Representative of the Bavarian Jews and champion of their emancipation; born at Munich; died there Sept. 8, 1837. He was liberal-minded and progressive. As early as Feb. 24, 1805, in a letter addressed to a nobleman he pleaded for the civic emancipation of his coreligionists. In 1821, as representative of a meeting of notables held at Munich, he presented to the king a memorial referring to the question of emancipation; and in 1827 he laid before the Bavarian ministry a proposition regarding the organization of the communities with a consistorial constitution. In the same year he prepared for the press the prayer-book with Alexander Behr's German translation (Munich). For twenty-five years he was president of the community of Munich, which owes to him the erection of a large synagogue and the establishment of several charitable foundations.

  • Henle, Ueber die Verfassung der Juden im Königreiche Baiern, p. 41;
  • Allg. Zeit. des Jud. i. 305;
  • Sulamith, iii., part 2, pp. 402 et seq. (contains the above-mentioned memorial).
S. M. K.
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