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Russian Ḥasidic rabbi; born about 1770; died 1834. He was the son of R. Shneor Zalman of Liady, the founder of the Ḥasidic sect known as "Ḥabad," and succeeded his father as their chief. He is the author of the following Ḥasidic-cabalistic works: "Derek Ḥayyim" (Kopys, 1799, 1809); "Sha'ar ha-Teshubah" (Shklov, 1817); "'Aṭeret Rosh" (Kopys, 1821); "Poḳeaḥ 'Iwwerim," on morals and penitence, in Judaeo-German (Königsberg, 1856). He wrote also "Ḳunṭres ha-Hitbonnenut" and "Ḳunṭres ha-Hitpa'alut," on contemplation and on ecstasy, in which he developed his father's philosophico-cabalistic theories. The first of these appeared at the end of "Torah Or" (Lemberg, 1851), ascribed by some authorities to him (see Walden, "Shem ha-Gedolim he-Ḥadash," part 2, p. 77, Warsaw, 1882). The second appeared first in 1831, and was later reprinted with an extensive commentary by R. Hillel of Parets(Warsaw, 1868). The "Bi'ure ha-Zohar" (Kopys [?], 1816) was written by him, but contained only the explanations to the Zohar which he had heard from his father.

  • Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, pp. 187-188, Warsaw, 1886;
  • Ha-Shaḥar, vi. 101;
  • Keneset Yisrael (the year-book), iii. 213 et seq.;
  • Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 210.
S. S. P. Wi.
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