Russian political economist and sociologist; born in the year 1854. He is the son of a Jewish teacher at Grodno (see "Ha-Shaḥar," v. 273). After studying law in the University of St. Petersburg, he held for some time a subordinate position in the Ministry of Justice. He published his "Khronologiya Russkoi Istorii," a chronology of Russian history, in 1872 (St. Petersburg), and in the following year his "Khronologiya Vseobschei i Russkoi Istoril," which has been frequently reprinted (14th ed., ib. 1897). His "Istoriya Rossii dlya Narodnykh Uchilisheh," a history of Russia for the public schools, enjoyed a like popularity (14th ed., ib. 1896). In 1876 he began to publish the yearly "Yuridicheski Kalendar." In 1889 appeared his "De l'Organisation des Partis Politiques aux Etats Unis" (Paris; reprinted from the "Annales de l'Ecole Libre des Science Politique,"). His "La Femme, au Point de Vue du Droit Public" (Paris, 1892) was crowned by the Faculté de Droit of Paris and has been translated into both German and English ("The Rights of Woman," London, 1893). "De l'Organisation de Partis Politiques" subsequently formed the basis of a larger work, in three volumes, on the political parties of Great Britain and the United States, of which an English translation appeared under the title "Democracy and the Organization of Political Parties," with a preface by James Bryce (New York, 2 vols., 1902).

  • Brokhaus-Efron, Entziklopedicheski Slovar;
  • New York Times, Dec. 27, 1902.
H. R. P. Wi.
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