kos Yeshu'ot.........................................See "Cup of Salvation."
Krakauer Jüdische ZeitungGGaF‡Podgérze1898 - 99Ahron Marcus. Scientific: Zionistic. ‡ Monthly at first.
Kritik und ReformGAuFVienna1884 - 85Moriz Weiss. Religious, scientific; with feuilleton.
Kritiker, DerJAWNew York1893J. Jaffa. 5 numbers.
Kurant (Freitagische and Dienstagische)J‡HoS-WAmsterdam1686 - 87Printed by Uri Phoebus ha-Levi, then by David Tartas. ‡ In Hebrew characters.
Labor Record, TheEAFKansas City‡1900 -R. L. Ziv. Political, social, religious: Zionistic. Second sheet has title "The Jewish World" (from 1901). ‡ At first Joplin, Mo.
Lamp of JudaismEI..Bombay.
Lamteren, DerJPoDWarsaw1894Belletristic.
Land Hakam, DerJA..New York1893 - 94Nahum Meïr Shaikewitz. Humoristic.
Laubhütte, DieGG..Hamburg1866 -Reform.
Laubhütte, Die (Deutsche Israelitische Zeitung)GGWRegensburg1883 -S. Meyer. General; Orthodox.
Lebanon, Ha-H..1863 - 87Jehiel Brill. Literary, general: Orthodox. ‡ Jerusalem, monthly, 1863 - 64, 12 numbers, with supplement, "Kebod ha-Lebanon"; Paris, fortnightly, 1865 - 68, weekly, 1868 - 70, with supplement, "Yen Lebanon"; Mayence, weekly, 1871 - 75, 1877 - 82, as supplement of "Der Israelit" (Mayence); London, 1886.
LehrerheimGGMBreslau1895 -Louis Neustadt. Pedagogic. Organ of the Deutscher Reichsverband Jüdischer Religionslehrer.
Lemberger Jüdische ZeitungJGaWLemberg1865 -Ḥayyim Rohatin. General.
Le'om, Ha-HAM‡New York1902- *‡ Weekly since 1904.
Le'ummi, Ha-HAWNew York ‡1888 - 89Ephraim Deinard. Literary. 23 numbers. ‡ Last 3 numbers in Newark, N. J.
Licht, Der.........................................See "Light, The."
Liebermann'sche Jahrbuch, Das.........................................See "Deutscher Volkskalender und Jabrbuch."
Lien d'Israel, LeFFMStrasburg‡1855 - 61S. Dreyfus. General. ‡ i.-iii. Mülhausen, 1855-May, 1858, fortnightly.
Light, TheE, JAWPhiladelphia ‡1891‡ N. Mosessohn. Religious; general. ‡ Dallas, Tex., 1897; San Francisco, 1898.
Light of TruthM‡In..Bombay1877 - 82Organ of the Beni Israel. ‡ Mahrati in Hebrew characters.
Literatur un LebenJPoIWarsaw1894L. Peretz.
Literaturblatt des Orients.........................................See "Orient, Der."
Litteraturblatt der MenorahGGMHamburg1891 -Isidor Hirsch. Theological, scientific.
Liturgische ZeitschriftGGIMeiningen1848 - 62Hermann Ehrlich Musical.
Litwakel, Der ()JAWNew York1889J. Jaffa. Humoristic.
Liverpool Jewish Magazine, TheEEWLiverpool1883James Nucompton. 1 number (Aug. 1). Some copies add: "and Teachers' Advertiser."
Londoner Israelit, DerJEWLondon1878 -Naphtali Levi. General.
Londoner Jüdisch-Deutsche ZeitungJE..London1867.
Luaḥ Ereẓ YisraelHPaAJerusalem1895 - *A. M. Lunez. Literary: news.
Luaḥ Sha'shu'imHGaACracow1902H. Rumeld and M. A. Wiesen. Literary.
Luaḥ Yisrael (Yevrejski Kalendar) H, RRASt.Petersburg1877 - 83H. J. Gurland.
Lumea IsraelitaRmRmMCrajova1902 -Ralian and Ignat Samitca.
Lunar, ElSpT..Salonica1878 -Judah Nehama. Historical, biographical, literary.
LuxIIMLeghorn1904- *Arrigo Lates and Alfredo Toaff. Scientific, literary.
Luz de IsraelSpT..Constantinople1853Leon de Castro. News (reports of Crimean war).
Luzero, El (Sefat Emet)SpT..Constantinople1867 -Moses Elie.
Luzero de la Paciencia, ElSp‡RmWTurn Severin1886 - 87L. M. Crispin. Historical, literary. ‡ In Latin characters.
Mabbiṭ, Ha- (alternating with Ha-Mabbit le-Yisrael)HAuWVienna1878Perez Smolenski. Political and social news; with literary feuilleton: "'Ale Ḥemed" popular scientific section: " Ha-Tebel weha-Yezirah."
Maccabæan, TheE ‡AMNew York1901 - *Louis Lipsky (1901-2); J. de Haas (1902-*). Literary: Zionistic. ‡ Also Judaæo-German until 1902. Organ of the Federation of American Zionists.
MaccabeanEAMChicago1882Henri Gersoni 1 vol.
Maccabee, TheEA..Chicago
Magazin für Jüdische Geschichte und Literatur.........................................See "Magazin für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums."
Magazin für die Wissenschaft des JudenthumsGGQ ‡Berlin1874 - 93Abraham Berliner and (1876-93) David Hoffmann. Historical, literary, scientific. ‡ Founded as fortnightly with title "Magazin für Jüdische Geschichte und Literatur."
Maggid, Ha-HGa, GW ‡Lyck1856 :- 90Eliezer Silbermann (1856-79; ‡ irregular until 1858); David Gordon (1879-85); Dob Bär Gordon (1886-90); Jacob S. Fuchs (1891-*). General and Jewish news. Supplements: "Ha-Ẓofeh, " "Maggid Mishneh, " "Maggid le-Yisrael."
Maggid he-Ḥadash (new series)Cracow1892 - *
Maggid le-Yisrael, Ha-HGaWCracow1893 - *Jacobs S. Fuchs. Supplement of "Ha-Maggid, " and printed therewith.
Maggid MesharimAInWCalcutta1889 -Solomon A. Twena. Local and foreign Jewish news. Rashi characters.
Maggid MishnehHGWLyck1879 - 81David Gordon. Scientific, literary. Supplement of "Ha-Maggid."
Maggid MishnehHGaMLemberg1872Mordecai Weissmann (-Chajes). Literary, historical. 4 numbers.
Magnet, TheEAQAtlanta1894 -Hebrew Orphans' Home.
Magyar IzraelitaHuHuWBudapest1861 - 64‡ Dr. Rockenstein; Paul Tencer. Reform. ‡ Founded in 1861: suppressed and resumed in 1862.
Magyar Izraelita Orzágos Tanitó-Egylet Ertesitöje, AHuHuMBudapest1875 - *National Hungarian Jewish Teachers' Association. Pedagogic.
Magyar ZsidóHuHu..Budapest1867 - 68Albert Farkas. Orthodox.
Magyar Zsidó NepiskolaHuHu..Nyitra1893 - 94L. Erdélyi. Pedagogic.
Magyar Zsidó SzemleHuHuQ ‡Budapest1884 - *Joseph Bánóczi and Wilhelm Bacher (1884-90); L. Blau (1800-*) and F. Mezey (1890-95). Scientific, historical, theological. ‡ Monthly until 1895.
Magyar Zsidó Tanitók LapjaHuHu..Budapest1893 - 04A. Laszló Pedagogic.
Magyar ZsinagógaHuHuQPapa1846 - 47Leopold Löw.
Magyar ZsinagógaHuHuMMagocs1900 - *Joseph Leboics.
Mahazike ha-DatHGaFLemberg ‡1879 -Isaac Moses Bader (1879-83); then Judah Krongold (from 1883); Josiah Lipsky. Rabbinical; organ of the Hasidim Orthodox. ‡ Cracow 1879-.
MargaritaGGMBerlin1874A. Willmars. For the Verein für Geschichte der Israeliten. Historical.
Massa, Ha-....I.......................1890 - 94Samuel Phillip.
Mazkir, Ha-.........................................See "Hebräische Bibliographie."
Mazkir, Ha-HGa..Lemberg1881 - 86Moses I. Landau; then Isaac A. Bernfeld.
Meassef, Ha-HG1784 - 97Ha-Meassefim. ‡ Monthly; i.-iii., Königsberg; quarterly: iv.-vi., Königsberg and Berlin; vii., Breslau; viii., Berlin; ix. 1 - 2, Altona; ix. 3, 4-x., Dessau. Scientific, philosophical, historical. Continued as "Ha-Meassef he-Hadash."
Meassef, Ha-HRASt. Petersburg1902L. Rabinowitz. Scientific, literary. 1 vol.
Meassef, Ha-GAuM ‡Vienna1874Ḥayyim Lippe. Bibliographical. ‡ Irregular. 3 numbers.
Meassef, Ha-HGMKönigsberg1880 -M. L. Rodkinsohn. Literary, critical.
Meassef, Ha-HPaM ‡Jerusalem1896 - *Ben-Zion Kuinka. Rabbinic (responsa). ‡ Weekly until 1898.
Meassef, Ha-HAQNew York1881Shoḥare Sefat 'Eber. Literary. 1 number.
Meassef he-Ḥadash, Ha-HG..1809 - 11Shalom Kohen. Continuation of "Ha-Meassef." ‡ i., Berlin, 1809; ii., Altona, 1810; iii., Dessau, 1811.
Meassef le-Ḳol, Ha-HGMKönigsberg1879Michael L. Rodkinsohn. Literary, scientific.
Meassef Niddaḥim.........................................See "Meliz, Ha-, " and "Shahar, Ha-."
Mebasser, Ha-HGaWLemberg1860 - 70A. Minkes.Exegetical, historical, literary, belletristic, critical.
ILeghorn1861 - 67Joseph Kohen-Zedeḳ.Literary supplement (1860-64): "Ha-Nesher."
Mebasseret ẒiyyonJAWNew York1898Abraham Tannenbaum. Bulletin of the Federation of Zionists.
Mebasseret ẒiyyonHPaMJerusalem1883Ben-Yeudah. On Palestine. Supplement to "Ha-Habazzelet."
Medabber, Ha-HGWBerlin1881 - 82Michael L. Rodkinsohn. 12 numbers.
Medabber le-Yisrael, Ha-HGWBerlin1881 -Zebi Hirsch Itzkowski. News; literary.
Me-'Et la-'EtHAINew York1901Solomon Judison and Phinehas Turberg. Scientific, literary.
Meged Geresh YeraḥimHAuMVienna1848Isaac Reggio. Supplement of "Oesterreichisches Centralorgan für Judische Interessen."
Meged YerahimHGaMLemberg1857 - 58Joseph Kohen-Zedek. Scientific, belletristic 4 vols.
Mehaker, Ha-.........................................See "Die Zeit."
Mekilta de-RabbananHR..Odessa1886 - 87Moses Belinson. Rabbinical (halakic, Talmudic).
Meliẓ, Ha- (Ha-Meliẓ)HRWOdessa1860 - 71Alexander Zederbaum (1860-93); Leon Rabinowitz (1893-1904). News: political, literary; Haskalic, then Zionistic. ‡ Weekly until 1886. Supplements: "Ha-Kerem"; and "Meassef Niddahim, " literary, bibliographic, 1878 - 79."
D‡St. Petersburg1871 - 1904
Menorah, DieGGWHamburg1891 -M. Deutschländer Literary; news. With two supplements.
Menorah, TheEAMNew York1886 - *B. F. Peixotto; then Moritz Ellinger. Literary, scientific; organ of the B'nai B'rith.
Menorah, TheEAMToledo1904Sabbath-school Children of Zion.
Menschenfreund, DerJAWNew York1889 - 91Nahum M. Shaikewitz. News; literary, belletristic.
Message ZionisteFEg..Alexandria1902 -
Messerret, ElSp, TTMSmyrna1897 - *Alexander ibn Ghayyat. News; with feuilleton.
Milḥamah be-ShalomHRWWilna1870Polemical (Orthodox).
Mi-Mizraḥ umi-Ma'arabHG‡I‡Berlin‡1894 - 96Ruben Brainin. Literary, scientific. ‡ Started as a monthly in Vienna; only 4 numbers; then Berlin, irregular, until 1896.
Minhah ḤadashahHPaAJerusalem1856 -Albert Cohn. Literary.
Misderonah, Ha-HPaMJerusalem1886 - 87Ḥayyim Hirschensohn. Rabbinical. 2 vols., and vol. iii., No. 1.
Mishpaṭ, Ha-SpBu..Philippopolis1902Anonymous. Zionistic.
Mitteilung der Gesellschaft zur Erforschung Jüdischer Kunstdenkmöler.GGAFrankfort o. M1900 - *Scientific; illustrated.
Mitteilungen der Freien Vereinigung für die Interessen des Orthodoxen Judenthums.GGFFrankfort o. M1887 - *Orthodox.
Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Jüdische Volkskunde.GGS-AHamburg1898 - *M. Grunwald. Scientific.
Mitteilungen der Gessellschaft für Sammplung und Conservirung von Kunst-und Historischen Denkmäler des Judenthums.GAuIVienna1895Scientific.
Mittheilungen der Oesterreichisch-Israelitischen Union.GAuMVienna1888 - *Political against anti-Semitism.
Mittheilungen des Israelitischen Landes-Lehrervereines in Böhmen.GBoMPrague1895M. Freund.
Miẓpah Bulletin, TheEAMChattanooga*Community news.
Miẓpah, Ha-HAuWCzernowitz1888Moses Orenstein.
Miẓpah, Ha-HRMSt. Petersburg1885Alexander Zederbaum. Historical, belletristic; illustrated. 4 numbers.
Miẓpah, Ha-HGaWCracow1904 - *News; Zionistic.
Miẓpah, Ha-HGaMCracow1903 - *J. Reines. Scientific; Zionistic.
Miẓrayim, ElA‡EgW‡Cairo1903 - *Isaac Karmona. News; Zionistic. ‡Judaeo-Spanish, 1903; mostly Arabic from 1904. Hebrew characters. With interruptions.
Modern Builder, TheEAMKansas City1901 - *Organ of the Modern Builders of Israel.
Modern View, TheEAWSt. Louis1901 - *A. Rosenthal and Benjamin Koperlik. Social and religious (Reform) news, belletristic; illustrated.
Modia' la-Ḥadashim, Ha-HAMNew York1900 -A. H. Rosenberg (1900-2); Herman Rosenthal (1900-1). Historical, belletristic, religious; Zionistic.
MolvaRR..Odessa............Adolph Landau.
Monatsblätter für Vergangenheit und Gegenwart des Judenthums.GGMBerlin1890 - 91Bernard Königsberger. Scientific. 4 numbers.
Monatschefte für die Gesammten Interessen des Judenthums.GGM.......................1856 - 66.
Monatsschrift der Oesterreichisch-Israelitischen Union.GAuMVienna1889 -Siegfried Fleischer.
Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des JudenthumsGGMLeipsic; Breslan1851 - 87Z. Frankel (1851-68); H. Graetz (1869-87) and Pinkus Frankl (1881-86); Marcus Brann (1892-*) and D. Kaufmann (1892-99). Scientific, literary, critical. Continuation of "Zeitschrift für die Religiösen Interessen des Judenthums."
1892 - *
Monatsschrift für Literatur und Wissenschaft des Judenthums.GAuMVienna1889 - 90Arthur S. Weissmann. Scientific, literary.
Monteflore, TheEAMNew York1896 -Lucien Bonheur. Bulletin of Young Ladies' and Gentlemen's League of the Monteflore Home.
Monthly BulletinEAMNew York1900 - *Young Men's Hebrew Association.
Moreh, Ha-HAMNew York1894Moses Goldman. Literary and belletristic. 1 number."
Morgen Journal, DerJADNew York1902 - *Evening edition: "New Yorker Abend-Post"; weekly edition: "Der Jüdischer Journal."
MorgenlandGG.........................c. 1858Jakob Goldenthal.
Morgenstern, DerJAWNew York1898Braslavsky, J. Jaffa, and Abner Tannenbaum. Radical.
MoriahPGa..Lemberg1903 -Jacob Thon. Juvenile; Zionistic.
Moriyyah, Ha-HPaJerusalem1892Simḥah Blumenthal. ‡ Several times per month.
Morning Star, TheEE.....................................Leeds Zionist.
MoseèH, I..MCorfu1878 - 85Giuseppe Levi. Literary, scientific.
Mount Sinai MonthlyEAMBoston1902 - *Meyer Bloomfield. Literary; illustrated.
MubashshirA....Tunis1884R. Farḥi.
Museum zur Belehrung und UnterhaltungGGABrieg1842 -K. Klein. Juvenile.
MyronocetsBBu..Sofla1899Stef. Blajef. Orthodox.
Nacional, ElSpAuWVienna1867Joseph Calvo.
Nacional, ElSpTWConstantinople1871 -Marco Mayorcas; Moses del Medico; David Fresco. Political and Jewish news; commercial trade, literary.
Natur und LebenJAMNew York1897 - 98Jacob Terr. 8 months.
Nederlandsche Israeliet, HetDHo.........................1843Only 36 pages.
Nederlandsch Israelietsche JaarboekjeDHoAThe Hague1849 - 63Gesellschaft zu Israel's Besten in Niederland. Literary, scientific, statistical.
Nedylnaya Khronika VoskhodaRRWSt. Petersburg1882 - *Adolph A. Landau. General; Jewish news. Weekly edition of "Voskhod."
Ner ha-Ma'arabiHAMNew York1895 - 97Abraham Rosenberg (1895-97); then Samuel Schwarzberg for the Society Mezife Sifrut Yisrael. Literary, belletristic, critical.
Nesher, Ha-HGaWLemberg1860 - 70Joseph Kohen-Zedek. Historical , belletristic, critical, exegetical. Supplement of "Ha-Mebasser" until 1864, then independent.
Neue Israelitische ZeitungGSwS-WZurich1880A. Kisch.
Neue Jüdische PresseJGa..Przemysl1872Supplement: "Ha-Ḳohelet."
Neue Judische ZeitungJRmWJassy............N. Fränkel. Jewish news.
Neue Stimme, DieJAQNew York1904 - *Radical-Zionist organization.
Neue Welt, DieJAWNew York1894Solomon. J. Silberstein. 3 weeks.
Neue Welt, DieJEWLondon1900 -T. Rothstein.
Neue Welt, DieJAMNew York1897Abraham M. Sharkansky.
Neue Zeit, DieJAWNew York1886Rayevsky and Abraham Cahan. Socialistic. A few numbers.
Neue Zeit, DieJAMNew York1898 - 99Socialistic.
Neue Zion, DasGGMLeipsic1845Jacob Goldenthal. 1 number.
Neuer Geist, DerJAMNew York1897 - 98Alexander Harkavy. Literary, scientific, artistic. 10 numbers.
Neuer Telefon, DerJAWNew York1899Nahum Shaikewitz.
Neueste NachrichtenJ‡GaWLemberg1866 -J. Kohn. Political, news; with historical supplement. ‡ Hebrew letters vocalized.
Neueste PostG‡HuWPest1862J. Kohn. General, political, commercial. ‡ In Hebrew characters.
Neueste Post, DieJAWNew York1888David Apotheker and Morris Wechsler.
Ne'urim, Ha-HGaFCracow1904 - *Ben Avigdor. Juvenile.
Neuzeit, DieGAuWVienna1861 - 1904Simon Szántó (1861-82); A. Jellinek (1882-93); D. Löwy (1893-1904). Religious (Reform), political, literary. Continued as "Die Wahrheit."
New Era, TheEA..Brooklyn.
New Era, TheEAMNew York1871 - 75Raphael d'C. Lewin. Literary.
New Era, Comment, TheEAMNew York1904New Era Club.
New Era Illustrated Magazine, TheEAMNew York1903 - *Isidor Lewi. Literary; illustrated. Continuing "The New Era Jewish Magazine."
New Era Jewish Magazine, TheEAMBoston1900 - 1903.See "New Era Illustrated Magazine, The."
New Occident, TheEAM‡San Francisco1900 -Jacob Nieto. News. ‡Established as weekly organ of the Young Men's Hebrew Association; monthly from vol. iii.
New Yorker Abend-PostJADNew York1899 - *Saphirstein and Rosenbaum. Weekly edition: "Der Jüdischer Journal."
New Yorker Illustrirte Jüdische ZeitungJ‡AFNew York1887 - 88Abraham Goldfaden. Illustrated. 17 numbers. ‡ Polish-Jewish.
New Yorker IsraelitJAWNew York1875Mordechai Jalomstein.
New Yorker Jüdische VolkszeitungJAWNew York1886 - 87Moses Mintz and Dr. Braslavsky. Socialistic.
New Yorker Jüdische ZeitungGAWNew York1872K. H. Sarasohn. German in Hebrew characters.
New Yorker Jüdische ZeitungJ‡AWNew York1885 - 89Morris Wechsler Ultra-Orthodox; literary. ‡Hungarian-Jewish; some Hebrew.
Nieuw Israelietische WeekbladDHoWAmsterdam1866 - *M. Roest (1866-75); Philip Elte (1875-*). With "Joodsche Letterkundige Bijdragen."
Nieuws en Advertenticblad.........................................See "Nieuwsblad voor Israelieten."
Nieuwsblad voor IsraelietenDHoWAmsterdam1849‡ - 93News. ‡Founded as "Nieuws en Advertenticblad" (1849-50); title changed to "Israelietisch Weekblad (1850-55); then to "Weekblad voor Israelieten" (1855-84).
Nogah ha-YareaḥHCaM‡Lemberg‡1872 - 73Berisch Goldenberg. Scientific, religious, exegetical. ‡ 10 numbers per year; 11 numbers in Lemberg, 1872 - 73; 4 numbers in Tarnopol. 1881.
Northwick College TimesEE..London1873Pupils of Northwick College School.
Nouvelliste, LeFTWSmyrna1890- *Leon Tedeschi: then Gad Franco. Scientific, commercial, agricultural, geographical, etc.; news. At first French, then Judaeo-Spanish.
Novelista, ElSp
Nützlicher Kalender, DerJR..Wilna1876S. Abramowitsch.
Occident, TheEAWChicago1874 -Julius Silversmith (at first with M. Hoffman); news; literary, scientific, artistic.
Occident, The (and the American Jewish Advocate)EAM‡Philadelphia1843 - 69Isaac Leeser (last volume, Meyer Sulzberger). News, literary; conservative. ‡ Weekly 1855 - 61.
Oesterreichisch-Ungarische Kantoren- ZeitungGAuVienna1881- *Jacob Bauer. For cantors. Supplement to "Die Wahrheit, " ‡ 3 times a month.
Oesterreichisches Central-Organ für Glaubensfreiheit, Cultur, Geschichte und Literatur der Juden.GAuWVienna1848 -Isidor Busch and M. Letteris. Historical, literary, scientific; news.
Oheb 'Ammo we-Erez MoladtoHGaPrzemysl1879 - 80S. A. Graäber. Political, literary. 16 numbers. ‡ Several times a month.
Ohel Mo'edHGaQCracow1898J. A. Kammelhar. Rabbinic, Talmudic.
OjczyznaP, HGaWLemberg1881 - 86I. Bernfeld and M. Thumen.
'Olam ḲaṭanHGaWCracow1901- *A. L. Ben-Avigdor and S. L. Gordon, for Ha-Tushiyyah. Juvenile; illustrated.
Onafhankelijk Israelietisch Orgaan voor NederlandDHoWAmsterdam1867- *L. B. Berel. News; feuilleton.
Or, Ha-HGaMLemberg1882 - 83David I. Silberbusch. Literary.
Or, Ha-HPaWJerusalem1889 - 93Eliezer Ben-Judah. Reform.
Or ha-LebanonAIMLeghorn1886Shalom Bekache. Belletristic, stories.
Or TorahHGMFrankfort o. M1874Joseph Kohen-Ẓedeḳ. Exegetical, critical, historical, literary. 4 numbers.
Or TorahHPaQJerusalem1895 -S. Zuckermann (1895-98); A. Sonnenfeld and A. Blumenthal. Rabbinical. nalakic.
Or YisraelH, SpTWConstantinople1853Leon Ḥayyim de Castro.
Ordens EchoGAMNew York............Mrs. Robitschek for the Order of True Sisters.
Orgaan voor NederlandDHo..Amsterdam1875S. L. Knock.
Organ des Ungarischen Cultusbeamten-VereinsGHa..Budapest............Moritz Friedmann.
Orient, DerGGWLeipsic1840 - 51Julius Fürst News; literary, historical, scientific; with literary supplement "Litteraturblatt," which appeared alone 1849 - 51.
Ost und WestGGMBerlin1901 - *Davis Trietsch and Leo Winz. Zionistic ; illustrated.
Owl, TheEA..New Orleans- 1903Maurice Switzer. Absorbed by "The Jewish Ledger."
Oẓar ḤokmahHGaQLemberg1859 - 65‡Joseph Kohen-Ẓedeḳ. Historical, critical, philological, belletristic. ‡ 3 vols.: i. 1859; ii. 1862; iii. 1865.
Oẓar ha-Ḥokmah weha-Madda'HAQNewark, N. J.1894Nehemiah Libowitz and Ch. Enowitz. Literary, scientific. 2 numbers.
Oẓar NeḥmadHAn..Vienna1856 - 63Ignatz Blumenfeld. Literary. 4 vols.
Oẓar Ha-Sifrut (Bet Oẓar ha-Sifrut)HGaA‡Cracow ‡1887 - 1902.Eisig Graeber. Literary, scientific, belletristic. ‡ i., Przemysl, 1887; ii. -v. v., Cracow, 1888, '90, '93, '96; vi (monthly), 1902. 1 number.
Oẓar Ṭob.........................................Supplement to "Magazin für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums."
Pacific Messenger, TheE, GAWSan Francisco1860 - 61H. Bien. Religious, historical, literary. Successor to "The Gleaner."
Pädagogischer Hausfrennd, DerGG..Stuttgart1871S. Dessau. Pedagogic.
Padgog, Ha-HGaMCracow1902 - *Ben-Abigdor and S. L. Gordon. Literary supplement of "'Olam Ḳaṭan."
Paix, LaFFM.......................1846A. Baruch Créhange. Religious, literary.
PalaestinaDHoMLeyden1848 - 49S. Keyzer. 12 numbers. 8vo.
PalästinaGG..Berlin1902 - 04Agricultural, commercial; for Palestine. 2 vols.
PalestineEEQLondon1897 -Chovevei Zion.
PályázatHuHu..Székes-Fehérvár1891 - *I. Peterfy.
Pamphlet LibraryEAMNew York1900 -Michael Singer. Historical, literary; Zionistic.
Pariser Allgemeine Jüdische Volkszeitung, DieJFDParis1892 -Moses Zuckermann. News; scientific; with feuilleton.
Patriot, DerJA..Newark, N.J.1891Ephraim Deinard; Zionistic. A few numbers.
Peles, Ha-HGMBerlin1900 - *Elijah Rabinowicz. Literary, scientific, religious.
Peleṭat SoferimHR..Wilna1863Joshua Höschel Levin. Rabbinical.
PeraḥA‡InWCalcutta............Moses ha-Kohen Dwich. General and Jewish news. ‡ With Hebrew literary supplement.
Peri 'Eẓ ḤayyimHHoMAmsterdam1728 - 61Bet ha-Midrash 'Eẓ Ḥayyim. Rabbinical; decisions of members.
Peri To 'eletHHo..Amsterdam1825S. Mulder. Literary.
Pester Jüdische ZeitungG‡HuBudapest1869 - 87I. Reiss (1869-79); M. Ehrentheil; M. Grossmann. Jewish news; Orthodox; political, commercial; with feuilleton. ‡ 5 times a week; in Hebrew characters. Continued as "Allgemeine Jüdische Zeitung."
Philadelphia Stadt-ZeitungJAWPhiladelphia189 -Hyman Brodsky and Ḥayyim Malitz. News.
Philadelphiär Jüdische PresseJADPhiladelphia1904 - *Louis H. Cahan. News; literary.
Philadelphiär PostJAWPhiladelphia1898Osias Wagman. 8 numbers.
Pinḳes, DerJAQNew York1900 -M. Rosenfeld and A. M. Sharkansky. Literary, historical; discussions of timely topics.
PipifoxJEWLondon1901 -Humoristic; illustrated.
Pirḥe ẒafonHRIWilna1841, 1844L. Hurwitz and S. J. Fuenn. Historical, literary, exegetical. 2 numbers.
Pisgah, Ha-HAI1890 - 99W. Schur. Literary; Zionistic. ‡ New York (1890-91); then Baltimore, later Chicago; continued as "Ha-Teḥiyyah" (1899-1900).
Pisgah, Ha-HRQWilky (Kovno)1895 - 1901Hillel D. Truvosch. Rabinic, scientific. i. 1895; ii., iii. 1896; iv. 1897; then quarterly.
Plaudersack, DerJA..New York1893
Polischer Jüdel, DerJEWLondon1884M. Winchevsky. 16 numbers; then became "Die Zukunft."
Politica, LaSpAu..Vienna1878Ad. Zemlinski. Supplement of "Correo de Vienna."
Politische und Sociale MonatsschriftGGMLeipsic1849L. Philippson. Political, general.
Populär-Wissenschaftliche MonatsblätterGGMFrankfort o. M.1881 - *Adolph Brüll. Organ of the Mendelssohn Verein. Popular-scientific.
Poshedniya IzvestiyaRSw..Geneva*Published by the "Bund."
PosrednikRR..Odessa1869Alexander Zederbaum.
Predigt-MagazinGGQLeipsic1878M. Rahmer. Homiletical.
Presse Israélite, LaFFWParis1869 - 71Moïse Schwab.
Progreso, ElSpT..Constantinople1876 -Behor M. Molko.
Pregreso, El.........................................See "Yosef Da'at."
Pregreso, ElSpAuFVienna.
Progreso Ladino, II.
Progress, TheEA..San Francisco.
Przyszlose JedynyPGa..Lemberg............Organ of Interesow Zydowskich w Yezyku Polskim W Luarie.
Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society.EAAWashington, Baltimore1893- *
Puerta del OrienteSpT..Smyrna1846 -Uzziel Pincherle
Pure Vérité, LaFF..Strasburg1846.
PurimEEALondon1883S. H. Valentine.
Rabbinical Review, TheEA..Cincinnati1881 - 82Max Lilienthal. Reports of Rabbinical Association; literary.
Radio de Luz, ElSpTWConstantinople1885 -Victor Levi. Scientific, literary; illustrated.
Rathgeber, DerJRm..Bucharest.
RazsvyetRRWSt. Petersburg ‡1860 - 61O. A. Rabbinowitz. 52 numbers. Continued as "Zion" by Em. Soloweitschik ‡ Odessa, 1861 - 62.
RazsvyetRRWSt. Petersburg1879 - *A. Zederbaum and J. Goldenblum (1879-80) ; then G. I. Bogrow (1880-82) and Y. L. Rosenfeld (1882-*). Literary, general.
Reform, DieGGWBerlin; Bonn1875 - 80Em. Schreiber and Abraham Guttmann. Reform ; literary.
Reform Advocate, TheEAWChicago1891 - *Emil Hirsch. General, literary; news: radical Reform.
Reform des Judenthums, DieGGWMannheim1846A. Adler and H. Wagner. Reform. 39 numbers.
Reform-ZeitungGG..Berlin1845A. Rebenstein.
Reformer and Jewish Times, TheEA..New York............Moritz Ellinger. News; scientific, literary.
Régénération, La.........................................See"Wiedergeburt, Die."
Register, TheEAWPhiladelphia1900 -Bulletin of the Congregation Rodef Shalom.
ReichsboteGAuWVienna1894H. L. Reich. Scientific and general.
Religlöse Wochenschrift für Gottgläubige GemütherGGWHalberstadt1844 - 45Ludwig Philippson. Religious.
Revista IsraelitaRmRmFBucharest1886 -M. Beck.
Revue der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinden von BöhmenGBoMHorowitz1903 - *Julius Bondy. News.
Revue des Ecoles de l'Alliance IsraéliteFFQParis1901 -Jacques Bigart.
Revue Des Etudes JuivesFFQParis1880 - *Isidore Loeb; then Israel Lévi Scientific.
Revue IsraéliteFFWParis1870 - 73Isidore Loeb. Literary.
Revue OrientaleF..M ‡Brussels1841 - 46Eliakim Carmoly. Scientific, historical. 3 vols. ‡ Irregular.
Risi Bisi Sp Au Vienna.............................1867Joseph Calvo. Humoristic.
Rivista IsraeliticaII..Parma ‡1845 - 48Cesare Rovighi. Scientific. ‡ From May, 1846, Modena.
Rivista IsraeliticaIIB-MFlorence1904 - *Samuel Hirsch Margulies. Scientific.
Rocznik ZydowskiPGaALemberg............A. Stand. Zionistic.
Ro'ehHGa..Lemberg ‡1837, 1839M. Mohr and J. Bodek. Critical. ‡ Ofen, 1839. 2 vols.
Romanziere Israelitico, IlII..Leghorn1867Gallichi.
Rose, DieJPaWJerusalem............Israel Frumkin.
Ruaḥ ha-Zeman.........................................See "Zeman, Ha-."
Russki YevreiRRWSt. Petersburg1879 - 84L. Behrmann (1879-83) and G. M. Rabbinowitz (1879-84); Judah Kantor (1883-84). Political, literary; Jewish news. After 1884 published with "Yevreiskoe Obozryenie."
Sabado Segreto, ElSp....Mexico1889 -Elias and David Abarbanel.
SabbathblattGGWLeipsic1842 - 46Hermann Sommerfeld with J. Saalschuütz, then with J. Fürst; vols. iv. and v., Jellinek. Religious, literary, scientific.
Sabbat-StundenGG..Berlin............Feuilleton; belletristic. With "Die Jüdische Presse."
Sabbath LeavesEEWLondon1845.
Sabbath School Companion, TheEAMCharleston, S. C.1895B. A. Elzas. Juvenile.
Sabbath School JournalEAMPhiladelphia1904 - *.
Sabbath Visitor, TheEAWCincinnati1874 -Max Lilienthal; K. Kohler; I. M. Wise; D. Philippson; I. Voorsanger. Religious.
Schadchen, DerJAWNew York1900 -Matrimonial.
Schlemihl, DerGGMBerlin1903 -Ernst D. Lesser. Humoristic, satirical; illustrated.
Sedmitchen CourierBBuWSofia1901Anonymous.
Sefer ha-ShanahHPoAWarsaw1900 - 3N. Sokolow. Literary, scientific.
Sefer ha-YeraḥHPaMJerusalem1896Ben Amittai. Scientific, belletristic.
SelanikSp‡T..Salonica1869‡ Judæo-Spanish, Turkish, Greek, and Bulgarian.
Selbst-EmancipationGAuFVienna1885 - 90‡N. Birnbaum. Political; news. With a "Unterhaltungs-Beilage." ‡ i., ii., 1885 - 86; iii., 1890.
Sema IsraelSp....Curacao1864 -E. Benveniste.
Senigor, Ha-HAFNew York1890 -M. L. Rodkinson. Literary, theological, political, social.
Sha'are Mizraḥ.........................................See "Puerta dei Oriente."
Sha'are ẒiyyonHPaWJerusalem1876 - 80Israel Goscinni and J. Peres.
Sha'are ẒiyyonHHuMNagy-Mihaly............Israel Brody.
Shabua', Ha-HAuWVienna1898 -Abraham Fuchs. General; Zionistic. Weekly edition of "Ha-Maggid" for Russia.
Shaḥar, Ha- (Ha-Shaḥar)HAuMVienna1869 - 84Peter Smolenskin. Scientific, literary; news. 12 vols. Supplement, literary and bibliographical: "Meassef Niddaḥim," 1880.
Shaḥar Ha-BBu..Sofia1902 - *Jewish students. Zionistic.
Shaḥar he-Ḥadash, Ha-HGaMCracow1893M. Orenstein. Scientific, literary; news. 2 numbers.
Sharḳiyyah, Al-T‡T..Constantinople1869‡In hebrew characters.
Sharon, Ha-HGaILemberg1893Gershom ha-Kohen Bader and M. Malles. Scientific, literary, belletristic; news.
Sharon, Ha-.........................................See"Karmel, Ha-."
Shebet AḥimGHuWBudapest1870 - 80Ignaz Reich. Organ of the Shomere ha-Dat.
Shem we-YafetG, H, FGaLemberg1888Israel Rall. Scientific; rabbinic. ‡ Once every six weeks; separate edition for each of the three languages. 4 numbers.
Shemesh, Ha-HGaFKolomea1888 -Hirsch L. Gottlieb. Literary, scientific, belletristic; news.
Shiloaḥ, Ha-HGMBerlin1896 - *Ascher Ginzberg. Scientific, literary, critical, belletristic; Zionistic.
Shofar, Ha-EE..London1874.
Shofar, Ha-SpBuWPhilippopolis1901 - *Zionistic.
Shofar, TheEA..Rochester1899 - *Louis Lipsky. News.
Shofeṭ, Ha-(Le Juge)F..MAlgiers1894Joseph Baruch.
Shomer Ẓiyyon ha-Ne'emanHGMAltona1846 - 55S. J. Enoch and Jacob Ettlinger. Literary supplement of "Der Treue Zions-Wächter.
Shoshannah (The Jewish Gazette)A‡InWCalcutta1901 -News; religious. ‡In Rashi characters.
Shulammit, Ha-JEWLondon1884Jehiel L. Brill.
Sifre Sha'shu'imHGaIDrohobiez1896 -J. Fernhoff. Literary. Two or three times a year.
SinaiGGMBayreuth1846Joseph Aub. Scientific, religious.
SinaiGAMBaltimore1856 - 62David Einhorn. Scientific, religious (Reform).
SinaiGAMBaltimore1904Two numbers.
Sol, ElSpTB-MConstantinople1879 -David Fresco. Scientific, literary.
Sonntag Abend-BlattJAWNew York1896 -Socialistic. See "Arbeiter Zeitung."
Sonntag CourierE, JAWChicago1887 -H. S. Wolf.
South-African Jewish ChronicleE..WCape Town1902 -
South-African Jewish StandardE....Durban
Southwestern Jewish Sentiment, TheEAWDallas, Tex1901 -F. C. Cohen.
Stadt Anzeiger, DerJAMNew York1893Philip Krantz and Abraham Sharkansky. Scientific, literary, commercial. 3 numbers.
Star of Israel, TheEAFChicago1897Joseph Parvin. Scientific, religious; Zionistic.
Studien und Kritiken.........................................See "Jüdische Centralblatt, Das."
SulamitJAWNew York1890Joseph A. Bluestone. Zionistic.
SulamitGAMSt. Louis............S. H. Sonneschein and M. Spitz.
SulamithDHo..Amsterdam1806 - 08Moses Belinfante. Local news.
SulamithGGMDessau1806 - 33‡David Frankel (and [i.] Jos. Wolf). Literary, belletristic; news; religious (Reform). ‡ i. 1806 - 07; ii. 1808 - 09; iii, 1810 (Cassel) 11; iv. 1812, 1815-16; v. 1817-1819; vi. 1819-21, 1822-24; vii. 1824-33; viii. 1833-40; ix. (new series) 1846.
Sun, DieJAWNew York1892Morris Rosenfeld, Joel Aronson, and Jacob Ferr. News. 7 numbers.
SviitPGaWTarnopol1880 -J. M. Landau.
SvyetRR..Odessa1860 - 61J. Tarnopol and O. Rabbinowicz.
Synagoge, DieGGFWürzburg‡1837 - 39L. Adler. Religious, literary, belletristic. ‡ Würzburg, 1837 - 38; unich, 1839.
SynagogenblattGG.....................................S. Lipschütz.
SynodalblattGGWMayence1871 - 72I. Klingenstein. News of synods; supplement of "Israelitischer Lehrer."
Szombati UjságHuHuWBudapest1882 - 83S. Zsengeri.
Ta'am ZeḳenimHGMFrankfort o. M1854Eliezer Ashkenazl Scientific.
Tafereelen uit de Geschiedenis der IsraelietenDHoAAmsterdam1861 - 62M. L. v. Ameringen.
Tägliche PresseJADNew York1898George Selikovitsch. News.
Tägliche VolkszeitungJADNew York1899 -Official organ of the United Hebrew Trades.
Täglicher Herold, DerJADNew York1891 - *Michael Mintz. News. Weekly edition: "Der Volksadvokat."
Täglicher Jüdischer Courier, DerJADChicago1887 - *.
Tahdhib, Al-AEgWCairo1901 - *Murad Faraj al-Mahami for the Ta'ifat al-Isra'iliyin al-Karra'in bi-Masr. Karaite; news.
Tal TalpiyyotHHuM‡Waitzen1892 -D. Silberstein; then D. Katzburg. ‡ Then fortnightly.
TalpiyyotHRmWJassy1898 -E. Rokeah.
TalpiyyotHRABerdychev1895J. B. Lewin and B. Jerichimsohn. Literary.
Tanögyi EllenoörHuHu..Budapest1890S. Zsengeri.
Taschenbücher zur Belehrung der JugendGGABerlin1818 - 20Jeremiah Heinemann.
Taube, DieGHuWBudapest1876J. W. Bak. Juvenile.
Tcheweschki-PravaBBu..Philippopolis1899Moses Cohen. Political, economic, literary. Against anti-Semitism.
TebunahHGWMemel1861 - 62Israel Lipkin (Salanter). Rabbinical, religious.
Tefillah ZakkahHA..New York1890 - 91Pioniere der Freiheit.
Teḥiyyah, Ha-HAWChicago1899 - 1900.W. Schur. Literary, social news; progressive; Zionistic. Continuation of "Ha-Pisgah."
Teḥiyyah, Ha-HG
Tekunat Ruaḥ ha-YisraeliHA..New York1889 -Michael L. Rodkinson.
Telegraf, DerJAWNew York1890 - 99Osias Wagman.
Telegrafo, El (El Télégraphe)SpTConstantinople1872 - *David Fresco; then Moses Delmedico and Isaac Gabbai. Political, literary, and news. Founded as "El Télégraphe" to continue "El Jornal Israelith." ‡ Three times a week.
Temple, TheEAMWashington1898 -Gus. Nordlinger. Religious; local communal news.
Temple Bulletin, TheEAMMilwaukee............Temple Emanuel.
Tiempo, ElSpTConstantinople1871 - 80Mercado Fresco and S . Alkabez; then David Fresco. Political, literary, commercial, financial. ‡ Twice a week.
Tijdschrift van de Maatschappij tot Nut der Israelieten in Nederland.DHoIAmsterdam1849 - 51Literary, scientific. 3 vols.
Tiḳwah, Ha-JFWParis1897 -J. Bernas. Political, literary, scientific.
Tiḳwah, Ha-HAWNew York1901 -H. L. Selikowitz and H. J. Luria. Literary.
Tiḳwat, YisraelJAMNew York1893 -A. C. Gaebelein for the Tikwat Yisrael movement.
Tog, DerJRDSt. Petersburg1904 ‡L. Rabinowitz. News. ‡6 months.
ToleranzGGWBerlin1903 -Emil Schreiber. Against anti-Semitism.
ToleranzGA..New York1897M. Singer. Zionist. Continued as "Der Zionist."
Tor, Ha-HGaWKolomea1877 - 80Abraham Günzler. Political, general.
Torah mi-ẒiyyonHPaQ‡Jerusalem1886 - 99 ‡.Samuel Zuckermann. Rabbinical. ‡Irregular; 1886 - 87; 1896 - 99.
Traditionelle Judenthum, DasGHu.........................1869Moritz Ehrentheil. Religious(Orthodox).
Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England.EE..London1895 - *.
Tresoro, ElSpTFConstantinople1864 -Ezekiel Gabbai. Historical.
Tresoro, ElSpPa..Jerusalem1902.
Tresoro, ElB‡BuFRustchuk1894 - 96Solomon Saloniccio. Political, literary; news. ‡ Lithograph, in Rabbinic characters.
Treue Zionswächter, DerGGWAltona1845 - 55Samuel Enoch and Jacob Ettlinger. Religious (Orthodox). Supplement: "Shomer Ẓiyyon ha-Ne'eman."
Tribune PhilosémitiqueF...........................1883Gaston Rossetti. 3 numbers.
Tri-City AdvocateEAWDavenport, Iowa1904 - *Finesheiber.
Tushiyyah, Ha-HGa..Cracow1894Ben Abraham ha-Ze'ir.
Twice-a-MonthEAFLouisville............Organ of the Young Men's Hebrew Association.
Unabhängiges JournalGBoPrague1902 -Josef Stein. General. ‡3 times a month.
Ungarisch-Jüdische WochenschriftGHuWBudapest1871 - 72M. Kayserling and S. Kohn.
Ungarisch Jüdische Bote, DerGHu..Ungvär1882.
Ungarisch Jüdische SchulzeitungGHu..Budapest1873S. Zsengeri.
Ungarisch-Jüdisches ArchivHu, GHuMVar-Palata1890A. Singer.
Ungarische Israelit, DerGHuWBudapest1848Ignatz Einhorn. Reform.
Ungarische israelit, DerGHuW‡Budapest1874 - *J. W. Back, ; then Elias Back. General Jewish news; non-partisan. Supplement: "Homiletische Beilage." ‡ Weekly, then three times a month.
Ungarische WochenschriftG, HuHuWBudapest1895 - *M. Dornbusch; I. Gabel. Religious, social.
Union IsraéliteFFMParis1847 - 48 ‡.A. Créhange. ‡ Three months.
Univers Israélite, L'FFM, WParis1844 - *S. Bloch (1844-79); L. Wogue (1879-*). Political, historical, religious (Orthodox); news.
Unparteiische Beobachter, DerGAuFVienna1890 -Arthur S. Weissmann. Literary, news.
Unsere HoffnungGAuMVienna1904 - *Literary, historical; Zionistic; juvenile.
UrielEAMBoston1895N. H. Imber. Cabalistic. 1 number.
UstadhTT..Smyrna1889 - 91Moses Fresco. Rabbinical characters.
Verdad, LaSpTWSmyrna1884Bachor Ghayyat; David ibn Ezra; Raphael Cori.
Verdad, LaSpBuWSofia1898 - *A. Pipano. Political, literary.
Verdadero Progreso Israelito, ElSpFWParis1863Ezra Benveniste. Religious, moral, commercial. Several months.
Vérité, LaFFMParis1848A. Créhange. General.
Vérité Israélite, LaFFWParis1860 - 63Abraham Cohen (1860-62). Supplement: "Le Foyer Israélite."
Vessillo Israelitico, IlIIMCasale Monferrata1853 - *Flaminio Servi. Historical, scientific, religious. "Educatore Israélite" until 1874.
Vestnik BundaRSw..Geneva*Published by the "Bund."
Vigio Israélite (Shomer Yisrael)A, F..WOran1885 - 93 ‡.Joseph Djian. Reform. ‡ Except 1887 - 92.
ViiteruloF, RmRmWBucharest1867A. Levy.
Vocea SionuluiRmRm..Ploesti1898A. S. Gold and A. D. Rosen.
Voice of Israel, TheEAWSan Francisco1856Bien.
Voice of JacobEEFLondon1841 - 48Jacob Franklin. News; Orthodox. Succeeded by "The Anglo-Jewish Magazine."
Voice of JacobEAl..Sydney1842George Moss. 6 months.
Voice of JacobE....Gibraltar1882.
Voice of SinaiEInFCalcutta1904 - *.
Voix d'Israël (Israel's Stimme)F, GFMMülhausen1865S. Dreyfuss.
Volks Luach, DerJAANew York1898Abraham M. Sharkansky.
Volksadvokat, DerJAWNew York1887- *George Selikovitsch. Weekly ed. of "Der Täglicher Herold."
Volksblatt, DasJG..Leipsic1853 - 60Ludwig Philippson. Belletristic.
VolksblattJAWNew York1889David Apotheker.
Volksfreund, DerJAWPittsburg1889 - *Joseph S. Glick. Literary; news; Zionistic.
Volkswächter, DerJAWPhiladelphia189John Paley.
VorwärtsJADNew York1897 - *Jewish Socialistic Press Federation. Socialistic.
VorwärtsJAANew York1902 -.
VoskhodRRM ‡St. Petersburg1881 - *Adolf Landau (1881-99); G. Syrkin (1899-*). Scientific, historical. socio-political, belletristic. Supplement: "Nedylnaya Khronika Voskhoda" (weekly). ‡ Weekly from 1879 to 1881. Suspended by the government in April, 1904; resumed Oct., 1904.
Voz del PuebloSpTWPhilippopolis1899 -Calev.
Vrai Progrès Israélit, LeFFMParis1864Ezra Benveniste.
Vraie Parole, LaFF..Paris1893 - 94Isidor Singer. Against anti-Semitism.
Vrije Woord, HetDHoWAmsterdam1895 - 96News. 5 numbers.
Wa-Yelaḳḳet YosefHHuFMunkacs1899 -Josef Schwarz. Rabbinic, halakic.
Wa'ad, Ha-HAuMVienna1889Jacob Kopelowitz. Historical, literary. 3 numbers.
Wa'ad ḤakamimH..FJaslowitz1898 -H. B. Zitron. Rabbinic (pilpul and halakah).
Wacht Israels, DieGHuWKaschau1872 -M. N. Rottenberg. News (school and communal); with feuilleton.
Wächter, DerJAWNew York1893J. Jaffar. 8 numbers.
Wahrheit, DieGAuWVienna1899 -M. Löwy. General. Supplement; "Oesterreichisch-Ungarische Kantoren Zeitung."
Wahrheit, DieJHuMMáramaros Sziget1896Hirsch Löb Gottlieb. 2 numbers.
Wahrheit, DieJAWNew York1889Pioneers of Liberty. Anarchistic. 20 numbers.
Wahrheit, DieGAWSt. Louis1871 -S. H. Sonneschein. Literary, political, religious (Reform).
Warschauer Jüdische ZeitungJPoWWarsaw1867Hillel Gleitstern.
Webersche Zeitung, DieAWNew York1888Morris Wechsler. ‡ Hungarian jargon.
Wecker, DerJGaFLemberg1894 -News; with feuilleton.
Weekblad voor Israelieten.........................................See "Nieuwsblaad voor Israelieten."
Weekblad voor IsraelietenDHoWRotterdam1875 -M. L. van Ploeg.
Weekblad voor Israelietische HuisgezinenDHoWRotterdam1870 - *Gebr. Haagens. Popular-scientific.
Weekly Gleaner, TheEA..San Francisco1862 -Julius Eckmann.
Weg, DerJAuMVienna1903Zionist. 2 numbers.
Wegweiser in der Amerikaner Business-Welt, DerJAWNew York1892Nahum Meïr Sharkewitz. Commercial.
Welt, DieGAuWVienna1897 - *Various editors, then S. Werner. Economic; Zionistic; Organ of the Action's Committee of the Zionist Movement.
Welt, DieJAWNew York1887Rayevsky.
Wiedergeburt, Die (La Régénération)G, FFMStrasburg1836 - 37Simon Bloch. General; news.
Wiederkol, DasJPo..Warsaw1894.
Wiener Israelit, DerJAuVienna1873 - 80Wilhelm Weiss. Political, financial, Jewish news. ‡ Weekly, then three times a week.
Wiener JahrbuchGAuAVienna1866 - 68Simon Sz´ntó (1866-68). Continuing "Jahrbuch für Israeliten."
Wiener Jüdische Illustrirte Presse, DieGAuWVienna1877 -Leo Fein. Political, commercial, scientific; Jewish news.
Wiener Jüdische PresseGAu..Vienna1899 -Wilhelm Morgenstern. Orthodox.
Wiener Jüdische ZeitungJAu..Vienna1874 - 76Marcus Weissmann.
Wiener MittheilungenGAu..Vienna1854 - 66Max Letteris. Scientific (Jewish and Oriental), historical, artistic.
Wiener Monatsblätter für Kunst und LitteraturGAuMVienna1851 - 52Max Letteris. Literary.
Wiener VierteljahrsschriftGAuQVienna1853Max Letteris. Supplement: "Abne Nezer."
Wiestnik Russkikh YevrievRRWSt. Petersburg1871 - 73Alexander Zederbaum.
Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für Jüdische TheologieGG..1835 - 48Abraham Geiger. Theological (progressive), scientific, critical. ‡i., ii., Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1835 - 36; iii., iv., Stuttgart, 1837 - 39; v., Grünberg and Leipsic, 1844; vi. 1 - 3, ib. 1847 - 48.
Wochenblatt für die FamilieGHoWRotterdam............Scientific.
YagdilTorahHROdessa1871 - 81M. E. Belinson. Rabbinical.
Yagdil TorahHGFBerlin1890 - 93Ackermann.
Yahadut, Ha-HGaLemberg1887Reuben Brundes and J. Meisach. Literary, scientific. ‡ Several times a month.
Yalḳuṭ Ma'arabiHAANew York1904 -Ohole Shem (association). Literary.
Yareaḥ, Ha-HGMKönigsberg1872 -A. Süsskind. Religious (ultra-conservative), literary. Supplement: "Meged Yeraḥim, " news and scientific.
Yareaḥ, Ha-.............................1845.
Year Book of the Central Conference of American Rabbis.EAACincinnati1890 - *.
Yehudah wi-YerushalayimHPaFJerusalem1877 - 78Joel Moses ben Solomon. Religious.
Yehudah wi-YerushalayimHPaMJerusalem1901 - *Abraham Rotenberg and Joeb Moses ben Solomon. General.
Yehudi, Ha-HHu ‡WPresburg ‡1875 - 80Jacob Fischer. Literary. ‡ Vienna, 1880.
Yehudi, Ha-HEWLondon1898 -I. Suwalsky. Political, Orthodox; Zionistic.
Yehudi ha-Niẓḥi, Ha-HGaMLemberg1866Joseph Kohen-Ẓedeḳ. Historical. 4 numbers.
YerushalayimH..1844 - 45Jacob Bodek and A. M. Mohr. ‡Irregular: No. 1, Jerusalem (Zolkiev), 1844; No. 2, Lemberg, 1845; No. 3, Prague, 1845.
YerushalayimH‡Pa‡A‡Jerusalem‡1882 - *A. M. Luncz. Historical and archeological. ‡i., Hebrew and German, Vienna, 1882; ii., iii., iv., Hebrew and German, Jerusalem, 1887, '89, '92. Later quarterly.
YerushalayimHGaB-MCracow1900 - 1J. Kreppel. Literary, belletristic. 5 numbers.
YerushalayimHPa..Jerusalem1878 - 79Anonymous. Ashkenazic; to combat "Ha-Ḥabaẓẓelet."
Yeshurun.........................................See "Jeschurun."
Yevreiskaya BibliotekaRRMSt. Petersburg1871 - 80A. E. Landau. Historical, literary. 9 vols.
Yevreiskaya Familnaya BibliotekaRR..St. Petersburg1903 -Rywkin.
Yevreiskaya ZizuRRMSt. Petersburg1904 - *N. Rywkin. Popular-scientific; Zionistic.
Yevreiski YezhegodnikRRASt. Petersburg1901I. Lurie.
Yevreiskiya ZopiskiRRMRiga1881 -A. Pumpyanski. Literary, historical.
Yevreiskoe ObozryenieRRMSt. Petersburg1884M. Rabbinowicz and L. O. Kantor. Historical, literary.
Yiddish. See Jüdisch.
YisraelHGa..Kolomea............Osias Fadenhecht.
Yisraeli, Ha-JGWMayence1873 - 79Jehiel Brill. Political and Jewish news.
YisrulikJGaWLemberg1875 - 76Isaac Linetzki and A. Goldfaden.
Yizra'elH..W.......................1887 - 90Eliezer Roḳeaḥ.
Yo'eẓ, Ha-JRmS-W ‡Bucharest1876 -Josef Asiel. Political, literary, commercial, social; for Palestinian colonization. ‡ Weekly at first.
Yom, Ha-HRDSt. Petersburg1886 - 87Judah Löb Cantor. Political, commercial, with weekly literary and scientific supplement.
Yom, Ha-HGaDCracow1904 - *
Yom-Ṭob BlätterJAI ‡New York1897 - 99Ch. Minikes. ‡Jewish and American holidays.
Yonah, Ha-, or Keneset YisraelHGMBerlin1851, 1860Senior Sachs. Literary, scientific. Supplement: "Kanfe Yonah" (1848 sic!).
Yontev-BlättlechJPo.........................1894 - 96J. L. Perez.
Yosef Da'at (El Progreso)H, Sp‡TMAdrianople1888 - 89Abraham Danon. Historical (Jews of the Orient). ‡And Turkish, Hebrew characters.
Young IsraelEEMLondon1897 - 1901.L. J. Greenberg and Joseph Jacobs. Juvenile. Title "Israel" from 1899.
Young IsraelE ‡AMNew York ‡1871 -Louis Schnabel; then M. C. Gunsberg. Juvenile until 1900, then also general literary; illustrated. Title changed to "Israel's Home Journal" in 1901. ‡ And Philadelphia; at first English and German.
Young Men's Hebrew Association MagazineEAFNew Orleans1903 - * .
Ẓebi, Ha-(Ha-Ẓebi)HPaWJerusalem1876 - 1900.Eliezer Ben-Judah. Scientific, literary, social, political (colonization of Palestino, and introduction of modern civilization there). Supplement: "Ha-'Ikkar ha-Yehudi" (agricultural, 1899). Continued as "Hashkafah."
Ẓebi le-Bet YisraelJPaFJerusalem1892 - 93H. Ben-Jacob. One year.
Ẓefirah, Ha- (Ha-Ẓefirah)HPoWWarsaw1862 - 63Ḥayyim Slonimski. General, scientific; news. From 1886 Nahum Sokolow coeditor; ‡ Daily. General political and Jewish news. ‡ But Berlin, 1874 - 75.
1874 - *
Ẓefirah, Ha-HG..Leipsic1824Max Letteris. Literary, historical. 1 number.
Ẓefirah, Tif'eretHAuMVienna1850 - 51Max Letteris. Supplement of "Wiener Blätter." 12 numbers.
Zeichen der ZeitGAMChicago1863 - 65Chronik. Religious and social; radical.
Zeit, DieGHuFBudapest1878 - 81Albert Stern. Theological and historical (in popular form). Title "Ha-Mehakker" until 1880.
Zeit, DieJAMNew York1897 - 98Menahem Dolitzky. General Jewish; Zionistic.
Zeitgeist, DerGAFChicago ‡1880 - 83Isaac L. Moses. Critical, religious (radical). ‡ And Milwaukee.
Zeitschrift für die Gesch, der Juden in DeutschlandGGQBrunswick1887 - 92Ludwig Geiger. Historical. Organ of the Historische Commission für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland.
Zeitschrift für die Reifere Jugend JugenedJG..Fürth1817H. Schwabucher. Religious.
Zeitschrift für die Religiösen Interessen des JudenthumsGG..Berlin1844 - 46Z. Frankel. Religious, scientific, literary. Continued in 1851 as "Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums."
Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des JudenthumsGG..Berlin1822 - 23Leopold Zunz. Scientific. 3 numbers.
Zeitschrift für Hebräische BibliographieGGB-MFrankfort o. M ‡1896 ‡ - *Heinrich Brody (and A. Freimann (since 1900). Bibliographical. ‡ Berlin 1896 - 98; not published in 1899.
Zeitschwingen, DieGAu..Vienna1848Isidor Busch and Max Letteris.
Zeitung..Ga..Lemberg1848A. M. Mohr.
ZeitungJFWMetz1789 - 93.
Zeitung für's JudenthumGAu..Vienna1848Isidor Busch and Max Letteris.
ZemanT ‡T..Constantinople1872Anonymous. ‡ Hebrew characters.
Zeman, Ha-HGaFCracow1890 - 91Reuben Braudes. Literary; news. 9 months.
Zeman, Ha-HRSt. Petersburg1903 -Ben-Zion Katz. Zionist; with 4 supplements a year. ‡ Several times a week.
Zeman, Ha-HAWNew York1895 - 96Ḥayyim Enowitz and Joseph Gabreelow. 6 months.
Zeror ha-MorHPaMJerusalem1892S. E. Tiktin. Stories.
ZerubabelGGMBerlin1886 - 89Willy Bambus and others. Jewish nationalistic.
Zimrat ha-AreẓHRmQJassy1872Mattathias Rabener. Religious.
ZionGGFBerlin1833 - 35Cohn. Religious.
ZionGGMBerlin1895 -Heinrich Loewe (1895-97); then W. Bambus. Zionist.
ZionJAWNew York1898Miaszud. Organ of the League of Zionist Societies of the United States.
Zion.........................................See "Razsvyet."
Zion Messenger, TheEAMChicago1904 - *Organ of The Knights of Zion.
Zionist, DerJAMNew York1898Isaac Meirky for the Ohebe Ẓiyyon. Zionistic. 4 numbers.
Zionist, DerJA.........................1897 -M. Singer. Formerly "Toleranz."
Zionistische MonatshefteGSwMGeneva1903 -D. Pasmanik and L. Felix Pinkus. Zionist (Scientific).
Zionistische RundschauGAuW ‡Vienna ‡1898Herman Berliner. Zionist (religious and political). ‡ And Zurich; semiweekly after Oct., 1898.
Zion's Monat-BlattJAMNew York1899 -William Broch. Formerly "Jüdische Monats-Blätter" (German).
Ẓir, Ha-HGa..Lemberg1860 - 62Weber.
Ẓir Ne'emanHAuFVienna1882 -David L. Lewin. General news, literary; with feuilleton.
ẒiyyonHGMFrankfort o. M1841 - 42Michael Creizenach and I. Marcus Jost. Scientific, historical, biographical, bibliographical, religious (Reform).
ẒiyyonHGaIDrohobyez1885 - 88A. H. Zupnik. Literary.
ẒiyyonHGaMDrohobycz1896 - 97A. H. Zupnik. Scientific.
Ẓiyyon he-ḤadashHG..Leipsic1845Jacob Goldenthal. Scientific, religious (Reform). 1 number.
Ẓofeh, Ha-.........................................Literary supplement of "Ha-Maggid."
Ẓofeh, Ha-.........................................See "Jewish Observer, The."
Ẓofeh, Ha-HGaFLemberg1878 -Abush Eisner. News, literary; scientific.
Ẓofeh, Ha-HPoDWarsaw1902 -
Ẓofeh ba-Areẓ ha-Ḥadashah, Ha-HAWNew York1870 - 76Mordecai ben David Jalomstein.
Ẓofeh be-Ereẓ Nod, Ha-HA.....................................Sobel.
Ẓofeh le-Bet Yisrael, Ha-HGaMCracow1890 -Gershon Bader. Literary.
Ẓofeh le-Bet Yisrael, Ha-HEFLondon1887M. D. Goldman and Ḥayyim Bash.
Zsidó EvkongoHuHu..Budapest1875 - *Josef Kiss.
Zsidó HiradóHuHu..Budapest1892 - *"Vidar" (Daniel Weiss). Orthodox.
Zsidó Iskolai és Hitköztégi LapokHuHu..Budapest1869 - 71Nathan Fischer.
Zsidó NeplapHuHu..Budapest1903 - *I. Bokor. Zionistic.
Zsidó NöHuHu..Budapest1900S. Weiss. For Jewish women.
Zukunft, DieJAMNew York1892 - *Scientific, socialistic. Old series 1892-97; new series 1902- *.
Zukunft, DieJEWLondon1884 -Rabbinowicz and Werber; Boris Winestone. Labor organ. Continuation of "Der Polischer Jüdel."
Zur Judenfrage in DeutschlandGGMBerlin1843 - 44Wilhelm Freund. Political (Reform and emancipation).
Zweepje, HetDHoWAmsterdam1875 - 76Satyrical; directed against the "Onafhankelijk Israelietisch Orgaan voor Neder land." 16 numbers.
Country.Number of Journals (Excluding Annuals) in Each Language.Totals.
Egypt and North AfricaF4(1)A7(3)F-A111(4)
GaliciaP4P-H 1G7(2)H55(10)J18(4)G-H2(1)87(17)
HollandD29(4)G1F 1H3J1Sp136(4)
RumaniaRm13(1)Sp1Rm-F1H3J8Sp-H-Rm 127(1)
South AfricaE2(1)J2(2)4(3)
South AmericaJ1Sp12
Sp-H-T 1Sp-T-Gr-B 1F1(1)
Australia E 11 (2); Belgium F 1; Bosnia Sp 1; Canada E 1 (1); China E 1 (1); China E 1 (1); Corfu Gr 2 (1), I 1, H-I 1; Curaçao Sp 1; Denmark Danish 1; Gibraltar Sp 2 E 1; Jamaica E 2; Mexico Sp 1; Servia Sp 1.
Languages (totals; journals printed in more than one language are listed under one only): A 12 (3); B 7 (1); D 29 (4); Danish 1; E 199 (66); F 37 (6); G 218 (38); Gr 2 (1); H 199 (22); Hu 23 (8); I 10 (5); J 191 (37); M 4 (2); P 9 (1); R 19 (9); Rm 14 (1) ; Sp 53 (7); T 4; grand total 1059 (211).
Note.—The figures immediately following each abbreviation indicate the number of periodicals (including newspapers, but excluding almanacs, year-books, and other annuals) that have been established in the language and in the country in question. The figures in parentheses indicate the number of these periodicals still (1904) being published, as far as has been ascertained: the actual numbers are larger than those given.