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The art of printing. The invention of printing was welcomed by the Jews as "the art of writing with many pens." From the time of the earlier printers reference is made to their craft as "holy work" ("'Abodat ha-Ḳodesh"). It may here be treated under the two headings of history and characteristics.

I. History:

The history of Hebrew printing is divided into five stages, of which only a sketch can be attempted in this place, many of the details being already treated under the names of prominent printers or presses. The five stages of Hebrew typography are as follows: I., 1475-1500, incunabula in southern Europe; II., 1500-42, spread to north and east; III., 1542-1627, supremacy of Venice; IV., 1627-1732, hegemony of Amsterdam; V., 1732-1900, modern period, in which Frankfort, Vienna, and, more recently, Wilna and Warsaw have come to the front. For the most part Hebrew printing has been done by Jews, but the printing of Bibles has been undertaken also by Christian typographers, especially at the university towns of Europe. These productions, for lack of space, are for the most part to be neglected in the following sketch.

  • I. (1475-1500): It was twenty years before the Jews made use of the art for Hebrew printing, as the conditions in Germany did not admit of their doing so there; and all the Hebrew printing of the fifteenth century was done in the Italian and Iberian peninsulas, where about 100 works were produced before 1500. Hebrew printing began in Italy; and apart from Reggio di Calabria, where the first printed book was produced in 1475, and Rome, where possibly the earliest Hebrew press was set up, printing was centered about Mantua, where it began in 1477. In the same year Ferrara and Bologna started printing. The chief printer family of Italy was that of the Soncinos, which besides working at Mantua printed at Casale-Maggiore, Soncino, Brescia, Naples, and Barca. Bible, Talmud, and ritual, halakic, and ethical works naturally formed the chief subjects of printing in these early days. In Spain, Hebrew printing began at Guadalajara in 1482, went three years later to Ixar, and finished at Zamora, while in Portugal it began at Faro in 1487, went to Lisbon in 1489, and finished at Leiria in 1792. The total number of books printed in Spain and Portugal amounted to only 17. The early types were rough in form; but the presswork for the most part was excellent, and the ink and paper were of very enduring quality. Owing to the work of the censor and the persecution of the Jews, the early productions of the Hebrew presses of Italy and the Iberian Peninsula are extremely rare, one-fifth of them being unique (for further particulars see Incunabula).
Second Period. From the Tractate Baba Meẓi'a, Soncino, 1515.
  • II. (1500-42): This period is distinguished by the spread of Jewish presses to the Turkish and Holy Roman empires. In Constantinople, Hebrew printing was introduced by David Naḥmias and his son Samuel about 1503; and they were joined in the year 1530 by Gershon Soncino, whose work was taken up after his death by his son Eleazar (see Constantinople—Typography). Gershon Soncino put into type the first Karaite work printed (Bashyaẓi's "Adderet Eliyahu.") in 1531. In Salonica, Don Judah Gedaliah printed about 30 Hebrew works from 1500 onward, mainly Bibles, and Gershon Soncino, the Wandering Jew of early Hebrew typography, joined his kinsman Moses Soncino, who had already produced 3 works there (1526-27); Gershon printed the Aragon Maḥzor (1529) and Ḳimḥi's "Shorashim" (1533). The prints of both these Turkish citieswere not of a very high order. The works selected, however, were important for their rarity and literary character. The type of Salonica imitates the Spanish Rashi type.Turning to Germany, the first Jewish press was set up in Prague by Gershon ben Solomon Cohen, who founded in that city a family of Hebrew printers, known commonly as "the Gersonides." He began printing in 1513 with a prayer-book, and during the period under review confined himself almost exclusively to this class of publications, with which he supplied Jewish Germany and Poland. He was joined about 1518 by Ḥayyim ben David Schwartz, who played in northern Europe the same wandering rôle the Soncinos assumed in the south. From 1514 to 1526 he worked at Prague, but in 1530 he was found at Oels in Silesia, printing a Pentateuch with the Megillot and Hafṭarot. He transferred his activity to the southwest at Augsburg, where in 1533 he published Rashi on the Pentateuch and Megillot, the next year a Haggadah, in 1536 a letter-writer and German prayer-book, and in 1540 an edition of the Ṭurim, followed by rimed Judæo-German versions of Kings (1543) and Samuel (1544). In 1544 he moved to Ichenhausen, between Augsburg and Ulm, and finally settled in 1546 at Heddernheim, where he published a few works. At Augsburg, 1544, the convert Paulus Emilius printed a Judæo-German Pentateuch. Three works of this period are known to have been printed at Cracow, the first of them, in 1534, a commentary of Israel Isserlein on "Sha'are Durah" with elaborately decorated title-page.V12p296001.jpgFrom Tractate 'Erubin, Printed by Bomberg, Venice, 1521.Other towns of Germany also printed Hebrew works during this period, but they were mainly portions of the Biblical books, mostly editions of the Psalms, produced by Christian printers for Christian professors, as at Cologne (1518), Wittenberg (1521 onward), Mayence (1523), Worms (1529), and Leipsic (1538). To these should be added Thomas Anshelm's edition of the Psalms at Tübingen in 1512. It was followed by his edition of Ḳimḥi's grammar at Hagenau, 1519. With these may be mentioned the Paris printers of the sixteenth century (from 1508 onward), who produced grammars and Bibles (see Paris).V12p296002.jpgFrom the First Illustrated Printed Haggadah, Prague, 1526.
Daniel Bomberg. Specimens of Small Format.

Returning to the earlier home of Hebrew printing, a considerable number of towns in Italy had Hebrew presses early in the sixteenth century, mainly through the activity of Gershon Soncino, who is found in Fano (1515), Pesaro (1517), Ortona (1519), and Rimini (1521); other presses were temporarily worked in Trino, Genoa, and Rome, the last under Elijah Levita. In Bologna nine works were produced between 1537 and 1541, mainly prayer-books and responsa. Above all, this period is distinguished in Italy by the foundation and continuance of the Venetian press under the guidance of Daniel Bomberg, a Dutchman from Antwerp. His thirty-five years' activity from 1515 to 1549 was in a measure epoch-making for Hebrew typography. His productions shared in all the excellence of the Venice press, and included the first rabbinic Bible in 1517, the first complete edition of the Babylonian Talmud in 1520 (its pagination is followed at the present day), a large number of editions of the Bible in whole or part, several grammatical, lexicographic, and midrashic works, seven commentaries on the Pentateuch, six responsa collections, philosophical and ethical writings, and several rituals, including a Tefillah and a Maḥzor according to the Spanish rite, one according to the Greek rite (Maḥzor Romania), and a Karaite one. Finally, reference should be made to the university press of Basel, where the Frobens produced Hebrew works in a remarkably clear type, with the letters slanting to the left, somewhat after the manner of the early Mantua editions. Froben began in 1516 with an edition of the Psalms, and produced many of the works of Elijah Levita and Sebastian Münster. Altogether Schwab (in "Incunables Orientaux," pp. 49-128) enumerates about 430 works produced between 1500 and 1540. Allowing for omissions by him, not more than 600 works were produced between 1475 and 1540.

From the "Wikkuaḥ" Printed by Sebastian Münster, Basel, 1539.
  • III. (1542-1627): The third period is distinguished by the activity of the censor, which lasted for two centuries or more in southern and eastern Europe. The principle of regulating the books to be read by the faithful, and even by the unfaithful, was inaugurated by the Roman Curia in 1542, though the first carrying out of it was with the burning of the Talmud in 1554. But even previous to that date Jews had taken precautions to remove all cause of offense. About 1542 Meïr Katzenellenbogen censored the seliḥot of the German rite, and Schwartz adopted his changes in the edition which he published at Heddernheim in 1546.
Third Period. Supremacy of Venice. From Pentateuch, Sabbionetta, 1557.

Resuming the history of the Italian presses, that of Venice first engages attention. Bomberg was not allowed to have a monopoly of Hebrew printing, which had been found to be exceptionally profitable. Other Christians came into the field, especially Marco Antonio Giustiniani, who produced twenty-five works between 1545 and 1552. Another competitor arose in the person of Aloisio Bragadini, who began printing in 1550. In the competition both parties appealed to Rome; and their disputes brought about the burning of the Talmud in 1554 at Ferrara, and the strict enforcement of the censorship, even in Venice, the presses of which stopped printing Hebrew books for eight years. Similar competition appears to have taken place with regard to the Hebrew typesetters whom these Christian printers were obliged to employ. Cornelius Adelkind and his son, German Jews of Padua, first worked with Bomberg, and then were taken over by Farri (1544), and they appear to have also worked for both Bragadini and Giustiniani. There was a whole body of learned press-revisers. Among them should be mentioned Jacob b. Ḥayyim,the editor of the rabbinic Bible, and Meïr Katzenellenbogen, who helped to edit Maimonides' "Yad" (1550). When Venice ceased for a time to issue Hebrew books, printing was taken up in Ferrara (1551-1557) by Abraham Usque, who printed the "Consolaçam" of his brother Samuel Usque (1553). In Sabbionetta (1551-59) Tobias Foa printed about twenty works, among them a very correct edition of the Targum on the Pentateuch, employing the ubiquitous Adelkind to print a fine edition of the "Moreh" and an edition of the Talmud in parts, only one of which is extant. The Sabbionetta types are said to have gone back to Venice when the Bragadinis resumed work. In Cremona a Hebrew press was set up in 1556 by Vincentio Conti, who issued altogether forty-two works up to 1560, including the first edition of the Zohar, 2,000 copies of which were saved with difficulty from the fires of the Inquisition. His first edition of Menahem Zioni's commentary was not so fortunate; notwithstanding that it had received the license of the censor, it was burnt. About thirty-three works were produced during this period at Riva di Trento by Joseph Ottolenghi under the auspices of Cardinal Madruz, whose titular hat appears upon the title-pages of the volumes.

Reverting to Venice, printing was resumed in 1564 by Giovanni de Gara, who took up the work of Bomberg, and between 1564 and 1569 produced more than 100 different works, making use of Christian as well as Jewish typesetters, among the latter being Leon of Modena in the years 1595-1601. Besides Gara there were Grippo, Georgio de Cavalli, and the Zanetti family, but none of them could compete with the activity of the Bragadinis, which was resumed about the same time. They made use of Samuel Archevolti and Leon of Modena among their typesetters. It is worthy of mention that several important works appeared at Venice from printing establishments which can not be identified, including the editio princeps of the Shulḥan 'Aruk (1565). A few works were printed at Rome (1546-81) by Antonio Bladao and Francesco Zanetti, and a couple of works in Verona by Francesco delle Donne.

From a Seliḥah, Heddernheim, 1546.From the Hutter Bible, Hamburg, 1587, Showing Hollow Servile Letters.

The greatest activity in Italy outside Venice was that carried on at Mantua by the Rufenellis, who employed Joseph Ashkenazi and Meïr Sofer, both from Padua, as their chief typesetters. Their activity was followed by that of Ephraim b. David of Padua and Moses b. Katriel of Prague, both working in the last decade of the sixteenth century, the latter for the publishers Norzi brothers. AltogetherZunz enumerates seventy-three works produced at Mantua during the third period, including a "Sefer Yeẓirah," "Tanḥuma," Aboab's "Menorat ha-Ma'or," and an edition of Abot in Italian.

Froben and Waldkirch.

During this period the Hebrew press of Basel received new light in the advent from Italy of Israel b. Daniel Sifroni, one of those wandering master workmen who, like Soncino and Schwartz, characterized the early history of Hebrew printing. Through his workmanship a number of important works were produced by Froben of Basel between 1578 and 1584, including a Babylonian Talmud, Isaac Nathan's Concordance, and the "'Ir Gibborim," whose publisher in Prague, finding that he could not have printing done as well there as by Sifroni, sent it to the latter in Basel. In the year 1583-84 Sifroni was working for Froben at Freiburg-im-Breisgau, where he printed several Judæo-German works, including the Five Megillot with glossary in red ink; he printed also an edition of Benjamin of Tudela's "Travels." Froben's success, like that of Bomberg, induced other Christian printers to join in competition, as Guarin (for whom Sifroni also worked), Beber, and especially Conrad Waldkirch, who from 1598 on published a Great Tefillah, an 'Aruk, an Alfasi in octavo, and "Synagogue Music and Songs" by Elijah b. Moses Loans, who was for a time Waldkirch's corrector for the press. Mordecai b. Jacob of Prossnitz, who, as shown below, had had a large printing experience in the east of Europe, also assisted Waldkirch in 1622. After his departure the Basel Hebrew prints became scarcer, and were confined mainly to the productions of the Buxtorfs, while only sporadic Hebrew works were produced at Altdorf, Bern, and Zurich (where, however, one of the finest specimens of Hebrew printing had been produced in the Judæo-German "Yosippon" of 1546). Reference may be here made to prints of Paulus Fagius at Constance in 1643-44, mainly with Judæo-German or Latin translations. Altogether the total number of Hebrew works produced in Switzerland was not more than fifty.

The history of the Hebrew press in Denmark deserves treatment in fuller detail, as it has been recently investigated by Simonsen. In 1598 Heinrich Waldkirch imported some inferior Hebrew type to Copenhagen from Wittenberg; but nothing of importance was printed during the following three decades. In 1631 Solomon Sartor published some excerpts from the Bible; and in 1663 Henrik Göde printed similar extracts. In 1734 Marius Fogh (who later became city magistrate of Odense) published an edition of Isaac Abravanel's commentary on Gen. xlix. This work, which bore the imprint of the Copenhagen publishing-house of I. C. Rothe, was for sale as late as 1893. Christian Nold's concordance of the Bible appeared in 1679 from the press of Corfitz Luft in Copenhagen, and the solid quarto volume, containing 1,210 pages, gives evidence of the author's diligence, as well as of the printer's skill and care. A Lutheran pastor, Lauritz Petersen, in Nyköbing on the island of Falster, published in 1640 a new Hebrew versification of the Song of Solomon, intended as a wedding-present for the son of King Christian IV. and his bride Magdalena Sibylla. This work, which was entitled "Canticum Canticorum Salomonis," consisted of Hebrew verse with Danish translation, and with various melodies added; it was printed by Melchior Martzau. Samuel ben Isaac of Schwerin published in 1787 some Talmudic annotations entitled "Minḥat Shemu'el," printed by the Copenhagen firm of Thiele, but showing evidence of lack of skill.

From a Commentary on Song of Songs, Safed, 1578.Fagius and Hene. From a Commentary on Pirḳe Abot, Cracow, 1589.

To revert to Switzerland, Fagius printed a number of Biblical, grammatical, and polemical works at Isny, with the help of Elijah Levita, who produced there the "Tishbi," "Meturgeman," and "Baḥur," besides a German translation of the "Sefer ha-Middot" in 1542, which is now very rare. Another Christian printer who is mentioned throughout this period is Hans Jacob Hene, who produced about thirty Jewish works in Hebrew at Hanau (1610-30). He cateredmore to the students of the Talmud and Halakah, producing three responsa collections, three commentaries on the Talmud, the Ṭur and Shulḥan 'Aruk, and three somewhat similar codes, as well as a number of Judæo-German folk editions like the "Zuchtspiegel" or the "Brandspiegel" (1626), and the "Weiberbuch" of Benjamin Aaron Solnik. Among his typesetters were a couple of the Ulmas, of the Günzburg family, and Mordecai b. Jacob Prossnitz, who has already been mentioned. Hene's type is distinguished by its clearness, and by the peculiar form of the "shin" in the so-called "Weiberdeutsch." Other isolated appearances of Hebrew works at Tannhausen (1594), Thiengen (1660), and Hergerswiese did not add much to German Jewish typography in this period.

Meantime, in eastern Europe, the Gersonides continued their activity at Prague, especially in the printing of ritual works; but they suffered from the competition of the Bak family, who introduced from Italy certain improvements from the year 1605 onward. Among the typesetters at Prague in this period was the Jewess Gütel (daughter of Löb Setzer), who set up a work in 1627. At Prague almost for the first time is found the practise of rabbis issuing their responsa from the local presses. The decoration employed by the Prague press of this period was often somewhat elaborate. Besides the illustrated Haggadah of 1526, the title-page of the Ṭur of 1540 is quite elaborate and includes the arms of Prague.

Cracow and Lublin.

In Cracow Isaac ben Aaron of Prossnitz revived the Hebrew press in 1569, and produced a number of Talmudic and cabalistic works from that time to his death in 1614, when his sons succeeded to his business. He was assisted by Samuel Bohn, who brought from Venice the Italian methods and titlepage designs, which were used up to about 1580. He produced, besides the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds, two editions of the Midrash Rabbot, the "Yalḳuṭ Shim'oni" (1596), and several works of Moses Isserles and Solomon Luria, besides the "Yuḥasin," "Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah," and "Yosippon." Isaac b. Aaron for a time ran a press in his native city of Prossnitz, where from 1602 to 1605 he published four works.

Lublin competed with Cracow for the eastern trade from 1556 onward, when an edition of the tractate Shebu'ot appeared in the former city. Its printers were mainly of the Jaffe family; Kalonymus Abraham (1562-1600) was followed by his son Ẓebi (1602 onward), who made use of the services of the above mentioned Mordecai b. Jacob of Prossnitz. The prints of the Jaffes were mainly productions of local rabbis and Judæo-German works. During the plague which ravaged Lublin in 1592 Kalonymus Jaffe moved his printing establishment to Bistrovich, whence he issued a Haggadah with Abravanel's commentary.

It should perhaps be added that at Antwerp and Leyden in this period Biblical works by Christian printers appeared, at the former place by the celebrated Christopher Plantin, who got his type from Bomberg's workshop.

Fourth Period. Hegemony of Amsterdam. From "Kehillot Ya'aḳob," Venice, 1599.
  • IV. (1627-1732): This period is opened and dominated by the foundation of the press at Amsterdam, the rich and cultured Maranos of the Dutch capital devoting their wealth, commercial connections, and independent position to the material development of Hebrew literature in book form. For nearly a century after its foundation Amsterdam supplied the whole of Teutonic Europe with Hebrew books; and the term "Defus Amsterdam" was used to denote type of special excellence even though cast elsewhere, just as the term "Italic" was applied to certain type cast not only in Italy but in other countries. The first two presses were set up in the year 1627, one under Daniel de Fonseca, the other under Manasseh ben Israel, who in the following twenty years printed more than sixty works, many of them his own, with an excellent edition of the Mishnah without vowels, and, characteristically enough, a reprint of Almoli's "Pitron Ḥalomot" (1637). The work in later times was mainly done by his two sons, Ḥayyim and Samuel. Toward the latter part of Manasseh ben Israel's career as a printer an important competitor arose in the person of Immanuel Benveniste, who in the twenty years 1641-60 produced prayer-books, a Midrash Rabbah, an Alfasi, and the Shulḥan 'Aruk, mostly decorated with elaborate titles supported by columns, which became the model for all Europe. He was followed by the firm of Gumpel & Levi (1648-60). Particularinterest attaches to the name of Uri Phoebus ha-Levi, an apprentice of Benveniste's who was in business in Amsterdam on his own account from 1658 to 1689. He was the medium through which the Amsterdam methods of printing were transferred to Zolkiev between 1692 and 1695. His productions, though in the Amsterdam style, were generally of a less costly and elegant nature, and he appears to have printed prayer-books, Maḥzors, calendars, and Judæo-German works for the popular market. Just as Uri Phoebus worked for the German Jews, so Athias contemporaneously published ritual works for the Spanish Jews, who demanded usually a much higher grade of printing, paper, and binding than did their poorer German coreligionists (1660-83). Athias' editions of the Bible, and especially of the Pentateuch, for which he had Leusden's help, are especially fine; and the edition of Maimonides' "Yad" which his son and successor, Immanuel, published in 1703, is a noteworthy piece of printing. A third member of the Athias family printed in Amsterdam as late as 1739-40.The Sephardic community of Amsterdam had also the services of Abraham de Castro Tartas (1663-95), who had learned his business under the Ben Israels. He printed, chiefly, works in Spanish and Portuguese, and in the decoration of his titles was fond of using scenes from the life of David. A number of Poles who fled to Amsterdam from the Cossack uprisings in 1648-56 were employed by Christian printers of that city, as Albertus Magnus, Christoph von Ganghel, the Steen brothers, and Bostius, the last-named of whom produced the great Mishnah of Surenhusius (1698-1703). A most curious phenomenon is presented by Moses ben Abraham, a Christian of Nikolsburg, who was converted to Judaism, and who printed several works between 1690 and 1694. Abraham, the son of another proselyte named Jacob, was an engraver who helped to decorate the Passover Haggadah of 1695, printed by Kosman Emrich, who produced several important works between 1692 and 1714.
From a Passover Haggadah, Amsterdam, 1695.The Proopses. Page from the "Miḳra'ot Gedolot," Amsterdam, 1724.

Less important presses at the beginning of this period were erected in Amsterdam by Moses Coutinho, Isaac de Cordova, Moses Dias, and the firm of Soto & Brando. Members of the Maarssen family are also to be reckoned among the more productive Hebrew printers of Amsterdam. Jacob, Joseph, David, and Mahrim Maarssen produced many works between 1695 and 1740, among them reproductions of cursive writing. The last-named settled later at Frankfort-on-the-Main. By this time the Hebrew press at Amsterdam had become entirely dominated by mercantile considerations, and was represented by the publishing- and printing-houses of Solomon ben Joseph Proops, whose printed catalogue "Appiryon Shelomoh," 1730 (the first known of its kind), shows works published by him to be mainly rituals and a few responsa, two editions of the "'En Ya'aḳob," the "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot," and the "Menorat ha-Ṃa'or," two editions of the Zohar (1715), and the Judæo-German "Ma'asehbuch." Proops was evidently adapting himself to the popular taste from 1697 onward. The house established by him continued to exist down to the middle of the nineteenth century, Joseph and Jacob and Abraham being members thereof from 1734 until about 1780. They were followed by Solomon ben Abraham Proops in 1799, while a David ben Jacob Proops, the last of the family, died in 1849, and his widow sold the business to I. Levisson.

Mention should be made here of the two Ashkenazic Dayyanim of Amsterdam, who added printing to their juridical accomplishments, Joseph Dayyan from 1719 to 1737, and Moses Frankfurter from 1720 to 1743; the latter produced between the years 1724 and 1728 the best-known edition of the rabbinic Bible. The only other Amsterdam printer whom it is necessary to mention is Solomon London (c. 1721), on account of his later connection with Frankfort-on-the-Main.

Resuming the history of the Prague press during this period, the Bak family continued its activity, especially in printing a number of Judæo-German works, mostly without supplying the place or the date of publication. Many local folk-songs in German now exist only in these productions. One of the productions of this firm, a Maḥzor, the first volume of which appeared in Prague in 1679, was finished in Wekelsdorf by the production of the second volume in 1680.

From a Pentateuch, Amsterdam, 1726.

Another offshoot of the Prague press was that of Wilhermsdorf, which was founded in 1669 in order to take advantage of the paper-mills erected there by Count von Hohenlohe. The first printer there was Isaac Cohen, one of the Gersonides who printed two works there in poor style in 1691. He was followed in 1712 by Israel ben Meïr of Prague, who sold out to Hirsch ben Ḥayyim of Fürth. Among the 150 productions of these presses may be mentioned a list of post-offices, markets, and fairs compiled by the printer Hirsch ben Ḥayyim and printed in 1724.

In Prague itself the Baks found a serious competitor in Moses Cohen Ẓedeḳ, founder of the Katz family of typographers; this competition lasted for nearly a century, the two houses combining in 1784 as the firm of Bak & Katz.

Cracow during this period is distinguished by the new press of Menahem (Nahum) Meisels, which continued for about forty years from 1631 onward, producing a considerable number of Talmudic and cabalistic works, including such productions of the local rabbis, as the "Ḥiddushe Agadot" of Samuel Edels; this was put up in type by Judah Cohen of Prague, and corrected by Isaac of Brisk. The year 1648, so fatal to the Jews of Slavonic lands, was epoch-making for both Cracow and Lublin. At the latter place a few works appeared from 1665 onward, mainly from the press of Samuel Kalmanka (1673-83) of the Jaffe family.

From Bacharach's "Ḥawwot Yaïr," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1699.Germany.

This period is especially distinguished by the rise of the Jewish Hebrew press in Germany, chiefly in five centers: (1) Frankfort-on-the-Main, (2) Sulzbach, (3) Dessau, (4) Hamburg, and (5) Dyhernfurth. For various reasons presses were erected also in the vicinity of each of these centers. In Frankfort-on-the-Main the municipal law prohibited any Jew from erecting a printing-press, so that, notwithstanding its large and wealthy Jewish population, the earliest Hebrew productions of this city came from Christian printers, especially Christian Wüst, who produced a Bible in 1677, and an edition of the "Ḥawwot Yaïr" in 1699. Then came the press of Blasius Ilsner, who began printing Hebrew in 1682, and produced the "Kuhbuch" of Moses Wallich in 1687, in which year he produced also part of a German Pentateuch as well as a standard edition of the Yalḳut. This last was published by the bookseller Seligmann Reis. Besides other Christian printers like Andreas and Nicholas Weinmann, Johann Koelner produced a number of Hebrew works during the twenty years 1708-27, including the continuation of an edition of the Talmud begun at Amsterdam and finished at Frankfort-on-the-Main (1720-23); it is probable thatthe type was brought from Amsterdam. An attempt of Koelner to produce 1,700 copies of an Al-fasi by means of a lottery failed, though an edition was produced in Amsterdam four years later. Many of the typesetters of Amsterdam and Frankfort about this period frequently alternated their residence and activity between the two cities. In 1727 few Hebrew books were produced at Frankfort-on-the-Main. In connection with the Frankfort book market a number of presses in the neighborhood turned out Hebrew books, in Hanau as early as 1674. The book entitled "Tam we-Yashar" was printed there, with Frankfort as its place of publication. From 1708 onward Bashuysen produced a series of books, including Abravanel on the Pentateuch (1710), which was issued by Reis of Frankfort. Among his workmen were David Baer of Zolkiev, who had worked at Amsterdam, and Menahem Maneli of Wilmersdorf. Bashuysen sold his rights to Bousang (1713), who continued producing Hebrew works till 1725.

Homburg was also one of the feeding-presses for Frankfort, from 1711 to 1750. Its press was possessed from 1737 on by Aaron of Dessau, an inhabitant of the Frankfort Judengasse, who produced among other works two editions of the "Ḥiddushim" of Maharam Schiff (1745). Seligmann Reis, who had learned printing in Amsterdam, started another press in Offenbach (1714-20), mostly for Judæo-German pamphlets, including a few romances like the "Artus Hoof," "Floris and Blanchefleur," and "The Seven Wise Masters." In opposition to Reis was Israel Moses, working under the Christian printer De Launoy from 1719 to 1724 and for himself till as late as 1743.


The history of the Sulzbach Hebrew press is somewhat remarkable. On May 12, 1664, one Abraham Lichtenthaler received permission to found a printing-press at Sulzbach. He began to print in 1667 Knorr von Rosenroth's "Kabbala Denudata," a work which was for the Christian world the chief source of information as to the Cabala. This appears to have attracted to Sulzbach Isaac Cohen Gersonides, who produced in the year 1669 a couple of Judæo-German works, "Leb Ṭob" and "Shebeṭ Yehudah," from the press of Lichtenthaler. Nothing followed these first productions till the "Kabbala Denudata" was finished in 1684, when Knorr determined to have an edition of the Zohar printed at Sulzbach, and for that purpose had one Moses Bloch cut Hebrew letters, with which the Zohar was printed in a rather elementary fashion. This attracted attention to Sulzbach as a printing-place; and an imperfect edition of the Talmud was printed in 1694 by Bloch and his son (the latter succeeded Bloch). The competition of the Amsterdam edition of 1697-99 prevented its completion. One of the most curious productions of the Sulzbach press was a Purim parody, which was issued anonymously in 1695. Bloch was followed by Aaron Frankel, son of one of the exiles of Vienna, and founder of the Frankel-Arnstein family, having worked at the office of Bloch as early as 1685. He set up his press in 1699, his first production being a Maḥzor and part of the Talmud; and his son Meshullam carried on the press for forty years from 1724 to 1767. One hundred and fourteen productions of the Sulzbach press have been enumerated up to 1732.

Fürth and Hamburg.

Fürth also commenced in this period its remarkable activity as a producer of Hebrew works, more distinguished perhaps for quantity than quality. Beginning in 1691 just as the Wilmersdorf press gave up, Joseph Shneior established a press at Fürth, which produced about thirty works during the next eight years. Most of his typesetters had come from Prague. An opposition press was set up later (1694, 1699) by Ẓebi Hirsch ha-Levi and his son-in-law Mordecai Model. This was one of the presses which had as a typesetter a woman, Reichel, daughter of Isaac Jutels of Wilmersdorf. The former press was continued in 1712 by Samuel Bonfed, son of Joseph Shneior, together with Abraham Bing (1722-24); the firm lasted till 1730.

From a "She'elot u-Teshubot" of Eybeschütz, Carlsruhe, 1773.

Similar presses were founded at Dessau by Moses Bonem (1696), and at Köthen in 1707-18 by Israel ben Abraham, the proselyte, who had previously worked at Amsterdam, Offenbach, and Neuwied. Israel then transferred his press to Jessnitz, where he worked till about 1726, at which date he removed it to Wandsbeck, near Hamburg, staying there till 1733, when he wandered to Neuwied and back to Jessnitz (1739-44) together with his sons Abrahamand Tobias. Another proselyte, Moses ben Abraham, had printed Hebrew in Halle (1709-14).

The earliest production of the Hebrew press of Hamburg was a remarkable edition of a Hebrew Bible, set up by a Christian, Elias Hutter, and having the servile letters distinguished by hollow type, so as to bring out more clearly the radical letters. Hutter was followed by two Christians: (1) George Ravelin, who printed a Pentateuch with Targum and Hafṭarot in 1663; and (2) Thomas Rose, who from 1686 to 1715 printed several Jewish books and who was succeeded by his son Johann Rose up to 1721. In the neighboring city of Altona Samuel Poppart of Coblenz started printing in 1720, mainly ritual matters; and he was followed by Ephraim Heksher in 1732 and Aaron Cohen of Berlin in 1735.


Finally more to the east Shabbethai Bass established at Dyhernfurth in 1689 a printing-press especially devoted to meeting the wants of the Breslau book market, which had hitherto been dependent upon Amsterdam or Prague. For the varying history of his press, which lasted till 1713, see his biography (Jew. Encyc. ii. 583). It was sold by Shabbethai's son Joseph to his son-in-law Issachar Cohen for 5,000 thalers, who carried it on till 1729, when he died, his wife then continuing the business.

Hebrew works were early printed at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, by two Christians, Hartmann Brothers, from 1595 to 1596, who produced Bibles, and Eichhorn, who printed the "Musar Haskel" of Hai Gaon in 1597. Their work was continued in the next century by Professor Beckmann in 1681, and Michael Gottschek, who produced, at the cost of Baermann Halberstade, an edition of the Babylonian Talmud in 1698 to supply the loss of the Talmuds during the Cossack outbreaks. A second edition of this Talmud was produced by Gottschek in company with Jablonski at Berlin, who had purchased a Hebrew set of types in 1697. They began work in 1699, and produced a Pentateuch with a Rashbam in 1705, and the aforesaid Talmud in 1715-21. One of his chief typesetters was Baruch Buchbinder, who afterward printed in Prausnitz. Other Hebrew books were produced by Nathan Neumark (1720-26), in whose employ Aaron Cohen, afterward at Altona, learned to set type.

In this period a beginning of Hebrew typography was made also in the British Isles, by Samuel Clarke at Oxford about 1667, and by Thomas Ilive (1714-1718) in London, both Christian printers.

To return to the south of Europe: the Venice press was carried on by a succession of the Bragadinis: Aloisio II. (1625-28), Geralamo (1655-64), and Aloisio III. (1697-1710). Among the Jewish setters or correctors for the press employed by the Bragadinis may be mentioned Leo de Modena, Moses Zacuto, Menahem Ḥabib, Moses Ḥayyim of Jerusalem, and Solomon Altaras. The chief competitor of the Bragadinis was Vendramini, from 1631 onward; but the opposition of Amsterdam reduced the activity of the Venetian press toward the end of the seventeenth century, while Leghorn began to cater to the printing of the Oriental Jews about 1650, when Jedidiah Gabbai produced the "azharot" of Solomon ibn Gabirol. His chief production was a Yalḳuṭ in 1660, after which he removed to Florence and finally settled in Smyrna, where his son Abraham printed from 1659 to 1680 with the aid of Samuel Valenci from Venice. Abraham's productions include a few Ladino works in Hebrew characters, among the earliest of the kind. In Constantinople a family of printers named Franco—Solomon (1639), Abraham (1641-83), and Abraham (1709-20)—produced a number of casuistic works. Among their typesetters was Solomon of Zatanof (1648), who had escaped the Cossack outbreaks. The pause from 1683 to 1710 was broken by two Poles from Amsterdam, Jonah of Lemberg and Naphtali of Wilna. Jonah of Lemberg printed a few of his works at Ortakeui, near Constantinople, and finally settled at Smyrna.

From "Sefer Ḥokmat ha-Mishkan," Leghorn, 1772.From Moses Eidlitz's "Meleket ha-Ḥeshbon," Prague, 1775.From "Siddur Hegyon Leb," Königsberg, 1845.From a Karaite "Siddur," Vienna, 1851.From Pentateuch, Vienna, 1859.

With the year 1732 the detailed history of Hebrew typography must cease. It would be impossible to follow in minute detail the spread of Hebrew presses throughout the world during the last 160 years. The date 1732 is also epoch-making in the history of Hebrew bibliography, as up to that date the great work of Johann Christoph Wolf, amplified and corrected by Steinschneider in his "Bodleian Catalogue," gives a complete account of the personnel of the Hebrew press, both Jewish and Christian. The list of these printers given by Steinschneider is of considerable importance, both for identifying unknown or imperfect works of the earlier period, and as affording information of persons learned in Hebrew lore who utilized it only as typesetters or correctors for the press. Many, if not most, of the more distinguished families of recent date have been connected with these masters of printing, whose names are thus of importance for pedigree purposes (see Pedigree). For these reasons Steinschneider's list is here reprinted in shortened form.

List of Printers to 1732.
Name.Place.Date .
Aaron b. Aaron KohenAmsterdam1697
Aaron b. AbrahamHanau1722
Aaron da Costa Abendana b. Samuel.Amsterdam1726, 30
Aaron (Hezekiah ) CredoAmsterdam1726
Aaron b. (Ḥayyim) David LeviZolkiev1716, 18, 21, 47
Aaron b. David WitmundAmsterdam1659
Aaron b. Elijah Kohen of Hamburg.Hamburg1714-15, 32
Aaron (Shneor Zalman) b. GabrielAmsterdam1721
Aaron HamonConstantinople1423
Aaron b. Isaac (Drucker) b. AaronProssnitz1608-9, 10-12, 12-13, 13-19
Aaron b. Isaac SoferAmsterdam1713
Aaron b. Jacob LeviDyhernfurth1689
Aaron b. Jacob SeniorAmsterdam1659
Aaron Jaffe b. Israel...............1702
Aaron LeonConstantinople1576-77
Aaron b. Manasseh EphraimAmsterdam1661
Aaron b. MeïrPrague1705-13
Aaron b. Moses KrumenauCracow1608-9, 10-12, 17-18
Aaron Rodrigues-MendesAmsterdam1728, 30
Aaron b. Selig of GlogauBerlin1709
Aaron b. ShabbethaiAmsterdam1723-24
Aaron b. Uri Lipmann...............1700-17
Abba b. SolomonBasel1609
Abba-Mari of ViennaPrague1623
Abbele b. JudahPrague1706, 10
Abigdor b. Eliezer AshkenaziConstantinople1547
Abigdor b. Eliezer KohenPrague1614
Abigdor b. (Israel) JosephCracow1638-40, 43, 48
Abigdor b. Samuel b. Moses Ezra.Cracow1619
Abraham b. AaronPrague1674 (?)
Abraham b. Abigdor...............1530
Abraham Aboab, Sr.Venice1590
Abraham Aboab, Jr.Venice1655, 57, 59, 60, 69
Abraham b. AbrahamAdrianople (?)
Abraham AbudienteConstantinople1654
Abraham ibn AkraSalonica1595
Abraham b. AlexanderVenice1606
Abraham Algazi b. SimeonConstantinople1711
Abraham Algazi b. SolomonSmyrna1659
Abraham AlḳabiẓiConstantinople1516
Abraham AlḳarasDamascus1605-6
Abraham Altschul b. JacobFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99
Abraham Amnon b. Jacob IsraelLeghorn1653-54
Abraham Arama b. IsaacSalonica1520
Abraham ibn Ashkara Ẓarfati b. Samuel.Pesaro1511
Abraham Bassa of JerusalemAmsterdam1722
Abraham Benveniste b. AaronVenice1546
Abraham b. Bezalel of PosenLublin1622-26, 30, 33-34, 45, 46
Abraham di Boton b. AaronSmyrna1600, 71, 74
Abraham (Hezekiah) Brandon ibn YaḳḳarAmsterdam(d. 1725)
Abraham Breit b. MosesAmsterdam1650
Abraham Broda b. Elijah of Prague.Suizbach1715
Abraham CasselStrasburg1521
Abraham ("Senior") CoronelAmsterdam1661, 67
Abraham DandosaConstantinople1513
Abraham b. David GojeteinCracow1586, 93
Abraham b. David NaḥmanSalonica1709, 13, 24, 29
Abraham b. David PosnerWilmersdorf1685
Abraham b. Dob (Baer) of LissaAmsterdam1701
Abraham Dorheim b. Moses Dorheim.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1719
Abraham b. Eliezer BraunschweigHanau1610, 17
Abraham b. Eliezer KohenCracow1589
Abraham b. Eliezer KohenWilmersdorf1685-90, 1712-23
Abraham b. Eliezer RödelsheimCracow1600
Abraham ibn EzraSalonica1721
Abraham Facon (?)Naples1492
Abraham Faraji b. MeïrSalonica1593-94
Abraham de FonsecaAmsterdam1627
Abraham ben (ibn) Garton b. Isaac.Reggio1475
Abraham GedaliahLeghorn1650-57
Abraham GerSalonica1651-55
Abraham Ḥaber-Ṭob b. SolomonVenice1595, 99, 1614, 17-19, 24, 32-34, 37, 40, 42, 43
Abraham ḤavezAmsterdam1724
Abraham b. ḤayyimPesaro1477
Abraham Ḥayyim of FanoFerrara1693
Abraham Ḥayyon b. Solomon b. Abraham.Constantinople1578-79
Abraham Hurwitz b. IsaiahAmsterdam1728, 29
Abraham Hurwitz b. Judah (Löb) Deborles Levi.
Abraham b. Isaac AshkenaziSufed1577-79, 87
Abraham b. Isaac b. DavidIxar1490
Abraham b. IsraelCracow1617, 18
Abraham b. Israel MenahemLublin1578
Abraham b. Israel b. MosesNeuwied1735-37
Abraham b. Issachar Kohen (Kaz) Gersoni of Prague.Wilmersdorf1679, 82
Prague1686, 88, 90-93
Abraham b. JacobHanau1726
Abraham b. Jacob LeviAmsterdam1726, 30
Abraham (Israel) b. Jacob (Koppel) of Vienna.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1705, 9, 11-12
Abraham Jedidiah de Cologna.
Abraham b. JekuthielHanau1715, 47
Abraham b. Jekuthiel KohenHanau1611-14, 23-30
Abraham b. JosephLublin1571-72
Abraham b. JosephHamburg1690
Abraham b. Joseph ManassehConstantinople1732
Abraham b. Joshua SezzeVenice1696
Abraham b. Joshua of WormsAmsterdam1643-48, 45-46
Abraham b. JudahFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99
Abraham b. Judah (Loeb)Constantinople1710, 12, 16-20, 26-27, 37
Abraham b. Judah b. Nisan.
Abraham b. Kalonymus Reumold.Prague1614, 17-19, 21-24, 25
Abraham ḲaraSalonica1587
Abraham Landau b. JacobNaples1491-92
Abraham LaniadoVenice1603
Abraham (Kohen) de LaraAmsterdam1691
Abraham LichtenthalerSalzbach1697
Abraham LuriaJessnitz1723
Abraham Mendes-LindoAmsterdam1725
Abraham b. Meshullam of Modena.Mantua1558-60
Abraham Molko b. JosephSalonica1709
Abraham b. Mordecai KohenAmsterdam1661
Abraham b. Moses (Schedel)Prague1602-4
Abraham b. Moses GoslarWandsbeck1733
Abraham b. Moses KohenBologna1538
Abraham b. Moses NathanAmsterdam1700
Abraham b. Naḥman KohenLublin1635
Abraham b. NathanAmsterdam1652
Abraham ibn Nathan b. Ḥayyim? of Salonica.Constantinople1716, 17, 18, 19
Abraham Netto b. JosephVenice1622
Abraham (Ḥai) Ortona b. DavidVerona1652
Abraham ibn ParedesConstantinople1522
Abraham Pereira b. ElijahConstantinople1642-43
Abraham PerisAmsterdam1678
Abraham Pescarol b. Kalonymus.Venice Cremona.1544, 65
Abraham ibn PhorniVenice1565
Abraham PortoVenice1563, 64, 65, 66, 74, 84, 88, 89
Abraham Porto b. JehielVerona1594
Abraham b. Reuben Abi SagloVenice1606
Abraham ReynaConstantinople1560
Abraham Rosanes b. MeïrConstantinople1711, 19-20
Abraham SacchiVenice1586
Abraham b. Solomon LeviHamburg1706-7
Abraham b. Samuel b. David Levi................1692
Abraham b. Samuel KohenConstantinople1561
Abraham b. Selig of GlogauBerlin1711-12
Abraham Selzer b. Aaron of MinskFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1702
Abraham b. ShalomPrague1608
Abraham Shalom b. IsaacSalonica1717
Abraham ibn Shangi b. Ephraim.Constantinople1534
Abraham b. ShemariahConstantinople1539-40
Abraham ShoshanConstantinople
Abraham de Silva b. SolomonVenice1672, 78, 1728
Abraham b. Simeon FriedburgPrague1713
Abraham b. Simeon KolinPrague1697
Abraham SoninaConstantinople1717
Abraham Talmid SefardiNaples1492
Abraham Uzziel b. BaruchVenice1655-56
Abraham von WerdFürth1699
Abraham ibn Ya'ish b. JosephConstantinople1505, 9
Abraham ibn Yaḳḳar b. Jacob Hananiah.Venice1718
Abraham Yerushalmi (b. YomṬob?Constantinople1512
Abraham Ẓalaḥ b. ShabbethaiVenice1599-1606
Abraham ẒarfatiAmsterdam1626-27
Abraham b. ẒebiLublin1637
Abraham b. ẒebiVerona1649 (?)
Abraham (Ḥayyim) b. Ẓebi (Hirsch).Amsterdam1725-32
Abraham b. Ẓebi of CracowAmsterdam1641, 43
Abraham b. Ẓebi (Hirsch) KohenFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99
Abraham b. Zeeb (Wolf) LeviAmsterdam1688, 1706
Adelkind (Brothers)Venice1519, 21, 22, 22, 24
Adelkind (Cornelius b. Baruch)Venice1524, 24-25, 27, 28-29, 44, 45, 45, 46, 46-48, 48-49, 50-52, 52
Adelkind (Daniel b. Cornelio)Venice1549-52
Akiba b. Uri (Phoebus)Berlin1713
Alexander b. EzekielPrague1618-20
Alexander b. Ḥayyim Ashkenazi.Prague1616-17
Alexander (Susskind) b. Kalonymus.Amsterdam1700, 2, 4
Alexander (Sender) b. Meïr Kassewitz.Prague1718-19
Antunes (Antones ?), AaronAmsterdam1717-21(25?)
Aryeh (Loeb) b. Gershon Wiener.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1727
Aryeh (Judah Loeb) Krochmal b. Menahem.
Aryeh (Judah) Sabibi b. David.
Aryeh (Loeb) b. Saul b. JoshuaAmsterdam1711
Aryeh Sofer b. ḤayyimBerlin1706
Aryeh b. Solomon ḤayyimBerlin1706
Aryeh b. Solomon ḤayyimBologna1537-40
Aryeh (Loeb) b. Solomon Kohen of Przemysl.Zolkiev1709
Aryeh (Judah Loeb) Te'omim b. AaronFrankfort-on-the-Main (?)1710
Aryeh (Loeb) b. Zeeb (Wolf) Levi.Amsterdam1686, 99
Asher (Anschel)...............1700
Asher (Anschel) Altschüler b. Naphtali Herzel.Prossnitz1603
Prague1604, 11-17, 18, 20-21, 22-23
Asher (Anschel) b. EliezerAmsterdam1663 - 85, 86, 1692 - 1703, 5, 13
Asher (Anschel) b. ElijahAmsterdam1698
Asher (Anschel) b. Gershon KohenPrague1609-10
Asher (Selig) Hurwitz b. Isaac Levi.Lublin1624
Asher (Selig) b. Isaac of DubnoSulzbach1702
Asher (Selig) b. Isaac KohenBerlin1703
Asher (Anschel) b. Meïr Prostitz.Amsterdam1708
Asher Minz b. PerezNaples1491
Asher (Anschel) b. MosesCracow1643
Asher Parentio (Parenz) b. Jacob.Venice1579-95
Asher Tiktin b. MenahemCracow1598
Astruc de Toulon b. JacobConstantinople1510-30
Athias, Abraham b. Raphael Hezekiah.Amsterdam1728-41
Athias, Immanuel b. JosephAmsterdam1700-9
Athias, Joseph b. AbrahamAmsterdam1658-85
Azariah TalmidVenice1648
Azriel b. Joseph (b. Jacob Gunzenhäuser) Ashkenazi.Naples1491, 92
Azriel b. MosesHanau1716
Azriel b. Moses Schedel...............1602-9, 13
Azriel Peraḥyah KohenAmsterdam1703
Azriel ben Solomon DienaSabbionetta (?)1550-51
Baer (b. Meshullam Zalman Mirls ?) of Posen.Berlin1716-17
Baerle RappaFrankfort-on-the-Main.1713
Baermann b. Judah Lima Levi of Essen...............1697-99, 1721
Bak (Israel b. Joseph b. Judah)Prague1686, 89, 90, 91, 95
Bak (Jacob [II.] b. Judah)Lublin1648, 73-96
Bak (Joseph [I.] b. Jacob)Prague1623, 23-24, 24, 29, 57-60, 62
Bak (Joseph [II.] b. Judah)Prague1673-96, 79, 84, 86
Bak (Judah [I.] b. Jacob)Prague1620-60, 61-69
Bak (Judah [II.] b. Moses b. Jacob)Prague1705, 6, 8, 13-20
Bak (Moses [I.] b. Jacob b. Judah).Prague1686, 97, 1716
Bak (Moses ben Judah)Prague1697
Bak (Yom-Ṭob Lipman b. Moses b. Jacob).Prague1713-18, 25
Bak, Jacob (I.) b. Gershon WahlVenice1598, 99
Prague1605, 7, 9, 12-15
Baruch Bloch b. JacobCracow1609
Baruch Buchbinder of WilnaBerol1708-9
Berlin1712-15, 17
Baruch b. Eliezer KohenVenice1579
Baruch of Frankfort-on-the-Oder.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1705
Baruch b. Joseph b. BaruchLeghorn1657
Baruch of KorezCracow1637
Baruch b. Lipmann WienerAmsterdam1726-27
Baruch (Bendet) b. NathanFürth1727-38
Baruch b. Simḥah KalmanVenice1583
baruch b. Simḥah LeviAmsterdam1670, 74
Baruch b. SolomonLublin1639
Baruch UzzielFerrara1551, 56
Baschwitz (Meïr b. Ẓebi Hirsch)Jessnitz1731-32
Baschwitz (Ẓebi Hirsch b. Meïr)Berlin1701, 3, 9
Dyhernfurth1719, 20
Hanau (?)1722
Bat-Sheba (Abraham Joseph)Salonica1592-1605
Bat-Sheba (Abraham b. Mattathiah).Verona1594
Salonica1605, 5-6
Bat-Sheba (Mattithiah)Salonica.
Bella Hurwitz LeviPrague.
Benjamin (Benusch)Lemberg (?)1728
Benjamin (Wolf) b. Aaron Eliezer Worms of Durlach.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1712-16
Benjamin b. Aaron PolaccoVenice1719, 21
Mantua1724, 27
Venice1728, 29, 30, 44, 53
Benjamin b. AbrahamCracow1638-39, 40
Benjamin (Samuel) b. AbrahamLublin1574-75, 76
Benjamin (Wolf) b. Abraham Kohen HinfeldWilmersdorf1677
Benjamin (Wolf) b. Asher (Anschel).Amsterdam1692, 95-96, 97, 1703
Benjamin Diaz Patto b. JacobAmsterdam1645
Benjamin (Zeeb Wolf) b. ElijahFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1680, 97-99
Benjamin b. Elijah LeviOffenbach.
Benjamin GalmidiAmsterdam1631-33
Benjamin (Kohen) GersoniPrague1624
Benjamin (Shneor) GodinezAmsterdam1687-88
Benjamin (Zeeb Wolf) b. Jacob of Ofen.Prague1689
Benjamin b. Jehiel (Michael) of Kalisz.Amsterdam1702
Benjamin b. JekuthielHanau1624
Benjamin di JonakAmsterdam1708-10
Benjamin b. Joseph d'ArignanoRome1546
Benjamin b. Joseph of BerlinBerlin1711-12, 17
Benjamin (Wolf) b. Moses Dayyan Frankfurter.Amsterdam1722, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30
Benjamin b. Moses b. Mattihiah b. Benjamin.Venice1614
Benjamin b. Naphtali MosesOffenbach1716
Benjamin (Saul) de RubeisFerrara1554
Benjamin b. Solomon CantorisLublin1624, 37
Benjamin (Zeeb) b. Solomon Kohen of Zolkiev.Berlin1712
Benjamin Wolf b. Joseph IsaacAmsterdam1725-29
Benjamin Wolf of LembergPrague1614
Benveniste, or Benbeniste (Immanuel).Amsterdam1641-59
Benzion Ẓarfati (Gallus)Venice1606-7
Bezaleel b. AbrahamLublin1614
Bing (Abraham b. Isaac)Fürth1722-24
Bloch (Moses b. Uri Schraga)Sulzbach1684-93
Bonfed, Shneor b. Joseph b. Zalman Shneor.Fürth1722-24, 25-28, 29
Caleb Ḥazzan b. JosephSmyrna1730
Caleb b. Judah MagiaConstantinople1726-37
Canpillas (Yom-Ṭob b. Moses)Constantinople1711
Salonica1713-24, 29
Castro-(Crasto-) Tartas (David b. Abraham).Amsterdam1660-95
Castro-Tartas (Jacob b. Abraham).Amsterdam1664-65, 69
Christfels Phil. Ernest (Mordecai b. Moses of Illenfeld).Wilmersdorf1713
Cividal BrothersVenice1675
Conat (Abraham b. Solomon)Mantua1476
Conat (Estellina).
Concio (Conzio ?), Abraham b. JosephChieri1627-28
Cordova (Abraham b. Jacob)Amsterdam1700-5, 6, 8
Cordova (Isaac Hezekiah b. Jacob Ḥayyim).Amsterdam1688-1726
Cordova (Jacob Ḥayyim b. Moses Raphael).Amsterdam1662-64, 64, 65, 66, 67-69, 75, 78, 81
Wilmersdorf1683, 92-93, 98-99, 1701-3, 14
Cordova (Moses b. Isaac de)Amsterdam1641-42
Daniel Pereira b. AbrahamAmsterdam1729, 31
David b. Aaron Judah Levi of Pinsk.Amsterdam1685
David A boab b. SamuelVenice1702
David b. Abraham (Azubib ? Asovev ?).Salonica1578-86 (87?)
David Abravanel-DormidoAmsterdam1642
David Altaras b. SolomonVenice1675-1718
David BuenoLeghorn.
David Bueno b. Raphael ḤayyimVenice1704-5, 6, 7, 7-8, 16, 20-21, 32
David de CazeresAmsterdam1661
David b. Elasah Levi...............1489
David b. Eliezer Levi of DarlipstadtAmsterdam1723, 28, 30, 33
David b. Elijah (Casti)Constantinople1574, 75, 86
David b. Elijah b. DavidSalonica1713-21, 29
David Fernandez (b. David)Amsterdam1715, 26
David Ginz b. SolomonOffenbach1717
David Grünhut...............1712
David b. Ḥayyim ḤazzanSmyrna1729-41
David b. Isaac KohenAmsterdam1644
David b. Isaac of OttensossFürth1727
David b. Issachar (Dob Baer of Zolkiev).Zolkiev1694, 96
Berlin1699 1701, 3, 12
Amsterdam1700, 1, 5
David Jonah JonathanOels1530
David Jonah Joseph MuskatelsPrague1705-6
David Jonah b. Shabbethai Jonah.Salonica1653
David b. Judah (Loeb) of Cracow.Lublin.
David KohenConstantinople1509
David de Lida b. Pethahiah b. David.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1727
David of MaarsenAmsterdam1715
David Maza b. AaronMantua1612
David b. Menahem KohenHanau1626-28
David b. Moses of RheindorfFrankfort-on-the-Main.1692
David NördlingenCremona1565
David NuñezAmsterdam1697-99, 1700-5
David Peppe b. AbrahamVenice1663
David Pizzighetton b. Eliezer LeviVenice1524
David Portaleone b. MosesMantua1623
David PorteroPesaro1511
David Provençal b. AbrahamVenice1565
David (Naphtali) di Rieti b. Hananiah.Mantua.
David de la RoccaVenice1601-2
David b. Samuel KohenAmsterdam1726, 32
David b. Shemaiah SaugersFrankfort-on-the-Main.1700
David de Silva b. HezekiahAmsterdam1706, 26
David (Israel) del SotoAmsterdam1642
David b. Uri (Phoebus)Amsterdam1664, 66
Zolkiev1705-15 (?)
David ValensiLeghorn1650-57
David ibn Yaḥya b. JosephConstantinople1509
David b. Yom-Ṭob DeuzAmsterdam1649-53
Eleazar (Enoch) AltschulPrague1686, 1705-6
Eleazar b. DavidCracow1596
Eleazar b. Isaac LeviFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1686
Eleazar b. Moses KohenAmsterdam1693
Eleazar b. Shabbethai BalgidVenice1586-87
Eleazar Sussmann b. IsaacAmsterdam1733
Elhanan (Jacob) Archevolti b. Samuel.Venice1602
Elhanan b. NaphtaliAmsterdam1628
Eliakim (Goetz) b. IsraelHomburg1724
Eliakim b. JacobAmsterdam1685-1705
Eliakim (Goetz) b. Mordecai.
Eliezer (Leser) b. abrahamJessnitz1724-26
Eliezer (ibn) Alanstansi b. Abraham.Ixar1487-90
Eliezer b. Benjamin of Prossnitz.Cracow1591
Eliezer of BraunschweigSabbionetta1567
Eliezer DarliSalonica1522
Eliezer (Lasi) b. David EmrichAmsterdam1692
Eliezer (Leser) FloersheimFrankfort-on-the-Main.1707, 8, 9
Eliezer b. ḤayyimPrague1610
Hanau1614, 15
Eliezer Ḥayyut b. IsaacFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1732
Eliezer b. Issac AshkenaziConstantinople1575-76, 86
Safed1577-79, 87
Eliezer b. Isaac Jacob of LublinLublin1646
Eliezer b. Isaac b. NapthaliWilmersdorf1727
Eliezer b. Isaac of PragueLublin1556-73
Eliezer (Ḥayyim) b. Isaiah Nizza.Venice1657
Eliezer (Leser) b. Israel LeviAmsterdam1726, 33
Eliezer d'ItaliaMantua1612
Eliezer b. JacobConstantinople1670-71
Eliezer b. Joseph of LiskWilmersdorf1673-75, 77
Eliezer b. Joshua NehemiahWandsbeck1732
Eliezer KohenCracow1593-94
Eliezer Liebermann b. Alexander Bingen.Hanau1715
Eliezer Liebermann' b. Yiftah Levi.Amsterdam1710
Eliezer Lipmann b. Issachar Kohen Hannover.Amsterdam1682
Eliezer b. MeshullamLublin1567
Eliezer b. Meshullam of LublinPrague1601
Eliezer b. Mordecai ReckendorfOffenbach1716
Eliezer Provençal b. Abraham b. David.Mantua1596
Eliezer b. SamuelSoncino1490
Eliezer (Leser) ShukFrankfort-on-the-Main.1690-1700
Eliezer ibn Shoshan b. David.
Eliezer SupinoVenice1718
Eliezer TodrosSalonica1532-33
Eliezer ToledanoLisbon1489-92
Eliezer Treves b. Naphtali HirzZurich1558
Eliezer Ẓarfati b. Elijah.
Elijah AboabAmsterdam1644-45
Elijah b. Abraham (Israel) b. Jacob Levi.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1711-12
Elijah b. Azriel WilnaAmsterdam1690
Elijah Belin b. Moses (Joseph)Hamburg1663
Elijah GalmidiConstantinople1574
Elijah (Menahem) Ḥalfan b. Abba Mari.Venice1551
Elijah b. Issac SchleiferPrague1612
Elijah b. Joseph FrankfortVerona1649
Elijah b. Joseph of SamsoczAmsterdam1697
Elijah b. Judah UlmaHanau1611-14
Elijah (Judah de) Leon b. Michael.Amsterdam1659, 66
Elijah Levi b. BenjaminConstantinople1503, 9
Elijah LevitaVenice1525, 29, 32, 38, 45, 46, 47, 48
Elijah b. Moses b. Abraham AbinuFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1704-8
Elijah Rabbah b. MenahemVenice1604-5
Elijah RiccoSalonica1529
Elijah b. Simeon OettingenFürth1692
Elijah VelosinosAmsterdam1664
Elijah Zünzburger b. Seligman (Selikmann) b. Moses Simeon Ulma.Hanau1615-17
Elijah Zur b. Samuel ẒuriConstantinople1537
Elimelech b. David Melammed of Cracow.Berlin1705
Elishama Sifroni b. IsraelMantua1593
Venice1596, 1601
Ella (bat Moses ben Abraham ?)Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1699-1700
Ella bat ḤayyimLublin1556
Enoch b. Issachar (Baermann) Levi.Berlin1709
Ephraim Bueno (ben Joseph)Amsterdam1626-28, 30, 48, 50, 52, 61-64
Ephraim b. David PatavinusMantua1589-90
Ephraim b. IssacMantua1563
Ephraim b. Jonah of TarliFrankfort-on-the-Main.1681
Ephraim KohenAdrianople1555
Ephraim Melli b. MordecaiMantua1676
Ephraim b. Pesach of Miedzyboz.Lublin (?)1673
Ephraim (Zalman) b. Solomon Reinbach (Rheinbach ?) of Lissa.Amsterdam1699
Esther, widow of Elijah Ḥandali.Constantinople1566
Ezekiel b. JacobAmsterdam1695
Ezekiel (Moses) b. JacobPrague1590
Ezekiel b. Moses GabbaiCracow1587-88, 93-94
Ezra Alchadib b. SolomonVenice1608-9
Ezra b. Mordecai KohenDyhernfurth1712, 13, 15, 19, 20, 26
Foa (Nathaniel)Amsterdam1702-15
Foa (Tobia b. Eliezer)Sabbionetta1551-59
Fonseca (Daniel de)Amsterdam1627
Franco (Abraham b. Solomon)Constantinople1640-83
Franco (Solomon)Constantinople1638-40
Frosch, Christian, of AugsburgFrankfort-on-the-Main.1711
Fundam (Isaac)Amsterdam1723-24
Gabbai (Abraham b. Jedidiah)Smyrna1657-75
Gabbai (Isaac)Venice1597
Gabbai (Jedidiah b. Isaac)Leghorn1650-57
Gabriel Levi of VratislaviaFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1725
Gabriel Strassburg b. AaronSoncino1484
Gad Conian b. IsraelConstantinople1719, 20
Gamaliel b. Eliakim (Götz) of Lissa.Hamburg1687
Gedaliah (Don Judah)Lisbon.
Gedaliah Cordovero b. MosesVenice1587, 88
Gedaliah b. Solomon LipschützVenice1616
Gela (Gella)Halle1709-10
Gershon AshkenaziCracow1646-47
Gershon b. Ḥayyim David LeviZolkiev1730
Gershon Ḥefeẓ b. KalonymusVenice1627
Gershon Poper (or Popper)Prague1610, 11
Gershon Wiener b. Naphtali HirschFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1690, 96, 98, 1700, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 14, 17, 21, 24
Berlin1702, 3, 9
Gumpel Kohen b. Jacob HannoverAmsterdam1712
Gumprich b. AbrahamAmsterdam1717, 21, 25, 26, 27, 28
Gütel bat Judah Loeb b. Alexander Kohen.Prague1627
Haehndel (Elhanan) b. Ḥayyim Drucker.Amsterdam1711, 13
Halicz (Johannes)Cracow1538-39
Halicz (Paul)Cracow1540
Halicz (Samuel b. Ḥayyim)Cracow1534
Hananiah b. Eliezer ha-Shimeoni Sustin.Constantinople1513
Hananiah FinziVenice1587
Hananiah b. Jacob SaulSalonica1719
Hananiah ibn yaḳḳarConstantinople1573, 78
Hananiah MarunMantua1623-24
Hananiah ibn Sikri (Saccari ?) b. Isaiah.Amsterdam1715
Ḥayyim b. AbrahamConstantinople1719
Ḥayyim AlfandariConstantinople1717
Ḥayyim Alscheich b. MosesVenice1601, 3, 5, 7
Ḥayyim Alton b. MosesVenice1522-23, 27
Ḥayyim Altschul b. Mordecai (Gumpel) of Prague.Dessau1696-99
Amsterdam1708, 9, 10, 10-12, 17-18, 21, 23, 24, 26, 32
Ḥayyim CasinoConstantinople1719
Ḥayyim Cesarini (Casirino) b. Shabbethai.Constantinople1519
Ḥayyim b. David KohenConstantinople1537
Ḥayyim b. Ephraim (Gumprecht) of Dessau.Berlin1712, 17
Berlin1724 (?)
Prague1728 (and 35)
Ḥayyim (Jedidiah) ibn EzraSalonica1721
Ḥayyim Gatigno b. SamuelCremona1558-60
Ḥayyim b. ḤayyimWilmersdorf1713, 17, 19
Ḥayyim Ḥazzan b. David ḤazzanConstantinople1717
Ḥayyim b. Isaac b. ḤayyimLublin1556-67
Ḥayyim b. Issac Levi Ashkenazi.Naples1486
Ḥayyim b. IsraelAmsterdam1709
Ḥayyim b. Issachar b. IsraelPrague1623-24
Ḥayyim b. Jacob DruckerAmsterdam1680-1724
Ḥayyim b. Jacob of HamelburgAmsterdam1670
Ḥayyim b. Jacob (Gel Jäkels) Kohen.Prague1603-4
Ḥayyim (Mordecai) b. Joseph...............1477
Ḥayyim b. Joseph KohenPrague1691, 1705-6
Ḥayyim b. JudahLublin1648
Prague1657, 62-63, 75
Ḥayyim b. Judah (Loeb)Prague1689, 91, 94, 96, 97, 1705-6
Ḥayyim b. Judah (Loeb)Amsterdam1695
Ḥayyim b. Ḳatriel of CracowPrague1686
Dyhernfurth1689, 90, 91, 93, 96, 99
Berlin1703-5, 9, 14, 17
Ḥayyim Katschigi b. JacobConstantinople1732
Ḥayyim Ḳimḥi b. JacobConstantinople1714
Ḥayyim LublinerAmsterdam1702
Ḥayyim (Shalom) Ma'ali Kohen b. Benjamin.Constantinople1719-20
Ḥayyim b. Moses Menahem (Man) Danziger Danzig.Amsterdam1725-26, 26, 39-40
Ḥayyim (Selig) b. Nathaniel...............1697
Ḥayyim b. Samuel AshkenaziConstantinople1561-62
Ḥayyim ibn SaruḳVenice1566, 74
Ḥayyim b. Simḥah Ashkenazi LeviBasel1609
Ḥayyim b. Solomon AusterlitzPrague1601
Ḥayyim Ṭawil b. MosesConstantinople1715-18
Ḥayyim b. Ẓebi (Hirsch) Kohen of Kalisz.Dyhernfurth1709, 13, 15
Ḥayyim b. Zeeb (Wolf) LeviAmsterdam1674-76, 85
Hene (Coelius) of BaselPrague1624
Hezekiah FanoVenice1574-75
Hezekiah MontroVenice1477
Hirsch (Ẓebi) b. ḤayyimWilmersdorf1712-38
Hirz, Gener Eliezer VindobAmsterdam1712
Hirz Levi RofeAmsterdam1721, 25, 26, 27-68
Ḥiyya Meïr b. DavidVenice1519-22
Ḥiyya PisaVenice1574
Hosea Cividal b. RaphaelVenice1593-94
Immanuel ibn Atthar ('Aṭṭar)Amsterdam1686
Immanuel b. Gabriel GallichiMantua1558-60
Immanuel Henriquez b. JoshuaAmsterdam1730, 32
Isaac b. AaronPrague1605
Isaac b. Aaron of ProstitzCracow1569-1612
Isaac b. Aaron SamuelPrague1610
Isaac b. Abigdor LeviRome1518
Isaac AboabVenice1590
Isaac Aboab b. DavidAmsterdam1626-27
Isaac Aboab b. Mattithiah.
Isaac b. AbrahamLublin1574-76
Isaac b. Abraham AshkenaziLublin1597
Isaac b. Abraham AshkenaziDamascus1606
Isaac b. Abraham Kohen of Meseritz.Lublin1646
Isaac Alfandari b. AbrahamConstantinople1711, 16-20
Isaac AlnaquaVenice1648
Isaac b. Aryeh (Loeb) Dayyan b. Isaac.Amsterdam1727
Isaac b. Asher (Ensel = Anschel) of Nerol.Wandsbeck1732
Isaac Bassan b. SamuelVenice1560
Isaac Benveniste b. JosephHamburg1710-11
Isaac Bingen b. SamuelLublin1646
Isaac (Eisak) Bresnitz LeviPrague1623
Isaac Bueno de Mesquita b. Joseph.Amsterdam1718
Isaac CansinoAmsterdam1685
Isaac Cavallino b. Eliezer Patavini of Mantua.Venice1624
Isaac Diaz b. AbrahamAmsterdam1719
Isaac (Eisak) b. Elia of Rogasen.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1725, 29
Isaac (Eisak) b. Elia of Tarli.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1717
Isaac b. Eliakim of BingenAmsterdam1643-44
Isaac (Eisak) Eliezer (Lipman)Hamburg1690
Isaac (Eisak) Eliezer b. Isaac of Prague.Lublin1567-68, 70-73
Isaac (Jacob) b. Eliezer of ProstitzLublin1616, 26, 39, 46
Isaac (Eisak) b. Elijah of Berlin.Amsterdam1706
Isaac b. Elijah of BrzescCracow1631
Isaac (Meïr) Fraenkel TeomimAmsterdam1676-78
Isaac Gakil Salonica1594
Isaac GershonVenice1587-1615
Isaac GershonBerlin1706
Isaac b. Gershon of TorbinCracow1628
Isaac b. Ḥayyim of CracowCracow (?)
Lublin (?)16-
Prague (?)
Isaac b. Ḥayyim of Cracow.Wandsbeck1727-30
Isaac b. Ḥayyim ḤazzanConstantinople1550
Isaac b. Ḥayyim b. Isaac Kohen b. Simson.Prague1655
Isaac Ḥazzan b. JosephVenice1567
Isaac R. Hoeschels (i.e., b. Joshua)Cracow1571
Isaac Issac Hurwitz Levi b. Meshullam.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1677, 80
Prague1688-94, 95
Prague1705-6, 10
Isaac Hurwitz Levi b. Moses Ḥayyim.Hamburg1700-1
Isaac b. Isaiah JehielConstantinople1654
Isaac Israel IsarelCracow1596
Isaac b. Jacob b. IsaacVenice1695, 96, 1700, 2, 5, 6
Isaac Jafe b. IsraelBerlin1717
Isaac Jafe b. SamuelVenice1597-1606
Isaac Jare b. DavidMantua1718-23
Isaac JeshurunSmyrna1659
Isaac (Eisak) b. Jonathan of PosenLublin1595
Isaac (Eisak) b. Joseph (b. Isaac b. Isaiah)Jessnitz1724, 26
Isaac (Selig) b. Judah BudinDyhernfurth1692
Isaac b. Judah (Loeb) Jüdels Kohen.Wilmersdorf1670-90
Isaac b. Judah Kohen (Kaz)Prague1648
Isaac b. Judah Kohen Wahl of Janospol.Amsterdam1685-87
Isaac b. Kalonymus of BilgorajJessnitz1720
Isaac (Eisak) b. Kalonymus KohenDyhernfurth1725-26, 27
Isaac KaspotaConstantinople1505, 9
Isaac Katzenellenbogen b. Abraham.Amsterdam1686
Isaac (Kohen) de Lara b. Abraham.Amsterdam1699-1704
Isaac (Joshua) de LattesRome1546
Isaac LeonVenice1605
Isaac ha-Levi b. JacobVenice1635, 52
Isaac Luria b. MosesVenice1712
Isaac MahlerPrague1700
Isaac Marquez di PazAmsterdam1706
Isaac MasiaTannhausen1594
Isaac b. Meïr AshkenaziAmsterdam1695
Isaac b. MenahemCracow1534
Isaac (Eisak) b. Menahem (Ẓoref)Cracow1638-40, 48
Isaac b. Meshullam PosenCracow (Novidvor).1591
Isaac Montalto b. ElijahAmsterdam1637
Isaac b. Moses EckendorfBasel1599
Isaac (Eisak) b. Moses Grillingen.Wilmersdorf1732
Isaac (Eisak) b. Naphtali Didenhofen.Wilmersdorf1726
Isaac b. Naphtali (Hirz) KohenAmsterdam1710, 23-24, 32
Isaac NehemiahAmsterdam1627
Isaac Norzi b. SamuelMantua1593
Isaac Nufiez b. DavidAmsterdam1664
Isaac Pacifico b. AsherVenice1712-15
Isaac (Lopez) Pereira b. MosesAmsterdam1726, 29
Isaac della Pinia b. AbrahamAmsterdam1712
Isaac Rabbino b. AbrahamMantua1718
Isaac Sasportas b. JacobAmsterdam1685
Isaac b. SeligFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1725, 27, 29
Isaac Simeon b. Judah (Loeb) of Hechingen.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1697 .
Isaac b. Simeon Samuel LeviHanau1610, 11-14, 23
Isaac b. Solomon (Gumi ?)Constantinople1511
Isaac b. Solomon (Zalman)Dyhernfurth1695, 96
Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1698, 1708, 13, 17, 18, 26
Isaac b. Solomon b. IsraelWilmersdorf1730
Isaac Spira b. NathanLublin1597
Isaac Sullam (Salem ?) b. JosephMantua1563, 65
Venice1568, 1687
Isaac Tausk b. SeligPrague1703, 6, 10, 18-19, 25, 28, 35-36
Isaac Treves. b. GershonVenice1568, 78, 83, 85
Isaac Tschelebi b. Elia PolichronoVenice1630
Isaac (Elijah) b. Uri KohenPrague1621
Isaac (Eisak) b. Ẓebi (Hirsch) Levi of Kalisz.Jessnitz.
Isaiah AnawBasel1610
Isaiah AshkenaziConstantinople1719
Isaiah b. Isaac b. Isaiah of Woidislaw.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1717
Isaiah b. Meïr BunzlauCracow1594
Isaiah b. Moses of SniatynConstantinople1711
Isaiah Parnas b. Elasar (Eliezer)Venice1529, 31-32
Isaiah di Trani b. JosephConstantinople1641
Ishmael MaronoVenice1601
Israel b. AbrahamKöthen1717
Israel Altschul b. SolomonPrague1613, 20
Israel AshkenaziPisaur
Israel b. Eliakim (Goetz)Venice1704-5
Israel b. Ḥayyim BunzlauAmsterdam1688
Israel b. Jedidiah of LeipnikLublin1619
Israel Kohen b. JosephLublin1556, 66
Israel b. MeïrWilmersdorf1712
Israel b. MosesDessau1696
Israel b. Moses b. AbrahamOffenbach1719-33
Israel b. Moses b. Abraham AbinuAmsterdam1694
Israel b. Moses of BerlinBerlin1727
Israel Sifroni b. DanielSabbionetta.
Basel1578-81, 83
Venice1588, 1604
Israel Ẓarfati of MilhauConstantinople1518
Issachar (Baer) b. Aaron b. Isaac Drucker.Cracow1619
Issachar (Baer) b. Abraham of Kalisz.Dessau1704
Issachar (Baer) b. Eliezer of Minden.Amsterdam1685, 88, 92 -1703, 11
Issachar (Dob Baer) b. Gershon Wiener.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1727-72
Issachar (Baer) ḤazzanPrague1609-10
Issachar (Dob Baer) b. IsaacLublin1680-81
Issachar (Baer) b. Issachar KohenFürth1691
Prague1692, 95, 1718-19
Issachar (Dob Baer) b. Judah (Loeb).Amsterdam1725-26, 27, 30, 33
Issachar (Baer) b. Nathan Kohen.Dyhernfurth1718-33
Issachar PerlhefterPrague1687
Issachar b. (Abi Esri) SelkeFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99, 1703, 11
Berlin1712, 14-15, 17
Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1727, 29
Jabez (Solomon b. Isaac b. Joseph b. Ḥayyim).Adrianople1544
Constantinople1559-67, 73-75
Jabez Joseph b. IsaacAdrianople1554
Salonica1563-72, 73-75, 76-84
Jacob b. Aaron AshkenaziVenice1704
Jacob (Koppel) b. (Ḥayyim ?)Offenbach1718
Jacob b. Abigdor LeviRome1518
Jacob Aboab b. AbrahamVenice1669, 82, 83
Jacob Aboab b. JosephVenice1708, 11
Jacob b. Abraham...............1665-72
Jacob b. Abraham Ashkenazi.Damascus1606
Jacob b. Abraham Ashkenazi of Ziwatow.Constantinople1648, 52, 54
Jacob b. Abraham GerAmsterdam.1708-9, 9, 12, 13, 15, 21, 22, 25, 28, 30
Jacob b. Abraham Israel GerAmsterdam1664
Jacob b. Abraham of JerusalemConstantinople1719-20
Jacob b. Abraham of LeipnikCracow1618
Lublin1627, 33-35
Jacob b. Abraham of LublinLublin1618-20, 22-27, 33 (35 ?)
Jacob b. Abraham MosesAmsterdam1661
Jacob b. Abraham PolakBasel1598, 99, 1600, 3
Jacob b. Abraham of RownoBerlin1726
Jacob b. Abraham TiningerBasel1599
Jacob Alfandari b. ḤayyimConstantinople1670-71
Jacob Alvarez-SotoAmsterdam1708-10
Jacob (Alnis ?)Venice1621
Jacob Auerbach b. Isaac Reis of Vienna.Sulzbach1716-17
Jacob Baruch b. Samuel BaruchVenice1656
Jacob BaschPrague1627
Jacob Bassan b. AbrahamAmsterdam1725
Jacob BibasConstantinople1715-16
Jacob BrodaGiessen1714
Jacob CarilloAmsterdam1644
Jacob CasteloAmsterdam1661-64
Jacob b. David (Gutrath)Lublin1556, 59, 67, 68, 78
Jacob b. Eliakim AshkenaziLublin1574-76
Jacob (Ẓebi) b. EliezerDessau1698
Jacob b. Eliezer LeviVenice1566
Jacob b. Enoch b. Abraham b. Moses Melammed.Jessnitz1720
Jacob FlorentinSalonica1724
Jacob (Ḥai) Florez b. AbrahamLeghorn1650
Jacob GabbaiConstantinople1640-43
Jacob of HaagAmsterdam1728, 30
Jacob Ḥaber ṬobMantua1718-23
Jacob ibn ḤasonSalonica1732
Jacob b. ḤayyimVenice1520
Jacob b. ḤayyimConstantinople1711
Jacob b. Ḥayyim b. Jacob ErbichAmsterdam1700-26, 32
Jacob Ḥazḳuni b. AbrahamAmsterdam1694, 1726
Jacob b. Hillel of LublinPrague1675
Jacob b. Isaac GomezVerona1650
Jacob b. Isaac LeviVenice1678, 82, 90, 90-91, 96
Jacob b. Isaac LeviAmsterdam1688
Jacob IsraelMayence (?)1584
Jacob b. Issachar (Dob) CantorZolkiev1718
Jacob JeshurunAmsterdam1660
Jacob b. Joel LeviAmsterdam1701
Jacob b. Joseph.
Jacob (Ḥai) b. Joseph (Ḥai) Kohen.Venice1693, 96, 98, 1702, 4, 5, 12-15
Jacob b. Judah Noah Kohen Norden.Amsterdam1640
Jacob b. Judah ShneorAmsterdam1683
Jacob (Koppel) KohenAmsterdam1715
Jacob Kohen della ManVenice1616
Jacob KulliConstantinople1719, 27, 28, 31
Jacob LandauNaples1487
Jacob (Koppel) LeviSulzbach1700
Jacob Levi of TarasconMantuaAnte 1480
Jacob LubemilaAmsterdam1728
Jacob Luẓẓaṭ b. IsaacCracow1569
Jacob MarcariaRiva di Trento1558-62
Jacob b. MeïrLublin1598-99
Jacob b. Meïr HölischauCracow1608, 17
Jacob Mendez da CostaWandsbeck1733
Jacob de MezaAmsterdam1705
Jacob b. MordecaiAmsterdam1708
Jacob b. Mordecai b. JacobPrague1597
Jacob b. MosesAmsterdam1696
Jacob (Ẓebi) b. MosesWilmersdorf1688-90, 1712-17, 19-22, 26-38
Fürth1691-97, 1724-26, 38
Sulzbach1699-1712, 29
Jacob b. Moses BohemusLublin1556, 59, 66
Jacob b. Moses DruckerAmsterdam1690
Jacob b. Moses KohenHanau1710-11
Jacob (Eliezer) b. Moses Lesers of Wilna.Cracow1640
Jacob b. Moses LeviAmsterdam1690, 95, 97, 99, 1702-3, 4, 6, 5-10, 11-12, 14, 15, 21, 28, 30, 39
Jacob b. Moses Levi JosbelVenice1643, 47-48, 57, 61, 67
Jacob b. Moses-Loeb PizkerPrague1609
Jacob b. Moses of PosenDessau1698
Jacob b. NaphtaliCracow1576-81?
Jacob b. NaphtaliFürth1723
Wilmersdorf1728-29, 30
Fürth1757, 69
Jacob b. Naphtali (Hirsch)Amsterdam1683
Dyhernfurth1691, 93
Jacob b. Naphtali Kohen of GazoloSabbionetta1551
Mantua1556, 57-60, 60-62
Jacob (Koppel) b. Naphtali (Hirsch) Pas.Amsterdam1726, 30
Jacob ibn Phorna b. DavidConstantinople1710, 11, 13, 14
Jacob (Jokew) b. Phinehas SeligJessnitz1722-26
Jacob (Israel) de la PiniaAmsterdam1664, 69
Jacob RewahConstantinople1718
Jacob Rodriguez Guadeloupe b. AbrahamAmsterdam1663-64, 69, 69
Jacob SagdunVenice1648
Jacob b. SamuelAmsterdam1713
Jacob b. Samuel (Sanwel)Fürth1722
Jacob b. Samuel of LembergAmsterdam1697
Jacob Saraval b. Joshua NehemiahVenice1640, 45
Jacob SasportasAmsterdam1651, 53
Jacob (Israel) Shalom b. SamuelVenice1709
Jacob SibuyahSmyrna1730, 58
Jacob b. SolomonAmsterdam1732
Jacob Stabnitz LeviPrague1607
Jacob SullamVenice1614
Jacob ṬabuḥSmyrna1731
Jacob Treves b. Mattathias of Worms.Prague1614-15
Jacob b. Uzziel SolomonSalonica1709
Jacob Wimpfen b. Eliezer Wimpfen.Amsterdam1689
Jacob ibn YaḳḳarConstantinople1511
Jacob b. ẒebiWilmersdorf1689-90
Jacob b. ẒebiLublin1637
Amsterdam1641, 43
Jacob b. Ẓebi of FürthSulzbach1715
Jaffe (Ḥayyim b. Kolonymus)Lublin1572-96
Jaffe (Joseph [I.] b. Kalonymus).Lublin1572-75
Jaffe (Joseph [II.] b. Ẓebi Hirsch Ḳalmanḳes) .Lublin1633
Jaffe (Kalonymus [I.])Lublin1556-97
Jaffe (Kalonymus [II.] b. Ẓebi Hirsch Ḳalmanḳes).Lublin1635-46
Jaffe (Ẓebi b. [Abraham Ḳalmanḳes] Kalonymus).Lublin1577, 78, 96, 1604-28, 48
Jaffe, Sarah, daughter of Kalonymus (II.).Lublin1665
Jaffe (Solomon or Zalman b. Jacob Ḳalmanḳes) of Torbin.Lublin1665-85
Jedidiah Kohen b. Aryeh Judah Loeb.Constantinople1732
Jehiel (Michael b. Judah Loeb of Zolkiev).Zolkiev1718
Jehiel (Michael) b. Abraham Zalman Shammash.Wilmersdorf1670
Prague1674, 78
Weckelsdorf1686, 89, 92
Jehiel b. Asher KohenCracow1583
Jehiel AshkenaziConstantinople1646-47
Jehiel (Michael) b. BaruchPrague1675
Jehiel Elia RafaelPisaur1509-18
Jehiel b. JedidiahCracow1587
Jehiel b. Jekuthiel Kohen RapaVenice1544-47
Jehiel Luria AshkenaziVenice1601
Jehiel (Fishel) b. Menahem Levi AshkenaziSmyrna1730-31
Constantinople1734, 36
Jehiel de Monteles b. SolomonVenice1585
Jehiel b. Solomon of VeronaBologna1537-40
Jehiel (Michael) Stern Kohen b. Wolf.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1713
Jehiel TeshubahVenice1640
Jehiel Treves b. David of GalingenOffenbach1717
Jehiel b. Ẓebi HirschAmsterdam1703, 9
Jekuthiel b. AsherSalonica1587
Jekuthiel BlitzAmsterdam1659, 60, 61
Jekuthiel b. DavidPrague1597-1618
Jekuthiel b. Isaac DanPrague1512, 15, 18
Jekuthiel (Süsskind) b. Isaac of Pinczow.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1726
Jekuthiel (Zalman) b. Katriel of Satanow.Constantinople1654
Jekuthiel b. Moses KohenFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1702
Jekuthiel (Kofman) SanegoVenice1600
Jekuthiel b. SolomonCracow1574
Jeremiah (Aryeb Loeb) b. SamuelFürth1694, 98, 1722
Jeroham b. Menahem of SlonimAmsterdam1697
Jesse AlmoliSmyrna1660
Joab b. Baruch of Piatelli (?)Venice1665
Joel b. Aaron of FürthFürth1692-93
Joel b. Aaron LeviLublin1598-99
Joel b. PhoebusWandsbeck1727
Johanan b. Aaron IsaacAmsterdam1713
Johanan DuranteVenice1578
Johanan of MeseritzFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99
Johanan TrevesVenice1545
Jonah AbravanelAmsterdam1628, 30, 48, 50, 52
Jonah b. Isaac of StrimWandsbeck1731
Jonah b. Jacob AshkenaziConstantinople1712-42
Jonah b. Judah of PraguePrague1608, 10
Jonah (Ḳlavi ?)Venice1666
Jonah b. Moses PolakAmsterdam1727, 29, 30, 32, 33, 39
Joseph (?)Venice1592
Joseph (Jekuthiel Kofman Wahl).Prague1587, 92
Joseph (Venturin b. David)Venice1651, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 75
Joseph (Maestro)...............1477
Joseph b. AbrahamPrague1728
Joseph b. Abraham Benjamin Zeeb.Amsterdam1727
Joseph b. Abraham of Jerusalem.Amsterdam1712
Joseph b. Alexander SüsskindAmsterdam1677
Joseph AlgaziSmyrna1671, 83
Joseph al-Ḳala'iConstantinople1711
Joseph Alnaqua b. AbrahamSalonica1520
Joseph (Joseph) Alvalensi b. Abraham.Venice1676, 78
Joseph (ibn) Alzaig, the elderConstantinople1643
Joseph Alzaig b. Isaac, the younger.Constantinople1511
Joseph Amaragi b. MosesSalonica1653
Joseph b. Asher of PraguePrague1674-75
Joseph Askaloni b. IsaacBelvedere (Kuru Chesme).1593-94, 97-98
Joseph b. Benjamin Ḥayyim Levi.Verona1650
Joseph BibasConstantinople1505-22
Joseph Caravita b. AbrahamBologna1482
Joseph (Simel) Cividal b. AsherVenice1665
Joseph Crasnik of RakowPrague1732
Joseph di CrastoSalonica1522
Joseph ibn Danan b. Jacob.Venice1615, 17-19
Joseph b. DanielCracow1587-88
Joseph b. Eliakim b. NaphtaliVenice1606
Joseph b. Eliezer ḤalfanBasel1602
Joseph b. Eliezer Ḥazzan of PosenBasel1602
Joseph Elkeser b. BenjaminBerlin (?)1699-1700
Joseph b. Ephraim (Hungarus)Lublin1577
Joseph Epstein b. Benjamin Zeeb Wolf Levi.Berlin1713
Joseph Esobi b. Judah b. SolomonVenice1621
Joseph Falcon b. Solomon ZalmanConstantinople1710
Joseph Franco SerranoAmsterdam1680, 83
Joseph FürstHamburg1716, 18
Joseph GabbaiConstantinople1512
Joseph b. Gershon of TorbinLublin1627, 30
Joseph (Iseppo) GoaPadua1640
Joseph ibn Ḥassan b. SolomonSalonica1732
Joseph b. Ḥayyim GumpelsFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1677, 80, 86
Prague1691-92, 94-95, 1700-1
Joseph b. Ḥayyim ḲaddishFrankfort-on-the-Main.1688
Joseph ḤazzanVenice1566, 67
Joseph b. Immanuel KohenSalonica1517
Joseph b. Isaac b. Isaiah Woidislaw.Dyhernfurth1696, 97, 1700, 3, 4-5, 13, 16, 18, 20
Joseph b. Isaac b. JehielVenice1544
Joseph b. Isaac KohenConstantinople (?)1547
Joseph b. IsraelConstantinople1518
Joseph b. Israel (b.?) HirschPrague1691
Joseph b. Issachar BaerPrague1616, 21
Joseph ibn JacobLublin1618-20
Joseph ibn Jacob AshkenaziNaples1487-90
Joseph ibn Jacob BraunschweigBasel1609
Joseph b. Jacob KohenVenice1657, 59-60, 61, 75, 85, 1709, 12-15
Joseph ibn JaḳḳarSchenhausen1544
Joseph b. Jekuthiel ZalmanBerlin1715
Joseph (Jospe) b. Joseph But LeviPrague.
Joseph b. Joshua (Hoeschel) Kohen.Offenbach1721
Joseph (Jospe) b. JudahLublin1598-99
Joseph Ḳabiẓi b. AyyidConstantinople1515
Joseph KhalfonLisbon1491
Joseph KohenConstantinople1509
Joseph b. KutielDessau1698
Joseph de Leon b. Solomon Israel.Venice1690-91, 93, 94
Joseph b. Manasseh b. IsraelAmsterdam1646-47, 47, 48
Joseph (Solomon) b. Mendel Plotzkers.Cracow1642-44
Joseph b. Meshullam Phoebus Ḥazzan.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1701-2
Joseph MeṭaṭronSalonica.
Joseph b. Michael NehemiahHamburg1711
Joseph b. MolchoVenice1589
Joseph b. Mordecai GershonCracow1571
Joseph b. Mordecai KohenAmsterdam1708
Joseph b. Moses Levi of Hamburg.Amsterdam1692-93, 99, 1702, 3-6, 11, 14, 16, 18-19, 26, 30
Joseph b. Moses Reviẓi (Rachiẓi ?)Venice1528-29
Joseph Mubḥar SefardiConstantinople1509
Joseph b. Naphtali (Treves ?)Zurich1558
Joseph b. Naphtali of KonskawolaAmsterdam1648
Joseph b. NathanFürth1726
Joseph NissimFerrara1693
Joseph de Noves b. Judah b. Samuel.Venice1605
Joseph OberlaenderVenice1701
Joseph OttolengoRiva di Trenta1558-60
Joseph PardoVenice1597-1606
Joseph (Solomon) PiniaLeghorn1657
Joseph ibn PisoNaples1492
Joseph Porjes b. Judah LoebAmsterdam1709
Joseph SamegaVenice1587
Joseph (b.?) (Moses) b. SamsonVenice1598
Joseph b. Samuel LeviConstantinople1546-47
Joseph ibn Saruḳ b. ḤayyimVenice1591, 1607-8
Joseph SasonConstantinople1726
Joseph Sason b. Aaron of Gallipoli.Venice1618
Joseph Sason b. JacobVenice1584, 98-1600
Joseph b. Shabbethai BassDyhernfurth1707-18
Joseph Shalliṭ...............1550-73
Joseph ibn ShoshanConstantinople1520-22
Joseph Sid b. IsaacSalonica1529, 35
Joseph b. SimeonAmsterdam1717
Joseph (Dob Baer) b. SolomonDyhernfurth1713, 15, 17, 19
Joseph b. Solomon b. Isaiah NizzaVenice1711, 12
Joseph (Sofer) b. Solomon LeviCracow1597-98
Joseph (Ḥayyim) Strasburg b. Aaron.Bologna1482
Joseph (Jospe) Trier KohenFrankfort-on-the-Main.1690-1715
Joseph Trillinger b. Eliezer...............1707
Joseph Wehle b. SolomonAmsterdam1685-87
Berlin1699, 1700, 17
Joseph of WitzenhausenAmsterdam1644, 47-48, 68-70, 73, 76, 79-86
Joseph ibn Yaḥyah b. TamConstantinople1542, 43
Joseph b. Zalman ShneorFürth1691-92, 98
Joseph b. (Solomon) Zalman of WilnaAmsterdam1726, 27, 29
Joseph ẒarfatiAmsterdam1693, 1702
Joseph Ẓarfati b. Judah of ẒafatLublin1613
Joseph Ẓarfati b. SamuelVenice1525
Joseph (Josbel) b. ẒebiOffenbach1716-19
Joshua (Elhanan) b. Abraham Joseph.Venice1730
Joshua Falk of LissaFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99
Joshua b. IsraelLublin1619-28
Joshua (Gershon) LeviMantua1672
Joshua b. Meïr Levi of Schwersenz.Wilmersdorf1727
Joshua b. Michael of SezzeMantua1718-32
Joshua da SilvaAmsterdam1666-67
Joshua Sin (?).
Joshua (Hoeschel) b. Solomon Kohen.Offenbach1719
Joshua SoninaConstantinople1717, 19
Joshua (Falk) b. Zalman of Wiscnowicz.Constantinople1710-11
Joshua Ẓarfati (Gallus)Amsterdam1658-59, 66
Josiah b. Abigdor of KaliszBerlin1699, 1700
Josiah MizraḥiConstantinople1711
Judah (Loeb) b. Aaron of PraguePrague1691, 95, 1700, 1, 7, 10
Judah (Loeb) b. AbrahamCracow1642-44
Judah AbudientiAmsterdam1675
Judah Albelda b. MosesVenice1600-1, 2
Judah b. Alexander KohenPrague1602, 3-4, 5, 6, 9-10, 10, 11, 13, 14, 35, 48
Lublin1630, 39
Judah b. Alexander Levi of Worms.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1697
Judah (Loeb) b. Asher Anschel Abigdor.Prague1669
Judah (Loeb) b. Baruch WahlDyhernfurth1725
Judah Bassan b. SamuelVerona1650
Judah b. Benjamin ZeebPrague1688
Judah of BerlinAmsterdam1682
Judah BrielMantua1672, 94-95
Judah (Lewa) b. DavidPrague1615
Judah b. David b. JudahCracow1644
Judah b. David (Isaac Saekel) Levi of FürthBerlin1709
Judah b. David ReubenVenice1661
Judah b. Eleazar Lubemila...............1603
Judah (Selig) b. Eliezer Lipman Kohen of Zolkiev.Zolkiev1721, 33
Judah (Loeb) Ginzburg.
Judah b. Hananiah CastorianoConstantinople1732
Judah ḤazzanSmyrna1730
Judah (Loeb) Hurwitz Levi of Prague.Sulzbach1688
Judah b. IsaacPrague1660, 62
Judah (Loeb) b. Isaac BrzescAmsterdam1713
Judah (Loeb) b. Isaac JoelAmsterdam1712
Judah (Loeb) b. Isaac Jüdels Kohen (Kaẓ)................1619-20, 20, 22, 23, 24, 28
Judah b. Isaac LeviMantua1623
Judah b. Isaac Levi AshkenaziVenice1544-47, 48
Judah (Loeb) b. Isaac of TikotinLublin1619
Judah b. Israel Samuel KohenProssnitz1603
Judah b. Issachar KohenWilmersdorf1673-75
Judah (Loeb) b. Jacob of Prostitz.Lublin1602-5, 9, 11, 13, 14, 19
Judah (Loeb) b. Jacob Wandsbeck of Krotoschin.Hamburg1686, 88, 90
Judah (Loeb) b. Joel b. Eliezer................1724
Judah (Loeb) b. Joel LeviAmsterdam1698
Judah b. (Joseph) Josbel WetzlarOffenbach1720
Judah (Loeb) b. JosephWilmersdorf1671, 73-74, 80, 81-82, 85-86, 88-90
Judah (Loeb) b. JosephCracow1592, 94, 99
Judah (Loeb) b. JosephBerlin1699-1700
Judah b. Joseph LeviConstantinople1716
Judah b. Joseph ObadiahConstantinople1666
Judah (Aryeh Loeb) b. Joseph SamuelFrankfort-on-the-Main.1713
Judah (Loeb) b. Judah JosephAmsterdam1700
Judah (Loeb) b. Judah KohenLublin1626-35
Judah Karo b. JosephSalonica1597
Judah (Loeb) Klesmer b. WolfBerlin1701, 7
Judah (Loeb) b. Ẓebi of JanowJessnitaz1722-23
Judah Lapapa b. IsaacSmyrna1674
Judah Luria b. JohananAmsterdam1700-10
Judah (Aryeh Loeb) of LublinCracow1571
Judah (Aryeh Loeb) Maeler b. Joseph.Amsterdam1663
Judah di Medina b. Moses Sustin.Salonica1614
Judah (Loeb) b. MeïrHambarg1687
Judah (Loeb) b. MenahemDyhernfurth1749
Judah (Loeb) b. Menahem Nahum Kaẓ.Prague1686
Judah di Modena...............1595-1648
Judah (Loeb) b. Mordecai GumpelAmsterdam1631-32, 37, 40, 42, 43-46, 53, 58, 61-64
Judah (Loeb) b. Mordecai b. Judah.Dyhernfurth1719
Judah (Saltaro) b. Moses de Fano.Venice1602
Judah (Loeb) b. Moses Jacob of Leipnik.Prague1608, 13, 18, 24
Judah (Loeb) b. Moses SchedelPrague1602, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, 8, 9, 13
Judah (Aryeh Loeb) b. Naphtali (Hirsch).Amsterdam1690
Judah b. Nathan of CracowCremona1565
Judah (Loeb) Nikolsburg...............1700 (?)
Judah PerezVenice1706-11
Judah PesaroPesaro1505
Judah RosanesConstantinople1719
Judah (Loeb) b. SaraAmsterdam1701
Judah Sason b. JosephConstantinople1514, 15, 16
Judah (Loeb) SchnapperFrankfort-on-the-Main.1710
Judah (Gur Aryeh) b. ShalomNaples1492
Judah ShamuVenice1665
Judah b. SimḥahCracow1592-93
Judah (Loeb Rofe) b. SimeonFrankfort-on-the-Main.1677
Judah b. Solomon Kohen Lipschütz.Lublin1622 (17-?)
Judah ibn Ya'ishVenice1705
Kalonymus b. Isaac b. Isaiah of WoidislawProssnitz1711
Dyhernfurth1712, 13, 15, 19, 20, 26
Kalonymus b. Isaac of ZloczowDyhernfurth1703
Kalonymus (Kalman) b. Judah Ashkenazi.Constantinople1719, 20
Kalonymus (Kalman) b. Judah (Loeb) Kalisch.Amsterdam1721
Kalonymus b. Ẓebi (Hirsch) Kohen b. Kalonymus.Dyhernfurth1703, 5, 7, 12-13, 19
Katriel b. Jekuthiel Zalman of Satanow.Constantinople1648
Katriel b. Ẓebi SzidlowerCracow1638-39, 42
Cracow1666, 70
KaẓPrague1682, 85, 89, 92-95, 98-1700, 2, 6
KaẓPrague1687-1726, 35
Kaẓ (Aaron b. Israel)Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1677, 80
Kaẓ (Bezaleel b. Mordecai)Prague1569, 78, 85-90 (92?)
Kaẓ (David b. Aaron b. Israel)Prague1701, 3, 8
Kaẓ (Geronim b. Solomon)Prague1526
Kaẓ (Gershon [II.] b. IsraelPrague1569
Kaẓ (Gershon [III.] b. Joseph bezaleel).Prague1586, 89, 95-96, 1600, 8, 9, 10
Kaẓ (Israel b. Judah [Loeb]Prague1652 (?)
Kaẓ (Judah b. Gershon)Prague1541
Kaẓ (Judah b. Jacob)Prague1624
Kaẓ (Mordecai b. Gershon)Prague1529-90
Kaẓ (Mordecai [II.] b. Gershon)Prague1608, 20, 23, 24
Kaẓ (Moses b. Gershon)Prague1533-34, 35, 36, 40, 41, 49-50, 56
Kaẓ (Moses [II.] b. Joseph Bezaleel).Prague1592-94, 99-1635, 47 (?), 48 (?)
Kaẓ (Pesaḥ b. Mordecai)Prague1556-69
Kaẓ (Samuel b. Mordecai)Prague1569, 78
Kaẓ (Solomon [I.] b. GershonPrague1529, 30, 33-34, 35, 36, 40
Kaẓ (Solomon [III.] b. Gershon).Prague1608
Kaẓ (Solomon [II.] b. Mordecai).Prague1569, 80-81, 85-88, 90, 92-94
Kaz Gershon (I.)Prague1515, 18, 22, 26, 29, 30, 41
Klessner (Georg) of LeipsicJessnitz1720
Koffman b. Asher of LubinConstantinople1711
Kosmann Emrich b. Elijah CleveAmsterdam1688-89, 92-97
Lemberger (Abraham b. Simeon Heide).Prague1610, 12, 13-28
Leon-Templo (Isaac b. Solomon Judah).Amsterdam1726
Leon-Templo (Solomon)Amsterdam1726-27, 30, 31
Leon-Templo (Solomon Judah Raphael b. Jacob).Amsterdam1697-99, 1703
Levi Laniado (and Isaac Laniado).Venice1657
Levi b. SüsschenAmsterdam1701
Levi TilioConstantinople1652
Licht (Johann)Hamburg1715
Lima b. Naphtali of FürthAmsterdam1711
Lipmann b. AbrahamFrankfort-on-the-Main.1688
Mahalalel b. Menahem Isaac LeviMantua1713, 24
Mahrim b. (Moses) Jacob Maarssen.Amsterdam1710, 15, 20
Mahrim b. Jacob b. Moses LeviAmsterdam1726-29, 30, 35, 39-40, 46
Manasseh b. IsraelAmsterdam1626-40
Manasseh (Jacob) b. Judah Levi of Lubemil.Cracow1590
Manasseh Kazin b. SolomonVenice1599-1600
Margalita (Aaron)Halle1711
Masus b. AlexanderAmsterdam1730
Meïr b. AsherVenice1565, 74
Meïr b. DavidPrague1512, 15, 18, 22, 26, 29
Meïr b. David b. BenjaminHamburg1715, 20
Meïr b. David of KulkLublin1627
Meïr b. Eliezer Lipman Kaẓ (Kohen).Prossnitz1711
Meïr b. EphraimMantua1557-60, 63-87
Meïr b. Epstein b. Jacob LeviPrague1515, 18, 22
Meïr FriedburgHanau1719
Meïr Gans b. MenahemPrague1647 (?)
Meïr (Menahem) Ḥabib b. Joseph.Venice1657
Meïr Heilbronn (Heilpron) b. Moses.Cremona1557-58
Meïr b. Isaac of LoktschSulzbach1702
Meïr b. Jacob KoppelHamburg1711
Meïr b. Joseph (Jospe) Kohen of Hamburg.Offenbach1717
Meïr b. Manasseh NikolsburgPrague1680
Meïr MelliVenice1617-19
Meïr b. Mordecai LeviLublin1568
Meïr b. Naphtali KossowitzPrague1691
Prague1709, 13, 14, 28, 35-36
Meïr OettingenOffenbach1722
Meïr Oppenheim b. Abraham b. Baer.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1697
Meïr ParenzVenice1545-75
Meïr b. PethahiahLublin1643
Meïr Rofe b. Ḥiyya RofeVenice1657
Meïr ibn SchangiConstantinople1586
Meïr b. Selig of KalischHalle1710
Meïr b. ShalomLublin1568
Meïr b. SolomonLublin1681
Meïr b. Wolf SchwabAmsterdam1722-24
Meïr (ibn) Yaḥya b. JosephFano1506
Meïr b. ZechariahVenice1639-61
Meisel(s)(s) (Judah Loeb b. Simḥah Bonem).Lublin1648
Meisels (Menahem)Lublin1623-27
Meisels (Tchernah bat Menahem)Cracow1638-39, 46
Menahem b. Aaron PolaccoVenice1704-5, 8, 11, 12, 19, 28, 30, 60
Menahem b. Abraham KohenVenice1648
Menahem (Mannes) b. Abraham Kohen of Glogad.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1694
Menahem b. Abraham of Modena.Bologna1537-40
Menahem AzariahVenice1589
Menahem (Mendel) b. Bezaleel of Lublin.Lublin1665, 72, 80-81
Menahem (Mendel) Bloch b. MosesFrankfort-on-the-Main.1713
Menahem CrispinSalonica1709
Menahem DayyanConstantinople1525
Menahem (Man) b. EliezerAmsterdam1699
Menahem (Jacob) b. Eliezer Judah Ashkenazi.Venice1606
Menahem (Mandel) Grünhut b. David.Hanau1717
Menahem (Mendel) b. (Bär) Hirschel.Prague1689-90, 92, 1701
Prague1714, 20, 28,
Menahem (Man) b. Isaac (Jacob) of Prague.Prague1668
Wilmersdorf1671, 73-74, 80, 81
Dyhernfurth1689-90, 93
Menahem Mendel b. Isaac Levi.Cracow1587-88
Menahem (Mendel) b. Israel Kohen Jaroslaw of Lemberg.Amsterdam1690
Menahem b. Jacob of CracowVenice1712
Menahem (Man) b. Jacob Jekuthiel.Wandsbeck1732
Menahem b. (Noah) Jacob Kohen of Norden.Amsterdam1649, 76
Menahem Jaffe b. IsaacVenice1631
Menahem (Manusch) b. JudahHanau1712
Menahem b. Meïr WilnaAmsterdam1663, 69
Menahem Mendel Korchman b. Samuel Kohen.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1701-2
Menahem b. Moses IsraelPrague1549-50
Menahem (Mendel) b. Nathan Eisenstadt.Prague1705
Menahem de Rossi b. AzariahMantua1565
Menahem b. Samuel Esra...............1614
Menahem (Man) b. Solomon Levi.Amsterdam1724-27, 32, 33, 38-39
Menahem Stummer KohenPrague1686-90
Menahem Trinḳi b. DavidVenice1622
Menahem (Manle b. Judah Loeb) of Wilmersdorf.Dyhernfurth1690-91
Meshullam (Phoebus) b. Aaron Ḥayyaṭ.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1703, 12, 25, 29
Meshullam (Zalman) b. Aaron b. Uri.Sulzbach1716-17, 22, 67 (?)
Meshullam (Zalman) b. Abraham Berech Pinkerle.Amsterdam1683, 84-85, 85
Venice1700, 4
Meshullam AshkenaziVenice1685
Meshullam BassanVenice1587
Meshullam CusiPiove di Sacco.1475
Meshullam Cusi LeviVenice1614
Meshullam (Phoebus) b. ElijahFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1709, 11-12, 29, 32
Meshullam Gentile b. MosesMantua1673
Meshullam (Phoebus Zalman) Hurwitz.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1703, 5, 8, 11-12, 13, 29
Meshullam Hurwitz LeviPrague1647, 48, 63
Wilmersdorf1671, 73
Sulzbach1695-96 (?)
Meshullam (Phoebus) b. IsaacAmsterdam1715
Meshullam (Kofmann) b. Shemaiah.Venice1515-46, 49, 52
Meshullam b. SolomonLublin1556, 59, 66
Meshullam Sullam (Salem?) b. Isaac.Mantua1589-90
Michael b. AbrahamBerlin1699-1700
Michael Diaz MocattoLeghorn1650-52, 55-57
Michael G'acon (?)Constantinople1732
Michael Hanau b. SolomonFrankfort-on-the-Main.1717, 20
Michael b. Ḥayyim Talmesingen.Fürth1727
Michael b. Yom-Ṭob KohenSalonica1732
Mordecai b. Abraham of PosenOffenbach1718
Mordecai b. Abraham Teimer of Zolkiev.Dyhernfurth1715
Amsterdam1717-18, 20
Mordecai Alfandari b. ShabbethaiConstantinople1719, 23
Mordecai of AnsbachFürth1692-93, 1701
Mordecai ibn 'Aṭṭhar b. ReubenAmsterdam1721
Mordecai Azulai b. MosesAmsterdam1693, 97
Mordecai b. Baruch of Tivoli.Venice1585
Mordecai b. Benjamin Zeeb of Cracow.Prague1657
Mordecai b. DavidPrague1512
Mordecai (Gumpel) b. Eleazar Hendels.
Mordecai Gener Baermann Halberstadt.Amsterdam1712
Mordecai b. Jacob of ProstitzLublin1596, 1602-5
Prague1608, 9
Mordecai (Baer) JakerlPrague1705
Mordecal b. Jehiel Michael Slawa tich.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1690
Mordecai b. Joseph Judah WahlBasel1611-12
Mordecai (Gumpel) b. Judah Loeb (b. Mordecai) Polak.Amsterdam1648-50, 50-51, 53, 56, 58, 60-64, 66, 67, 70-71, 83, 89
Mordecai b. Moses LeviBasel1580
Mordecai b. Moses Menahem Nahum.Berlin1703
Prague1705-6, 9-10
Mordecai b. NaphtaliBasel1612
Mordecai b. Naphtall HirzFürth1692
Mordecai b. Reuben BaslaSoncino1489
Mordecai Saul b. Samuel SaulVenice1607
Mordecai b. ShabbethaiBasel1598, 1618-19
Mordecai b. SimḥahVenice1576
Mordecai Sofer of PraguePrague1512
Mordecai b. SolomonAmsterdam1732
Moses (b....?)Lublin1646
Moses (Moses b. Moses ?)Cracow1586, 92-93
Moses b. (Aaron?) of ZolkievZolkiev1718
Moses b. Aaron AshkenaziConstantinople1652
Moses b. Aaron Kohen of Witmund.Amsterdam1727
Moses b. Aaron of WormsAmsterdam1650, 53, 56-57, 58, 61-63, 64-66, 70-71, 80
Moses b. Abraham AbinuAmsterdam1686, 87, 90-94
Moses b. Abraham KohenWilmersdorf1721-23, 27-28, 30, 32
Moses b. Abraham of LeipnikLublin1619
Moses b. Abraham NathanLublin1636 (?)
Moses AbulafiaVenice1587
Moses b. Alexander LeviBasel1610
Moses AlfalasVenice1598-1600
Moses AltarasVenice1619
Moses (Nathaniel) Altschul b. Aaron Freund of Prague.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99
Moses Amarillo b. SolomonSalonica1719, 22
Moses (Isaac) b. AssherPrague1668, 1673-75
Moses b. Asher Kohen of HalleJessnitz1725
Moses (Simeon) Basilia b. Shabbethai.Verona1652
Moses BelmonteAmsterdam1644-45
Moses BenvenisteVenice1647
Moses Ben-ẒionMantua1667
Moses (ibn Yaḳḳar) BrandonAmsterdam1708-10
Moses CarilloSmyrna1659
Moses CorcosVenice1606 (?)
Moses b. Daniel of RohatynZolkiev1693
Moses b. DavidAmsterdam1723
Moses Diaz b. Isaac...............1706-13(15?)
Moses DorheimFrankfort-on-the-Main.1719, 23
Moses b. EliezerVenice1614
Moses b. EliezerCracow1640
Moses b. Eliezer of WilnaLublin1622
Moses b. EzraCracow1571
Moses Facilino b. SamuelConstantinople1516
Moses Falcon b. SamuelSalonica1719-29, 32
Moses FrankfurterAmsterdam1721
Moses GabbaiVenice1578
Moses GabbaiSalonica1658
Moses GifrutSmyrna1730, 58, 64
Moses Gomez Mesquita b. IsaacAmsterdam1707-8
Moses ḤabibNaples1488
Moses ḤagizVenice1703-4
Moses b. Ḥalifah Sa'adiaVenice1711
Moses Ḥalimi b. SolomonConstantinople1518
Moses Hamon b. JosephConstantinople1515, 16, 46
Moses Hausen b. Joseph MosesSulzbach1684-85, 88
Moses (David) Hausen b. Zalman.Venice1704-5
Moses (David Tebele) b. Ḥayyim Koethen.Wandsbeck1723
Moses b. Ḥayyim of TikotinOffenbach1722
Moses Heilprin b. PhinehasAmsterdam1650, 62
Moses Hock b. IsaacPrague1694
Prague1710, 18-20
Moses b. IsaacNaples1492
Moses b. IsaacConstantinople1716-17, 19
Salonica1719, 31
Moses b. Isaiah b. IsaacCracow1604
Moses b. Israel (Isser) Lasar Cracow.Lublin1636
Moses b. Issachar (Baermann) Wink.Amsterdam1725-26, 26-27, 32-33, 39-40
Moses b. Jacob Gelhaar of PraguePrague1609-10, 13, 14, 16 (17?), 20, 23
Moses b Jacob Maarsen Levi of Amsterdam.Altona1728
Moses b. Jacob of SlutzkJessnitz1724
Moses JaffeVenice1645
Moses b. Jonah GamburgFrankfort-on-the-Main.1722-28
Moses b. JosephLublin1642, 48
Moses b. JosephAmsterdam1695
Moses b. Joseph AryehVenice1606
Moses b. Joseph (b. Isaac Isaiah of Woidislaw).Prossnitz1711
Wandsbeck1727, 28
Moses b. Joseph EmdenAmsterdam1698
Moses b. Judah (Loeb) CleveJessnitz1722
Moses b. Judah of EmdenAmsterdam1718
Moses (Menahem Nahum) b. Judah (Loeb) Kaz.Lublin1648
Prague1657, 60, 62, 74-75, 78
Weckeisdorf1682, 86, 90
Fürth1691-92, 94, 97
Prague1705-6 (?)
Moses Ḳala'i b. Mattithiah b. Samuel.Venice1599-1600
Moses Kalaẓ (khallaẓ)Constantinople1536-37
Moses b. Kalman SpelerFrankfort-on-the-Main.1721
Moses Levi Ashkenazi of Modena.Constantinople1509
Moses Levi ḤazzanVenice1598
Moses Levi MujaVenice1675-78
Moses Maḥbub b. MaimonConstantinople1520-22, 42
Moses Maguro b. DanielVenice1693, 94, 96
Moses di Medina b. SamuelSalonica1593-1615
Moses di Medina b. ShemaiahMantua1648
Moses (Yom-Ṭob Lipmann) b. Menahem (Man) b. Isaac Jacob.Dyhernfurth1693
Moses Mendez Coutinho b. Abraham.Amsterdam1695, 99-1711
Moses b. Meshullam (Zalman)...............1727
Moses ibn MinirVenice1593
Moses Minz Levi b. AsherAmsterdam1713
Moses Minz Levi b. Isaac Menahem b. MosesVenice1601
Moses (Hezekiah) b. MocattaAmsterdam1708
Moses b. MosesCracow1594, 96, 99
Moses b. MosesWilmersdorf1726-28
Moses b. Moses Meïr KohenLublin1591
Moses b. Nathan HamelburgAmsterdam1644, 49
Moses (Raphael) Ottolenghi b. Samuel David.Amsterdam1712
Moses Parnas b. EleazarConstantinople1546-47, 47-50, 54
Moses PereiraAmsterdam1688
Moses PhornoSmyrna1731
Moses Pinto DelgadoAmsterdam1644
Moses PokiConstantinople1581
Moses (Aryeh) PosenBerlin1715
Moses PrincipalVenice1617
Moses Sachs b. Simeon of PosenFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1705
Moses SaertelsPrague1606, 11
Moses b. Samuel (Sanvel)Hamburg1690
Moses b. Samuel Kohen of BrzescAmsterdam1709
Moses b. Saul PauerLublin1571-72
Moses SchedelPrague1585-1605
Moses SelimiConstantinople1522
Moses Shabbethai b. Ḥayyim Sabbata.Salonica1651
Moses b. Shabbethai of LoktschPrague1590
Moses b. Shneor (Zalman) Kohen.Amsterdam1707
Moses ibn ShoshanSabbionetta1554-55
Moses SimeonSalonica1621
Moses b. SimeonAmsterdam1687
Moses b. Simeon (b.) Anschel Herzel's.Wilmersdorf1671-73
Moses b. Simḥah BonemDessau1696-1701, 4
Moses SolomonCracow1642
Moses b. Solomon AshkenaziVenice1713
Moses b. Solomon LeviAmsterdam1669
Moses Spira b. JacobFrankfort-on-the-Main.1719
Moses TarantoSmyrna1730
Moses ṬarfonVenice1606
Moses Tausk b. Phinehas Shoḥeṭ.Dyhernfurth1696, 97
Berlin1699, 1705, 9, 14-15, 17
Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1724-25, 33
Moses Trinco Levi of MoreaVenice1620
Moses Utiz b. EliezerPrague1610, 12
Moses (Ḥai) Venturin b. Joseph.Venice1707
Moses of ViennaPrague1623
Moses WaagFrankfort-on-the-Main.1711-12
Moses Weisswasser b. KatrielMantua1589, 93
Prague1605-6, 9, 10, 14, 18, 21-22
Moses WelschFrankfort-on-the-Main.1704
Moses b. Zachariah Kohen CorfuVenice1546, 49, 51, 53, 76
Moses ZacutoVenice1648-72
Moses (Ḥayyim) ẒalachVenice1665
Moses Ẓarfati di GeronaAmsterdam1726
Moses b. ZebiDyhernfurth1690-91
Moses b. Ẓebi Kalonymus of HalberstadtAmsterdam1712
Moses b. Zerah AshkenaziConstantinople1726
Naḥman b. Jacob of LublinLublin1648 (?)
Naḥman b. Jehiel of DessauJessnitz1724
Naḥmias (David ibn)Constantinople1503-11
Naḥmias (Samuel b. David)Constantinople1503-11, 11-22
Nahum KohenAmsterdam1669
Naphtali (?)Lublin1648
Naphtali b. Aaron AshkenaziVenice1704-5
Naphtali Altschul b. TobiahCracow1593-94, 98
Naphtali (Herzel) Altschüler b. (Jacob) Ascher Anschel b. Naphtali Herzel.Prague1629, 49
Naphtali Ashkenazi b. JosephSalonica1596-97
Naphtali (Hirsch) b. Azriel WilnaConstantinople1510-11
Naphtali (Hirsch) b. JacobAmsterdam1683-85
Naphtali (Ẓebi) b. JacobVenice1649
Naphtali (Ẓebi) b. Jacob Levi of Gnesen.Berlin1715
Naphtali (Hirz) b. Judah Lima of Essen.Sulzbach1615-17
Naphtali (Hirsch) b. Moses of Gojetein.Prague1595
Naphtali (Ẓebi Hirsch) b. Moses Tobiah (Gutmann).Cracow1625
Naphtali (Hirsch) PappenheimAmsterdam1650, 56, 56-57, 58
Naphtali b. Samuel HeidaPrague1675, 82, 86
Naphtali SchwarzLublin1568
Naphtali (Hirz) b. Simson LanglosFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1692
Nathan Auerbach b. Moses of Wisnicz.Wilmersdorf1726-27
Nathan b. David LeviLublin1614
Nathan b. Gershon AshkenaziFrankfort-on-the-Main.1699
Nathan Gota (Gutta ?) b. Isaac b. Abraham.Venice1629-30
Nathan b. Isaac FriedburgCracow1593
Nathan (Feitel) b. JudahAmsterdam1700-10
Nathan Michelbach b. EliezerBasel1612
Nathan (Pheibel) b. MosesFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1702
Nathan b. Moses PetlitzerCracow1569-71
Nathan de SaloFerrara1477
Nathan b. SamuelAmsterdam1726
Nathan (Nata) b. SamuelFürth1722-27
Nathan (Nata) b. Simeon of Posen.Lublin1623-27
Nathan b. Solomon AshkenaziVenice1605
Nathanael Ḥalfan b. PerezTrini1525
Nathanael b. JudahLublin1623-27
Nathanael b. Levi of JerusalemNaples1487-92
Nehemiah b. AbrahamAmsterdam1721-27 (26?)
Neumark (Nathan b. Loeb)Berlin1719-26
Neumark, Moses (or Judah Loeb).Berlin1699-1703(?)
Nicolai (Christian)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1699
Nissim b. AzrielHanau1712
Nissim Ḥalfan b. Abba-MariVenice1545
Nissim b. Ḥayyim AshkenaziConstantinople1732
Nissim (David) b. MosesVenice1719
Nissim ibn Shoshan...............1597, 99, 1601, 3-4, 5
Nissim VileisitConstantinople1643
Noah CasirinoMantua1653
Noah b. HezekiahPrague1675
Noah b. SamuelLublin1623-27
Obadiah Maron and Jehiel d'ItaliaMantua1672
Obadiah SabbakhConstantinople1578
Obadiah b. ZachariahVenice1549
Paulus of PragueHelmstadt1580
Pelta ( = Paltai) of MeseritzFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99
Perugia (Joshua b. Judah Samuel)Mantua1648
Perugia (Judah Samuel)Mantua1622-26
Perugia (Judah Samuel)Mantua1657, 59, 61, 62, 64
Perugia, Louis of (?)Mantua1667-72, 95, 99
Pethahiah (Moses) b. Joseph of OfenPrague1586, 90-92
Phinehas b. EliakimAmsterdam1706, 10
Phinehas Heilpron b. Judah of Neuersdorf.Basel1602
Phoebus b. Menahem b. Phoebus.Offenbach1723
Pinne bat WolfBerlin1717
Polychron b. IsaacConstantinople1726-37
Proops (Solomon)Amsterdam1704-34
Proops' HeirsAmsterdam1734-1849
Pugil (Johann Kaspar)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1704
Raḥamim ḤalfonVenice1711
Raphael Abbas b. JoshuaAmsterdam1709
Raphael Altschul b. Mordecai Gumpel of Prague.Fürth1691-92
Raphael Ḥayyim Supino (Sopino ?)Leghorn1651-52
Raphael (Ḥayyim) d'ItaliaMantua1724
Raphael b. Moses b. Isaac JudahCracow1667, 70
Raphael di Palasios b. JoshuaAmsterdam1714-16
Raphael b. Solomon of Lithuania...............1692
Raphael b. SamuelFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1683
Raphael de Silva b. SolomonVenice1656
Raphael Talmi b. Immanuel of Forli.Bologna1537-40
Raphael TrevesConstantinople1711
Rebecca bat Isaac b. Judah JüdelsWilmersdorf1677
Reichel bat Isaac b. Judah Jüdels.Wilmersdorf1677, 79, 80, 82
Fürth1692-99, 1701
Reis (Hirz b. Seligmann)Offenbach1715
Reis (Isaac Eisak b. Hirz)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1687
Reis (Seligmann b. Hirz)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1687, 1706-11
Offenbach1714-19, 21
Reuben b. Eliakim of MayenceAmsterdam1644, 46-47, 47-53, 56, 58, 61-63, 70-71, 78
Reuben Fürst (Ferst) b. NethaneelBerlin1706
Reuben b. Isaac Levi Breidenbach (Breiten bach).Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1725, 29
Reyna (Donna)Constantinople.1593-94
Kuru Tcheshme.1597-98
Roizel (wife of Fishel)Cracow1586
Saadia b. Abigdor b. Eliezer KohenPrague1614
Saadia Angel b. SamuelSalonica1720-21, 29, 32
Saadia b. DavidVenice1623
Saadia Kohen b. ZalmanLeghorn1655
Samson b. Aaron IsaacLublin1636 ?
Samson ḤabilloVenice1654
Samson Hanau b. SolomonHomburg1724-25
Samson Melli b. MordecaiMantua1676
Samson b. MosesLublin1618-20, 23-27
Samson Sanguine b. MichaelVerona1650
Samson Tarnigrod b. ḤayyimFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1691
Samuel b. . . ? (of the family of Isaiah b. Samuel Levi).Lublin1646
Samuel Abravanel SoeyroAmsterdam1650-52
Samuel Amato.Constantinople1728
Samuel ArchevoltiVenice1564-1602
Samuel b. Aryeh (Loeb) Levi of Posen.Amsterdam1707, 7-8, 8, 15
Samuel b. Asher LeviPrague1512
Samuel ibn Ashkara ẒarfatiFerrara1551-52
Samuel Baruch and Jacob BaruchVenice1656
Samuel Bergel b. Judah Reutling.Sulzbach1712
Samuel Bloch b. JacobZolkiev1695
Samuel CalebSalonica1597
Samuel di CamposAmsterdam1685
Samuel Cases b. MosesMantua1559
Samuel di CazeresAmsterdam1659
Samuel b. David GumpelPrague1515, 18
Samuel ibn DeisusVenice1596, 97, 98
Samuel DresleCracow1631 (?), 39-40, 1737
Samuel (Sanwel) b. Eliakim b. Meïr.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1714
Samuel b. ElkanahFürth1724, 25, 26
Samuel Fürth (Sameas preceding?)Hanau1719
Samuel (Don) G'aconFaro1487
Samuel ḤabilloVenice1643
Samuel ḤagizVenice1596-98
Samuel b. ḤayyimHomburg1712
Samuel ḤazzanVenice1648
Samuel Heida b. Joseph of HamburgBerlin1706
Samuel b. Hezekiah LeviNaples1492
Samuel Hurwitz b. Meshullam (Zalman) b. Joseph Levi of Prague.Wilmersdorf1670, 73-74
Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1677, 80, 86, 89, 91-1701, 5, 11, 13
Samuel b. Isaac BoehmCremona1556
Samuel (Sanwel) b. Jacob (of Lissa).Hamburg1686, 87, 88, 90
Fürth1691-92, 93-94
Samuel b. Jacob Levi BrandeisWilmersdorf1716
Samuel (Sanwel) b. Jacob PoppiczWilmersdorf1673-74
Samuel b. JerahmeelWilmersdorf1729
Samuel (Zebi Hirsch) b. Joel SirksCracow1631-40
Samuel b. Jonah (Askeri ?) of SalonicaAmsterdam1728
Samuel b. JosephAmsterdam1681-82
Samuel b. Judah
Samuel b. Judah ShammashAmsterdam1713
Samuel KatzenellenbogenVenice1563
Samuel KolodroLeiria1492
Samuel Kusin b. LeviVenice1636-37
Samuel LatifNaples1490
Samuel LeviCracow1613 (?)
Samuel Levi ibn HakimConstantinople1546-47, 47-48
Samuel MagresoConstantinople1717
Samuel Mantino b. JacobVenice1546
Samuel Marquez b. SolomonAmsterdam1709, 14-16
Samuel di Medina b. ShemaiahVenice1647
Samuel MeiselPrague1614-15
Samuel b. MichaelVenice1721
Samuel b. Mordecai Ashkenazi of PrzemyslCracow1612
Samuel (Joseph) b. Mordecai Grasmark.Cracow1595-96, 1601-6
Samuel b. Moses FrankfurterAmsterdam1731
Samuel b. Moses LeviSalonica1563
Samuel b. Moses LeviAmsterdam1648-51, 52
Samuel b. Moses SedjelmessaSalonica1709, 13, 22
Samuel b. MusaZamora1492
Samuel Norzi b. IsaacMantua1589-90
Samuel b. Peraḥyah..............1565-84
Samuel PintoAmsterdam1666-67
Samuel PoppertAltona1727-30
Samuel RikominConstantinople1511-13
Samuel Rodrigues-MendesAmsterdam1726
Samuel Rosa b. Isaac BaruchAmsterdam1664-66
Samuel b. Samuel de RomaNaples1486
Samuel Schwab b. Joseph of Günzburg.Amsterdam1713, 26, 33-39
Samuel Shalom Sedjelmessi of Lepanto.Venice1596
Samuel TeixeiraAmsterdam1678, 82, 85-87, 88, 95, 1723, 26
Samuel ValensiSmyrna1657-59
Samuel (Oppenheim) of Vienna...............1699
Samuel Ẓarfati.Rome1547
Samuel b. Zeeb Wolf b. Ephraim Fischel of Lemberg.Amsterdam1697, 98
Sarah bat JacobPrague1605-15
Saul Belgrad b. Joseph of UdineVenice1606, 17
Saul b. Benjamin b. Isaac...............1645
Saul of Frankfort-on-the-OderFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1712
Saul (Simeon) b. Judah LeviLublin1611-21, 27
Schwarz (Ḥayyim b. David)Prague1515, 18, 22, 26
Selig b. Abraham LeviAmsterdam1697
Selig (Abi 'Ezri) b. Solomon of Venice.Dyhernfurth1692-96
Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99, 1701, 5
Berlin1705, 9
Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1712, 13, 25, 29, 34
Seligmann Ulma b. Moses Simeon.Hanau1610-15, 16
Shabbethai (?)Venice1675
Shabbethai BassAmsterdam1679, 80, 82
Shabbethai b. Mordecai of PosenBasel1599
Shalom b. David MosesPrague1608
Shalom Galliago b. Joseph of Salonica.Amsterdam1627
Shalom b. Gershon of HorodloLublin1604-5
Shalom (Schechna) b. Nahum Kaidanower.Wilmersdorf1716
Shalom (Mann) StoksOffenbach1718
Shemariah b. AhronCracow1589, 98
Shemariah b. Jacob of Grodno.Amsterdam1711
Shem-Ṭob ibn MinirConstantinople1569
Shem-Ṭob ibn Polkar b. MosesConstantinople1511
Shneor Falcon b. JudahConstantinople1560
Shneor (Zalman) b. Israel Baruch Biechower.Amsterdam1685-87
Shneor (Zalman) b. Jonathan Kohen of Posen.Amsterdam1698, 1701, 7
Simeon AlmosninoVenice1587-88
Simeon Altschul b. Asher Anschel Herzels.Prague1629
Simeon Altschüler b. Judah (Loeb)Prague1701
Simeon (Wolf) b. Asher Kohen Ashkenazi of Frankfort.Cracow1646-47
Simeon Blansa AshkenaziVenice1696
Simeon (Wolf) Brandeis b. Jacob.Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1693
Simeon Cofio (Copio?).Venice1592
Simeon b. Isaac CracowCracow1574
Simeon b. Judah JosephAmsterdam1700
Simeon (Isaac) KohenCracow1584
Simeon LabiVenice1648
Simeon LeviCremona1565
Simeon (or Wolf) Menz b. Abraham.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1709-13
Simeon b. Naphtali HirzAmsterdam1708, 11-15
Simeon Raner of DanzigAmsterdam1685
Simeon RodetiSmyrna1660
Simeon TrevesFrankfort-on-the-Main.1719
Simeon Witzenhausen b. JosephAmsterdam1679
Frankfort-on-the-Main.1680-84, 91
Simhah b. IsaacCracow1588, 97-98
Basel1602, 8
Sinai Ḳimḥi b. ḤayyimConstantinople1717
Solomon (b. . . ?)Salonica1621
Solomon (Zalman) b. Aaron Isaac (Säkel) of Norden.Hamburg1692
Solomon b. Aaron Levi of Cracow.Cracow1648
Solomon Abrabalia (Abravalia)Salonica1520
Solomon b. AbrahamMantua1561
Solomon b. Abraham of MoraviaLublin1571
Solomon ibn Alḳabiẓ b. Moses LeviGuadalajara1482
Solomon AltarasVenice1685
Solomon Altaras b. DavidVenice1712, 18, 19, 30
Solomon Aptrod b. DavidFrankfort-on-the-Main.1722-30
Solomon (Zalman) AshkenaziAmsterdam1730
Solomon Barzillai b. MosesMantua1565
Solomon (Zalman) b. Bonfet (Bonfed) Shneor.Fürth1729, 30
Solomon Bueno b. JacobCremona1576
Solomon Cavaliero (or Cavallero).Salonica1532-33
Solomon b. DavidVenice1600
Solomon Dels b. SimeonFrankfort-on-the-Main.1697
Solomon b. Eliezer KohenLublin1635
Solomon b. Ephraim KohenAmsterdam1708
Solomon ibn Ezra b. MosesSmyrna1657-74
Solomon (Zalman) FürthWilmersdorf1673-74
Solomon GabbaiConstantinople1662
Solomon (Ḥayyim) Ḥaber-ṬobVenice1599
Solomon b. Hähnle NaskePrague1620
Solomon (Zalman) HanauFrankfort-on-the-Main.1692-1714, (17 ?)
Solomon b. Isaac Kohen AshkenaziSalonica1597
Solomon b. Isaac of LisbonRome1546
Solomon b. Isaiah NizzaVenice1684
Solomon b. Israel of DubnoAmsterdam1719
Solomon b. Jacob Judah of Norden (?)Amsterdam1640, 42
Solomon JonahVenice1666
Solomon b. Joseph KohenPrague1598
Solomon (Zalman) b. Joshua Ashkenazi.Prague1598
Solomon b. Judah Loeb.Prague1725
Solomon (Zalman) b. Judah Loeb.Wilmersdorf1688-89
Solomon (Zalman) b. Kalman Kohen.Frankfort-on-the-Main.1699-1700
Solomon ibn Ḳoryaṭ.Leghorn1650
Solomon (Zalman) of Lemberg.Venice1716
Solomon London.Amsterdam1709-14
Offenbach and Hanau.1716-20
Solomon LuriaVenice1607
Solomon Luzzatto b. AbrahamVenice1567
Solomon Mar DavidVenice1599
Solomon b. Mazzal-ṬobConstantinople1513-49
Solomon (Zalman) b. Mattithiah.Berlin1705, 6, 8, 13, 15
Solomon b. MeïrCracow1587-88
Solomon (Zalman) b. Meïr Levi of SchwersenzJessnitz1720-23
Solomon b. MordecaiConstantinople1710
Solomon (Zalman) b. MordecaiFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1708
Solomon b. Moses AbrahamPrague1713 (?)
Solomon b. Moses AshkenaziDyhernfurth1712
Solomon (Zalman) b. Moses Frankfurter.Amsterdam1722, 24, 26, 33
Solomon b. Moses Ḥazzan.Venice1711
Solomon b. Moses LeviAmsterdam1663, 76
Solomon ibn MubḥarConstantinople1642-43
Solomon ibn Naḥmias b. DavidVenice1599
Solomon NissimVenice1667
Solomon Norzi b. SamuelMantua1593
Solomon OliveyraAmsterdam1680, 86
Solomon b. Perez Bonfoi ẒarfatiSoncino1484
Naples1490, 92
Solomon b. Samuel Levi.Prague1512, 15, 22
Solomon (Zalman) b. Samuel Steina-Kopf of Prague.Sulzbach1685
Solomon (Hai) Saraval b. Nehemiah.Venice1667
Solomon ibn Shoshan b. SamuelSalonica1580, 82
Solomon ṬobyanaAmsterdam1685
Solomon b. TodrosAmsterdam1662 (?)
Solomon Trani b. MosesVenice1629-30
Solomon UsqueConstantinople1561
Solomon (Don) Walid b. Judah.Venice1521
Solomon Wehle b. MosesZolkiev1702-4
Solomon ibn YaḳḳarConstantinople1522
Solomon Yerushalmi b. Menahem.Salonica1551
Solomon Zalmati b. MaimonIxar1490
Solomon b. Ẓebi LokatscherDyhernfurth1700, 2
Soncino (Moses b. . . ?)Salonica1526-27
Soncino, Eliezer b. GershonConstantinople1534-47
Soncino, Gershon b. MosesSoncino1488-90
Fano1503, 5-6
Ortona1518, 19
Soncino, Israel Nathan b. Samuel b. Moses.Soncino1483
Casal Maggiore1486
Soncino, Joshua Solomon b. Israel Nathan.Soncino1483-88
Soncino, Solomon b. MosesSoncino1490
Tobiah b. Abraham KohenWilmersdorf1714, 16-18, 21, 29-30
Uri (Phoebus) b. Aaron witmund LeviAmsterdam1645-48, 56, 58-89
Uri (Phoebus) b. Abraham BärmesAmsterdam1670-80, 82, 86
Uri b. Abraham KohenAmsterdam1698
Uri (Phoebus) b. JosephAmsterdam1723, 24, 26, 27
Uri b. MosesAmsterdam1650
Uri (Shragga Phoebus) b. Solomon (Zalman).Cracow1638-40, 43, 48
Usque (Abraham).Ferrara1553-57
Veile bat Moses SChlenker of FürthWilmersdorf1727
Vittoria ElianoCremona1557, 58, 58-60
Venice1564, 65, 66, 67
Rome1578, 81
Weglin (Sebald)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1709
Yaḥya b. Abraham ibn Ḥama Fas.Venice1574
Yom-Ṭob b. Michael Kohen.Salonica1717
Yom-Ṭob Modigliano b. SamuelSalonica1723
Yom-Ṭob Zikri b. RafaelConstantinople1519
Yom-Ṭob Ẓarfati b. PerezNaples1489
Zadok b. Abraham of MeseritzFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1697-99, 1702, 5-8, 11-13, 13, 20, 24, 25
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Aaron ḤayyatFrankfort-on-the-Oder.1714
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. (Jacob) AbrahamCracow1642-43
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Abraham of WronekAmsterdam1700-1
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Elijah b. Baer Lübeck.Prague1691-92
Berlin1699, 1700
Prague1705-6, 25
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Falk Kohen Kümmelbrod.Fürth1692
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Gershon.Amsterdam1700-5, 10, 11, 14
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Isaac LeviAmsterdam1717-18, 23, 26, 28, 30, 33, 38-39
Ẓebi b. Isaac of OstrogCracow1576-77
Ẓebi b. Isaac of PosenLublin1622
Ẓebi b. JacobLublin1685
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Joseph LeviFürth1691-94, 99, 1701
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Josiah CrasnikLublin1627
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Kalonymus Kohen of Kalisz.Dyhernfurth1691, 96
Ẓebi Levi ḤazzanVenice1598
Ẓebi (Hirsch) Liberls SoferPrague1707
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Meïr of JanowJessnitz1720, 21, 22
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Meïr of KossowitzPrague1713
Ẓebi (Hirsch) Minz Levi b. Asher.Amsterdam1725-26, 26
Ẓebi b. MosesLublin1622
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. Moses FrankfortAmsterdam1701
Ẓebi b. Shalom.Cracow1642-44
Ẓebi (Hirsch) b. TobiahLublin1623-27
Zeeb (Wolf) b. Aryeh (Loeb) b. Isaac.Amsterdam1724
Zeeb (Wolf) b. Isaac JoselsCracow1638-39
Zeeb (Wolf) LeviAmsterdam1685-87
Zeeb (Wolf) b. MeshullamBerlin1702-3, 12, 16-17
Zeeb (Wolf) b. MordecaiCracow1638-40, 43, 48
Zeeb (Wolf) b. SamuelAmsterdam1698
List of Christian Printers.
Alberti (Idzardus)Franeker1642
Albrizzi (Hier.)Venice1707 (?)
Ambrosini (Christoforo)Venice1667, 71-74
Andreae (Jo. Ph.)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1716
Andreae Andrae (Matth.)Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1707-12
Andreae (St.)Heidelberg1586
Anshelm (Thom.)Tübingen1512-14
Bakenhoffer (Jo. Phil.)Copenhagen1696
Baron (Jo. Zach.)Leyden1658
Baroni (Andera)Venice1692
Bashuysen (H. J. P.)Hanau1709-12
Bauernfeld (Jac.)Jena1678
Beausang (Jo. Jac.)Hanau1715-19
Beckmann (Joh. Christ.)Frankfort-on-the-Oder1677
Blaak (Laur.)Amsterdam1676-78
Bladao (Maestro Anton. B. de Asula).Rome1524, 46-47
Blaise (Thom.)Paris1622
Blaue (Wilh.)Amsterdam1676-78
Bomberg (Daniel)Venice1516-48
Bona (Domenico)Venice1678
Boom, Baum (Joh.)Amsterdam1705
Borstius (Gerhard and Jacob)Amsterdam1698-1703
Bragadini (Aluise, Aloyse)Venice1550-53, 63 (?)-75
Bragadini (Aluise [II.], Aloyse)Venice1624-30, 39-50
Bragadini (Aluise [III.])Venice1697-98, 1710
Bragadini, Bragadino.Venice1550-1800
Bragadini (Giacomo, Jacob)Venice1639-50
Bragadini (Girolamo, Gerolimo, Hieronym).Venice1639-50, 55-64, 67
Bragadini (Juan, Zuan, Giovan., Johann.).Venice1579-1614 (15?)
Bragadini (Lorenzo, Laurent.).Venice1615-30, 39-50
Bragadini (Nicol.)Venice1639-50
Bragadini (Pietro)Venice1614-30, 39-49
Bragadini (Vicenzio [I.], Vincent.)Venice1639-49
Bragadini (Vicenzio [II.])Venice1697-98
Brand (Justin.)Leipsic1683-86
Brandmüller (Jo.)Basel1691
Breitkopf (Bernh. Christ.)Leipsic1725
Brion (Anton)Riva1557-58
Brocario (Bul. de)Complutum1514-17
Brucello (Franc.)Venice1544
CajonVenice1613-22, 22-41
Calleoni, Caleoni (Anton)Venice1642-57
Cavalli, Caballi (Zorzo)Venice1565-68
Christiani (Wilm.)Leyden1633
Clugus (Jos.)Wittenberg1525, 29
Collegium ItalorumParis1539
Conti (Vicenz., Vincent.)Cremona1556-61, 65-66, 67
Cramosius (Sebast.)Paris1632
Cratander (Andr.)Basel1531
Crati (Zach.)Wittenberg1586-87
Crato (Jo.)Wittenberg1563-76, 82
Crivellari (Gaspar)Padua1622-23
Crivellari (Giulio, Julius)Padua1640
Decker (Ge.)Basel1660
Donne (Francesco delle)Verona1594-95
Doriguzzi (Zuane, Joh.)Venice1670, 85
Draconi (Christoph)Cremona1576
Dreunen (Meinardus)Utrecht1665
Ellinger (J. G.)Leipsic1672
Episcopus (Nicol.)Basel1536, 37, 47-48, 56, 63
Facciotto or Fazot de Montecchio (Giov., Giac).Rome1518
Fagius (Paul.)Isny1541-42
Farri (Messer Zuane or Giovanni)Venice1544
Filippon (o), Filipponi (Filotarsi)Mantua1563-64, 68
Filippono (Francesco)Mantua1561-63
Froben (Ambros.)Basel1578-81
Froben (Hieron.)Basel1531, 36-63
Froben (Jo. [I.])Basel1516-27 (32)
Fuldius (Mart.)Leipsic1712
Fyner (Conrad)Esslingen1475, 77
Ganghel (Christoph. van)Amsterdam1683
Gara, Garra (di, dei)Venice1564-1609 (10)
Gardoni (Alessandro)Venice1577-78
Giustiniani, Justiniani (Bern)Venice1593
Giustiniani, Justiniani (Marco Antonio).Venice1545-52
Gottschalk (Mich.)Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1693-1734
Gourmont (Aegid.)Paris1520-29
Gross (Jo. Ad.)Hanau1714-15
Gruler (Peter)Tannhausen1594
Grunbergius (J.)Wittenberg1521
Grymm (Sigismund), MedicusAugsburg1520
Gryphius (Franc.)Paris1532
Gryphius (sebast.)Lyons1528-30
Grypho (Giov., Joh.)Venice1564-67
Guarin (Thom.)Basel1583
Gyselaar, Gijselaar (Joh.)Franeker1690
Halma (Fr.)Amsterdam1701
Hamm (Gn. Wolfg.).Helmstedt1702-3
Harper (Thom.)London1643
Hartmann (Joach. and Frid.)Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1595-96
Hayes (Jo.)Cambridge1685
Heinscheit, Henscheld (Anton)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1711-19
Henckel (Mart.)Wittenberg1609
Hene (Hans, Jacob)Hanau1610-14
Hering (Joh.)Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1727
Hofer (? Joh.)...............1625
Hoogenhuysen (Cornel.)Amsterdam1711
Hutter (Elias)Hamburg1586-87
Ilive (Thom.)London1714-17
Ilsnerus (Blasius)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1682
Imberti (Zuane, Giov., Joh.)Venice1651-56
Isingrinius (Mich.)Basel1534-35
Jablonski (Dan. Ern.)Berlin1697
Jaeger (Gottfr.)Lübeck1650
Jaeger (Heredes Jos.)Güstrow1634
Jansson (Ant.)Leipsic1683
Jansson (Joh.)Amsterdam1633
Jay (Mich.)Paris1628-45
Juilleron (Nicol.)Lyons1622
Justinianus (Aug.)Paris.
Juvenis (Martin)Paris1552-54, 59, 63, 68, 69, 74
Kelner (G.)Wittenberg1615
Kilius (Nic.)Rostock1637
Kirchner (Christ.)Leipsic1657
Knebel (Jo. Henr.)Berlin1699
Koelner (Joh.)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1708-27
Koenig (Joh.)Basel1662, 75
Koenig (Lud.)Basel1618-32, 48
Kurzius (Joh.) of Gross-Glogau.Cracow1539
Lacquehay (Joh.)Paris1629
Launoy (Bonaventura de)Offenbach1719-24
Laurentius (Henr.)Amsterdam1630-32, 34-35
Lotther (Melchior)Leipsic1533
Luchtmans (Jord.)Leyden1685
Lucius (Jac.)Helmstedt1580
Madruz (Christofolo)Riva.
Magnus (Albertus)Amsterdam1687-88
Maire (Joh.)Leyden1621, 22, 37, 50
Martinelli (Giov., Jos.)Venice1636-42, 56
Martzan (Melchior)Copenhagen1640
Meyer (Henr.)Altdorf1680
Moeller (Reinhart Eustachius)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1725
Morellus (Guilelmus)Paris1559-63
Moresini, MorosiniVenice1660-65
Morrhius (Gerardus)Paris1531
Nisselius (Jo. Ge.)Leyden1656, 62
Oeglin (Erhard)Augsburg1514
Oporini (Jos)Basel1567
Orphanotropheum (Waisenhaus)Halle1710-19
Paddenburg (Gysbert of)Utrecht1714
Panzoni (Alb.)Mantua1730
Paoli, Pauli (Giov., Joh.)Venice1708-12, 15
Pasquato (Laur.)Padua1562, 67
Pauli (Joh.)Upsala1652-60
Pauli (Nic. Justinian.)Genoa1516
Petrus (Henr.)Basel1530-57
Pieters (Jac.)Amsterdam1643
Pillehotte (Ant.)Lyons1622
Plantinus (Christoph.)Antwerp1566-89
Portevecchio (Piero del)Padua1562, 67
Presigno (Comin [o])Venice1593-96
Procurator (Federigo Contarino)Venice1659-67
Propaganda FideRome1683
Quirino (Carlo)Venice1549
Radaeus (Aegid.)Franeker1597
Raphelengius (Franc.)Leyden1590-1615, 21-22
Ravestein (Nic.)Amsterdam1638, 48
Rebenlin (Georf)Hamburg1663-68
Rehte (Dav. Fred.)Gedani1675
Reuther (Barth.)Kiel1709
Rhamba (Joh.)Leipsic1564
Rizzini (Anton.)Venice1657-59, 60
Rose (Joh., son of Thom.)Hamburg1709, 11, 15-21
Rose (Thom.)Hamburg1686-1709
Rossi (Francesco de)Verona1646-52
Rouviere (Petr. de la)Geneva1609-18
Roycroft (Thom.)London1651, 53-57
Rufinelli (Giacomo, Jac.)Mantua1560-90
Rufinelli, Rufinello (Messer Venturin).Mantua1556-59
Rufinelli (Tommas., Thom.)Mantua1593
Rüh (e)l (Joh. and Conr.)Wittenberg1586-87
Saxo (Joh.)Hamburg1586-87
Schadaeus (El.)Strasburg1591
Schaefer (Petr.)Worms1529
Schall (Andr.)Gotha1707, 10
Schoennerstaedt (Joh. Henr.)Altdorf1674
Schurmann (Stephan)Tannhausen1593-94
Selfisch (Heredes Sam.)Wittenberg1615
Soter (Jac.)Cologne1563
Soter (Joh.)Solingen1538
Spoor (Jo. Frid.)Strasburg1670
Stark (Seb. Gott.)Berlin1710
Steen (Caspar)Amsterdam1692-1703
Stephanus (Carol.)Paris1556-59
Stephanus (Rob.)Paris1528, 39-46
Geneva1554, 56
Stephanus (Rob.)Paris1563-66
Thymil (Jo. Heredes)Frankfort-on-the-Oder.1630
Vaesberge (Jo.)Utrecht1657
Vedelago (Domenigo)Venice1662-64, 63, 65, 74-82
Vendramini, VendraminVenice1630-41
VendraminiVenice1642-1705, 1651, 53, 55
Vieceri (Francesco)Venice1643-54
Vignon (Eust.)Geneva1578
Vitray (Ant.)Paris1628-45
Voliet, Vogliet (? Jakob)Basel1583
Waldkirch (Conr.)Basel1598-1612
Water (Gül van de)Amsterdam1701
Water (Jo. van de)Utrecht1683-88
Weimmann (Nic.)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1709
Wellens (Jo.)Franeker1663
Wittigau (Jo.)Leipsic1661
Wust (Jo.)Frankfort-on-the-Main.1694-1707
Zanetti, Gianetti, Zanetius (Christofolo).Venice1564-66
Zanetti (Daniel)...............1596, 97-1606
Zanetti (Francesco)Rome1578, 80-81
Zanetti (Matteo)Venice1593-96
Zanetti, Zanetto (Zuan, Giov., Jo.)Venice1606-9
Zeitler (Frid.) and H. G. MusselMagdeburg1700
Ziletti (Giordano, Jordanus)Venice1571-72
Zschauer (Jo. Andr.)Leipsic1696
Zyll (Gilb.)Utrecht1656
V. (1732-1900):

From 1732 many of the presses already referred to have continued their activity down to the present day. That of Leghorn, for example, began a new life in 1740 in the workshop of Abraham Meldola; and he was followed by a number of Hebrew printers, who found a market for their products in the Levant and the Barbary States, so much so that Christian printers like Carlo Gorgio (1779) and Giovanni Falerno (1779) found it worth while to compete in producing ritual and cabalistic works for the southern markets. This period also saw the beginning of the remarkable activity of Wolf Heidenheim at Rödelheim, producing the well-known editions of the ritual. These, while originally intended for the Frankfort market, have been used by Ashkenazic congregations throughout the world; and the Tefillah had run to as many as 128 editions by 1902 ("Zeit. für Hebr. Bibl." v. 99). This period was likewise marked by the inauguration of Hebrew printing at Carlsruhe, at first under the egis of Christian printers beginning with Johann Herald in 1755, and later under Wilhelm Lotter from 1766. It was not till 1782 that Hirsch Wormser and his brother-in-law were allowed to start a printing-press, chiefly for ritual works. They were followed in 1814 by David Marx. Altogether about 61 Hebrew prints from this press are known.


But the period is especially noteworthy for the rise and development of Hebrew printing in the lands where most persons lived who were acquainted with Hebrew. It is somewhat difficult to account for the fact that there was absolutely no Hebrew printing in the districts now constituting Russian Poland and the Pale of Settlement till past the middle of the eighteenth century, though they have for the past 200 years contained the largest number of Jews and the greatest number of those acquainted with Hebrew. In the old Polish kingdom the Council of the Four Lands kept a somewhat rigid control over the production of Hebrew books, to which it secured a kind of copyright by threatening excommunication for anybody reprinting works having its approbation. The Cossack outrages of 1648 had destroyed the chance of any independent printing in these countries, and the markets were mainly supplied by Prague, Cracow, Lublin, and later Frankfort-on-the-Oder. It was not till after the troublous period of the three partitions (1772-95) that local presses began to be established in Russia. Mention may here perhaps be made of the printing of the Karaite Tefillah (1784) at Eupatoria (not yet, however, within the precincts of the Russian empire), followed by that of the Krimchaks in the next year, and reference may also be made to two or three works printed at Olexnitz (1760-67) in connection with the beginnings of Ḥasidism. Soon after this, printing had begun in Koretz (1777), and was followed at Neuhof (Novy Dvor) near Warsaw (1782), at Polonnoye (1783-91), at Shklov (1783), and at Poretzk (1786-91). Lithuania for the first time obtained a printing-press of its own by the privilege granted by King Stanislaus Augustus to Baruch Romm, who established a printing-office at Grodno in 1789. After the settlement at the third partition under Catherine II., a considerable number of Russianprinting-offices sprang up, which will be found in the list on pages 328 and 330. They continued to increase during the nineteenth century till Nicholas I. in 1845 passed a law restricting all Hebrew printing to two establishments, one at Wilna, the other at Slavuta. Königsberg, Johannisberg, Lyck, Memel, Eydtkuhnen, and other cities of East Prussia supplied the Russian requirements. This practically gave a monopoly of the Russian market to the firm of Romm, which had moved from Grodno to Wilna in 1799. But it maintained connection with Grodno, producing in 1835 a well-known edition of the Talmud which bears the imprint "Wilna and Grodno." The Romms down to the present day continue to be the most extensive Hebrew printers in Russia; but of recent years the Warsaw publishing firms "Tushiyyah" and "Aḥiasaf" produce perhaps even to a larger extent than the Wilna firm.


Mention may be made here of the Austrian presses in the nineteenth century, which have been very productive, especially those of Vienna, where Anton von Schmid obtained from 1800 onward the monopoly for the Austrian empire, and as a consequence produced about 250 Hebrew works, including a reprint of the Mendelssohn Bible and many Jewish prayer-books, besides the periodical "Bikkure ha'Ittim." He was succeeded by his son, from whom the business was bought by De la Torre. The monopoly being given up, J. Schlesinger assumed the work; he devoted himself especially to rituals also for the outlying colonies of Jews, producing a Siddur for the Yemen Jews, a Maḥzor for the Algerian Jews, and other rituals for northern Africa; the Catalonian and Aragonian congregations of Salonica also had their rituals printed at Vienna. Other Austrian and Hungarian presses were at Lemberg, Cracow (Joseph Fischer), Presburg (Alkalai), Paks, Przemysl, Lublin, etc.

J.Oriental. From the Heidenheim Maḥzor, Rödelheim, 1832.

Mention has already been made of the beginnings of Oriental typography in the city of Constantinople. Toward the end of the sixteenth century Donna Reyna Mendesia founded what might be called a private printing-press at Belvedere or Kuru Chesme (1593). The next century the Franco family, probably from Venice, also established a printing-press there, and was followed by Joseph b. Jacob of Solowitz (near Lemberg), who established at Constantinople in 1717 a press which existed to the end of the century. He was followed by a Jewish printer from Venice, Isaac de Castro (1764-1845), who settled at Constantinople in 1806; his press is carried on by his son Elia de Castro, who is still the official printer of the Ottoman empire. Both the English and the Scotch missionsto the Jews published Hebrew works at Constantinople.

Together with Constantinople should be mentioned Salonica, where Judah Gedaliah began printing in 1512, and was followed by Solomon Jabez (1516) and Abraham Bat-Sheba (1592). Hebrew printing was also conducted here by a convert, Abraham ha-Ger. In the eighteenth century the firms of Naḥman (1709-89), Miranda (1730), Falcon (1735), and Ḳala'i (1764) supplied the Orient with ritual and halakic works. But all these firms were outlived by an Amsterdam printer, Bezaleel ha-Levi, who settled at Salonica in 1741, and in whose name the publication of Hebrew and Ladino books and periodicals still continues. The Jabez family printed at Adrianople before establishing its press at Salonica; the Hebrew printing annals of this town had a lapse until 1888, when a literary society entitled Doreshe Haskalah published some Hebrew pamphlets, and the official printing-press of the vilayet printed some Hebrew books.

From Ḥayyim Vital's "Sha'are Ḳedushshah," Aleppo, 1866.

From Salonica printing passed to Safed in Palestine, where Abraham Ashkenazi established in 1588 a branch of his brother Eleazar's Salonica house. According to some, the Shulḥan 'Aruk was first printed there. In the nineteenth century a member of the Bak family printed at Safed (1831-41), and from 1864 to 1884 Israel Dob Beer also printed there. So too at Damascus one of the Bat-Shebas brought a press from Constantinople in 1706 and printed for a time. In Smyrna Hebrew printing began in 1660 with Abraham b. Jedidiah Gabbai; and no less than thirteen other establishments have from time to time been founded. One of them, that of Jonah Ashkenazi, lasted from 1731 to 1863. E. Griffith, the printer of the English Mission, and B. Tatiḳian, an Armenian, also printed Hebrew works at Smyrna. A single work was printed at Cairo in 1740. Hebrew printing has also been undertaken at Alexandria since 1875 by one Faraj Ḥayyim Mizraḥi.


Israel Bak, who had reestablished the Safed Hebrew press, and was probably connected with the Bak family of Prague, moved to Jerusalem in 1841 and printed there for nearly forty years, up to 1878. Quite a number of presses which deserve enumeration have been set up in the Holy City; viz., those of Israel Bak (1841) and his son Nisan; Joel Moses Solomon (1863); Elijah Moses Ḥai Sassoon (1864); Israel Dob Frumkin (1871), the editor of the journal "Ḥabaẓẓelet"; Isaac Goscinny (1876); Elhanan Tenenbaum (1879-90); Isaac b. Jacob Hirschensohn (1880) and his successors; Samuel Levi Zuckermann (1882); Moses Perez (1884); Abraham Moses Luncz (1885), known for his annual publications "Luaḥ Ereẓ Yisrael" and "Yerushalayim"; Eliezer ben Judah, called Perlemann, director of the journal "Hashḳafah," originally "Ha-Ẓebi"; J. Nahum Lewi (1887); Adelmann and Meyuḥas (1887); M. Lilienthal (1895); Meir Blumenthal (1897); Sonnenfeld & Blumenthal (1897); Loeb Kahana (1899); A. M. Goldberg (1901); and Moses A. Azriel (1901).

From "Sefer ha-'Ibbur," Printed by Filipowski, London, 1853.From Jerusalem Talmud, Jitomir, 1865.From "Sefer Gan 'Eden," Guzlow, 1866.From Buber's Pesiḳta, Lyck, 1868.From Szold's Commentary on Job, Baltimore, 1886.

One of the Jerusalem printers, Elijah Sassoon, moved his establishment to Aleppo in 1866. About the same time printing began in Bagdad under Mordecai & Co., who recently have had the competition of Judah Moses Joshua and Solomon Bekor Ḥussain. At Beirut the firm of Selim Mann started printing in 1902. Reverting to the countries formerly under Turkish rule, it may be mentioned that Hebrew and Ladino books have been printed at Belgrade since 1814 at the national printing establishment by members of the Alḳala'i family. Later Jewish printing-houses are those of Eleazar Rakowitz and Samuel Horowitz (1881). In Sarajevo Hebrew printing began in 1875; and another firm, that of Daniel Kashon, started in 1898. At Sofia there have been no less than four printing-presses since 1893, the last that of Joseph Pason (1901), probably from Constantinople. Also at Rustchuk, since 1894, members of the Alḳala'i family have printed, while at Philippopolis the Pardo Brothers started their press in 1898 before moving it to Safed. Altogether in the Levant about eighteen cities have had 121 Hebrew printing establishments between 1504 and 1905. Their productions have been mainly rituals, responsa of local rabbis, and Cabala; the type has been mostly Rashi, and the result has not been very artistic.

J. M. Fr.England and the United States.

In the English-speaking lands Hebrew printing proceeded slowly among the Jews. In England, for example, after a few Hebrew books had been printed by Christian printers the Alexanders began their series of prayer-books about 1770, which have continued to be reissued down to the present day; they were succeeded by the Valentines. The firm of Wertheimer, Lea & Co. printed most of the Jewish Hebrew productions of England till recently, including the first edition of the popular authorized prayer-book, of which 100,000 copies have been issued. The Clarendon Press, however, has during the last thirty years printed many works on rabbinic subjects, and has been followed by the Pitt Press of Cambridge, which issued especially the Mishnah edition by W. H. Lowe and the "Pirḳe Abot" of C. Taylor.

From Rabinowicz's "Catalogue Merzbacher," Munich, 1888.

In the British colonies only sporadic works have been published at Bombay and Aden, where the Yemen Jews have recently been printing a few of their manuscripts in oblong format. The use of Hebrew type in the Australian and African colonies appears to be confined to newspapers. The same applies to the French colonies in North Africa, though various productions have appeared at Algiers, Tunis, and Oran.

In the United States Hebrew printing was even later in appearance. Apart from a reprint at Philadelphia in 1814 of Athias' unpointed Bible, and Leeser's reprint of the Van der Hooght Bible in 1849, the first Hebrew book printed in America was "Abne Yehoshua'," by Joshua Falk, at New York in 1860. The chief production of the Hebrew press of the United States hitherto has been the commentary on Job by B. Szold, printed by I. Friedenwald at Baltimore; but since the emigration from Russia and Rumania large numbers of occasional works have been produced at New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago. In the first-named city the productions of the press of A. H. Rosenberg are voluminous.

From "Zimrot Yisrael," Aden, 1891.From W. H. Lowe's "The Mishna," Cambridge, 1883.From the "Steinschneider Festschrift," Leipsic, 1896.From Schorr's "Sefer Ha-'Ittim," Cracow, 1902.From Schechter's "Midrash ha-Gadol," Vienna, 1902.

A great deal of very good Hebrew printing, however, is done by non-Jewish printers, and often at university presses, where the Christian theologians who devote their attention to rabbinics print their lucubrations. In addition, presses that make a special business of Oriental printing, like those of Drugulin of Leipsic and Brill of Leyden, also produce Hebrew works, the former having printed the well-known Polychrome Bible edited by Professor Haupt and published at Baltimore. By a special process the various sources of the Biblical books in this edition are distinguished by different colors, not of the type, but of the paper upon which the sections are printed. The various Bible societies have also produced some fine specimens of Hebrew printing, the chief being the so-called Letteris Bible, having the Authorized Version at the side, printed at Vienna; and the Ginsburg Bible, printed by the court printer Karl Fromme in Vienna. The Masorah, also edited by Ginsburg, is another fine piece of Hebrew printing by Fromme; while one of the best Hebrew prints is the fifth edition of the translation into Hebrew of the New Testament, by Franz Delitzsch, printed by Trowitsch & Co. of Berlin.

The following is a list (extending from the introduction of printing to the present day) of towns at which Hebrew presses are known to have existed; those places in which only Christian printers have been concerned, mainly in issuing Biblical editions, are set in italics. As far as possible, dates have been given for the first publication of Hebrew at the different localities. Where this was effected by Christian printers the date is marked with an asterisk. The letters "J. E." within parentheses following the names of towns indicate that special articles are given in The Jewish Encyclopedia upon the typography of such towns. In a number of instances special monographs have been written upon the typography of various places, and these are cited together with their references. The remaining towns are mentioned by Steinschneider in his "Jüdische Typographie," in Ersch and Gruber, "Encyc." (section ii., part 28, pp. 21-94), or by Zedner and Harkavy. In a few instances the entries from Zedner may refer to publication rather than to printing.

Hebrew Presses.
Alcala (Complutum)1514
Alexandria (No-Ammon)1875
Altona1727 et seq.
Grunwald, Hamburgs Deutsche Juden; Steinschneider, Zeitschrift für Gesch. der Juden in Deutschland, i. 1-5.
Amsterdam1627 et seq.
Andover, Mass.
Steinschneider, Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland, i. 1-5.
Bagdad1657, 1867
Beirut1839, 1902
Bern1555 ?
Brann, Volkskalender, 1890.
Buenos Ayres1891
Byelaya Tserkov1817 -
Biberfeld, Zeitschrift für Hebr. Bibl. i., ii.
Cologne1518, 53-63
Constantinople (J. E.)1503-86
Freudenthal, Aus der Heimat Moses Mendelssohns.
Cracow (J. E.)1530-1670
De Rossi, Annali Typographici, 1808.
Dessau (J. E.)1696
Freudenthal, Aus der Heimat Moses Mendelssohns
Dyhernfurth (J. E.)1689
Brann, in Monatsschrift, 1896.
Faro (J. E.)1487
Ferrara (J. E.)1477
De Rossi, De Typographia Hebrœo-Ferrariensi, Parma, 1780.
Frankfort-on-the-Main (J. E.)1512
Frankfort-on-the-Oder (J. E.)1551(?), 1677-
Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. xviii. 114 et seq.
Giessen1705, 14
Freudenthal, Aus der Hei mat Moses Mendelssohns.
Grunwald, Hamburgs Deutsche Juden, pp. 153.
Hergeswiese ?
Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. xii. 125, Suppl.; idem, Cat. Bodl. No. 361.
Freudenthal, Aus der Heimat Moses Mendelssohns.
Kearny (N. J.)1904
Koslov (see Eupatoria).
Kuru Chesme1597
Lewin, Geschichte der Juden in Lissa, pp. 153-154, Pinne, 1904.
London (J. E.)*1711-
Lublin (J. E.)1550, 56-74
Friedberg, Zur Geschichte der Hebräischen Typographie in Lublin, Cracow, 1890.
Mantua (J. E.).1476-80
Zunz, Z. G. pp. 249-260.
Carmoly, Revue Orientale, iii. 209 et seq., 283 et seq.
Minneapolis, Minn.
Neuhof (Novy-Dvor)1782-96
New York1860
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. No. 306.
Ofen (see Budapest).
Ortona1519 -
Paris (J. E.)*1508-1629
Pesaro (J. E.)1507-27
Piove di Sacco (J. E.)1475
Zunz, Z. G. pp. 261-303.
Prossnitz (Prosstitz)1602-5
Weisse, in Notizblatt der Gesellschaft des Ackerbaus, 1856, pp. 56 et seq.
Radawel (Radziwilof)1814-25
Rimini (J. E.)1521-26
Riva di Trento (J. E.)1558-62
Carmoly, Revue Orientale; Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. vii. 113- 114.
Carmoly, l.c. iii. 303.
Rome (J. E.)1518, 46-
De Rossi, Annales Typographici, 1806.
Safed1563-87, 1664
St. Louis.
St. Petersburg1818-
San Francisco
Soncino (J. E.)1483-90
Weinberg, Die Hebräische Druckerei in Sulzbach, 1669-1851, Frankfort, 1904.
Perles, in Monatsschrift (1876), xiv. 350 et seq.
Wiener, in Monatsschrift, xii. 273 et seq.
Venice*1517-56, 64
Grunwald, Hamburgs Deutsche Juden.
Wilky (Kovno)*1895-1901
Freimann, Die Annalen der Druckerei in Wilmersdorf, in Berliner's Festschrift.
Bauch, in Monatsschrift, 1904.
From Pentateuch, Lublin, 1897.II. Characteristics: Form of Letters.

There are in all four chief forms in which Hebrew letters are printed: the square; the Rashi; the Weiberteutsch, so called because it was used for the "Ẓe'enah u-Re'enah" read by women; and finally the cursive, imitating the handwriting used for business and other correspondence. The first three appeared as early as the beginning of Hebrew typography (see Incunabula); the fourth, only in the eighteenth century, mainly in books on business training, writing-books in this character being produced at Amsterdam in 1715.

One of the characteristics of Hebrew printing from its beginning was the different sizes in which the characters were printed, the Ṭur of Piove di Sacco, 1475, already showing three forms. This is attributed to the commentatorial character of rabbinic literature, the commentary naturally being printed in a smaller type than the text, and the supercommentary in a still smaller one, and the index to both in a yet more minute type. Such a difference of types soon led to the arrangement by which the text was printed in the center, with the commentaries in concentric arrangement around it. This plan has been employed with increasing elaboration; and in the last rabbinic Bible printed by the firm of Schrifgiesser at Warsaw no less than thirty-two commentaries are included, many of which are on a single page. In the beginning this arrangement simply followed that of the ordinary medieval manuscripts in which commentaries occurred. To fill spaces that would otherwise remain empty recourse was had to the use of letters of greater width, the so-called "littere dilatibiles"; but in early prints the first letter of the following word was often inserted instead. Sheet-marks and pagination were only gradually introduced; they were almost invariably in Hebrew letters printed on the recto only; each second page was numbered, the reference to the two sides (pages) of the sheet being by alef, bet, nowadays represented by a, b; e.g., B. Ḳ. 10b; R. H. 17a (Isaiah Berlin tried to introduce the full point and colon, but without much success). The pagination of the Talmud was established by Bomberg, the arrangement of whose pages has been followed in all subsequent editions. Vowel-points and accents occur for the most part only in Bibles and prayer-books, and divisions of chapter and verse in the Bible only rarely till later times.

Paper and Format.

The paper of the early prints is generally good; that of the eighteenth century usually the opposite; the issues of Fürth, Cracow, and Rödelheim are generally distinguished by their foxy paper. White paper was generally used, but the Oppenheimer collection contained fifty-seven volumes on blue, seven on green, two on yellow, and a Haggadah on red paper. Rubrics are printed in red in a work issued at Freiburg in 1584. Amsterdam printers sometimes print red on white; Deinard at Newark on varicolored paper. Large-paper editions occur rather frequently, and parchment was used for special copies, the Oppenheimer collection having fifty-one of these, and many of the copies of the Bologna Tefillah of 1537 being printed on that material, though one on excellent paper is to befound in the Sulzberger collection at New York. All kinds of format occur from the earliest times, but the folio and quarto were chiefly used, the octavo and duodecimo being employed mainly in prayer-books. In the Oppenheimer collection the proportions of the various sizes were as follows:


Strange to say, one of the most bulky of Hebrew books was also one of the earliest, Avicenna's "Canon," with 826 folio pages; this, however, is now far exceeded by the Babli with its 2,947 pages in one volume (Berdychev, 1894).

The Leghorn prints were at times in oblong form, while the recent Aden productions are of the same form, but with the longer side at the back. For variations of the Title-Pages see Jew. Encyc. xii. 154, and for ornamentations see the article Printers' Marks. To those mentioned in the latter article the following may be added: Ashkenazi (Safed, 1587), lion with two tails; Bat-Sheba (Salonica), half lion, half eagle; Mayer ben Jacob (Venice), elephant; Conti (Cremona), shield, angel, eagle; Abraham b. David (Talmud Torah, Salonica, 1719), three crowns; Koelner (Frankfort-on-the-Main), imperial eagle; De Lannoy (Offenbach), nest of bird with flowers; Aaron Lipman (Sulzbach), tree, crab, fish, and serpent; Shabbethai Bass (Dyhernfurth), two bars of music.

Colophon and Title-Page.

The idea of representing the title-page of a book as a door with portals appears to have attracted Jewish as well as other printers. The fashion appears to have been started at Venice about 1521, whence it spread to Constantinople. Bomberg used two pillars in his "Miklol" of 1545, and this was imitated at Cracow and Lublin. These pillars are often supported by, or support, figures, draped or undraped, as in the "Toẓe'ot Ḥayyim" of Cracow (c. 1593). A Maḥzor of Cracow (1619) has a flying angel of death, while the Pirḳe R. Eliezer of Constantinople (1640) has a centaur and siren. The tree with the shield of David supported by two lions appears first in the Sabbionetta prints, and is imitated by other symbolic figures, as the eagle in the Amsterdam Seliḥot of 1677. These decorations of the title-page led later to illustrations within the work itself, the first of these being in the "Mashal ha-Ḳadmoni," Soncino, 1491. The "Yosippon" and other works of a historical character were favorite receptacles for rather crude illustrations of this kind, as were also the Passover Haggadot, in which even maps of the Holy Land were printed (see Haggadah).

The place and date of printing, as also the name of the printer, were generally expressed in Colophons, but in later times were also placed on the title-page. The day of the week is often indicated by references to Biblical texts, having in view the lucky character of Tuesday as a beginning day (see Week). The date is also often made known by a text (see Chronogram). The omission of letters in these dates often leads to confusion (Zunz, "Datenbestimmungen," in "G. S." i.); and the place of publication does not always coincide with that of printing. Even the place of printing has sometimes to be checked, as frequently German printers attempted to claim the style and authority of Amsterdam, and those of Fürth passed themselves off as coming from Sulzbach. The place of printing was sometimes omitted in order to evade the censor.


Information is often given in these colophons as to the size of the office and the number of persons engaged therein and the character of their work. In the larger offices there would be a master printer ("ba'al madpis"), who was sometimes identical with the proprietor of the office ("ba'al ha-defus"). The actual printer was called "madpis," or sometimes "meḥoḳeḳ." The master printer was occasionally assisted by a manager or factor ("miẓib 'al hadefus"). Besides these there was a compositor ("meẓaref" or "mesadder"), first mentioned in the "Leshon Limmudim" of Constantinople (1542). Many of these compositors were Christians, as in the workshop of Juan di Gara, or at Frankfort-on-the-Main, or sometimes even proselytes to Judaism (see above). Finally, good proof-readers or correctors for the press were always indispensable. They were called "maggihim." Notwithstanding their help, a list of errata was often necessary, one of the earliest occurring in a German Maḥzor produced at Salonica in 1563.

From the Letteris Bible, Vienna, 1892.

Up to the nineteenth century all work was naturally hand-work, and printing was comparatively slow. It took nearly a whole year for the Soncinos to print off 638 folio pages, while sixty years later Giustiniani printed 190 pages of Maimonides' letters in seven days.

For the injury done to the correctness of the text by the censors before and even after printing, see Censorship of Hebrew Books. The existence of censors in Italy, Germany, and Poland rendered the works printed previous to 1554 (the date of the Ferrara conference on this subject) of especial value for the text, though care was taken by the Jews themselves before that date not to offend Christianprejudices too much by printing the more out-spoken passages. In a measure Jews had their own censorship in the form of Approbations ("haskamot"), without which in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries no book was considered altogether respectable. These approbations were sometimes accompanied by special privileges, as when the rabbis of Venice issued a decree against any one buying a certain book except from the printer; and the parnasim of Amsterdam had the right of inflicting a fine for the infringement of the copyright of any one whom they favored. In the case of the Frankfort Talmud imperial permission was found necessary to produce it.

Of the cost of printing in early times little is known. The "Yeẓer Ṭob" of Venice (1597-1606) cost a thousand florins to print, while the thirty-six pages of the "Zore la Nefash" (?) of Venice (1619) cost as much as twenty-five ducats. Joseph Witzenhausen got four thalers a sheet for the Judæo-German translation of the Bible published by Athias. In the early days 300 copies of a work were sufficient. This number of the Psalms with Ḳimḥi (1477) was printed; so, too, of the "Yafeḳ Raẓon," while of the "Torat Ḥesed" only 200 came into existence. For the methods adopted in selling books see the article Book-Trade.

Technique of Hebrew Printing.

Turning to the technical side of Hebrew printing, it has to be remarked that in the justification of Hebrew, wide spacing is to be preferred, and that the vowels and accents have to be justified in a separate line after the consonants have been set up. The wide spacing is rendered necessary by the fact that hyphens can not be used in ordinary Hebrew printing, though in modern works this use is creeping in. To fill out spaces, as mentioned above, the extended letters, "alef," "he," "ḥet," "lamed," "mem," and "taw," are used.

In ordinary Hebrew printing "the compositor begins as he does with English, by setting the characters at the left hand of his copy, turning the nicks of his type inward to face the composing-rule. When the line has been spaced and justified . . . it is turned in the stick" (De Vinne, "Modern Methods of Book Composition," p. 245, New York, 1904). The arrangement of cases for Hebrew varies in different offices, but the accompanying illustration shows that generally adopted. The characters and points most used are in the lower case; accents, broad or extended letters, and letters with points are in the upper case.

The difficulty of Hebrew printing for persons not accustomed to the language consists in the great similarity of some of the letters, as "he," "ḥet," and "taw," "dalet" and "resh," "shin" and "sin," and other letters only distinguished by a dot, representing the dagesh. Final "pe" and final "ẓade" also are sometimes confounded, while their hair-lines often tend to break off during press-work. The contrast of the shaded portions of the letters with the hair-lines is perhaps the most marked type-founder's characteristic of Hebrew as compared with Roman type, in which hair-lines are avoided as much as possible. The actual forms of the letters have changed little since the first appearance of matrices in Italy in the fifteenth century. The tendency is rather toward making the letters smaller in size and squarer. Some of the most beautiful type of this kind is that of Filipowski. It is said that compositors unfamiliar with Hebrew tend to set type more accurately, though more slowly, owing to the extra care they devote to following copy. Few ordinary printing establishments have Hebrew type, and on the rare occasions when it is necessary to use it it is customary to borrow it from an establishment with a more varied outfit of types, or to have the type set up in such an establishment, the whole matter cast, and transferred bodily as a single type into the text. Christian printers handle only the square letter, Rashi and cursive always being set up by Jewish typesetters.

Hebrew Upper and Lower Cases.(From Theodore L. De Vinne's "Modern Methods of Book Composition," New York, 1904.)Productivity of Hebrew Presses.

With regard to the works which have been turned out by Hebrew printers during the last 450 years, it would be interesting to determine approximately their number and character. During the first quarter of the century in which incunabula were produced (1475-1500) 100 Hebrew works were issued, at the rate of four per annum. During the next forty years (1500-40) about 440 were issued (M. Schwab, in "Les Incunables Orientaux," enumerates 430 up to this period) averaging eleven per annum. During the next two periods from 1540 to 1732 a rough estimate would give the number of works at 6,605; namely, Bibles,710; Targum, 70; Talmud, 590; ritual, 1,000; anonymous, 350; Judæo-German, 385; and works of specific authors, 3,500—an average of about thirty-three works issued per annum. During the 160 years since the last-mentioned date the production has rapidly increased, but it is difficult to determine the exact numbers. Some indication can be obtained by the gradually increased number of Hebrew works mentioned in the various sources as follows:

Bibliographer.Date.Hebrew Books.
1.Shabbethai Bass16802,200
3.J. C. Wolf17332,832
6.Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl."1858-822,004
8.Fürst urst18639,360
10.Benjacob (including manuscripts and references)188014,978
really about
11.Lippe (vols. i. and ii.)1880-891,210
12.Van Straalen189411,100
14.Lippe (vol. iii., addenda)1899878
15.Wiener (to "ṭet")19044,575
Number of Hebrew Works.

Wiener's list promises to run to 17,000. If one may judge from the numbers given by him, and take account of the fact that the average recorded by Steinschneider between 1860 and 1880, about 100 per annum, is at best only a minimum, having been recently largely increased, there can be no doubt that 20,000 volumes have been produced during the last period. This is confirmed by the fact that the Asiatic Museum of St. Petersburg, containing the largest Hebrew collection in the world, has no less than 30,000 volumes, of which 5,000 are written in Judæo-German and Yiddish. The Jerusalem National Library (founded by Chazanowicz) in 1902 had 22,233 volumes, 10,900 of them Hebrew ("Ha-Meliẓ," 1902, No. 259). The British Museum in 1867 had nearly the same number. It would be of interest to compare the classes under which these various works are included, with the relative number of volumes contained in these two collections (see preceding table).

2.Bible Commentaries510
4.Talmud Commentaries700202
7.Code Commentaries....386
11.Midrash and Yalḳuṭ150389
14.Grammar and Dictionaries450588
15.History, Archeology, and Memoirs.3201,231
16.Geography and Travels in Palestine....292
17.Poetry, Criticism770585
19.Theology and Polemics690449
23.Periodicals, Newspapers, Catalogues....648

It would be still more interesting to determine the actual works and editions of them which go to make up the 20,000 or so separate works which have been produced by the Hebrew presses up to the end of the nineteenth century. Unfortunately Hebrew bibliography is not in such a state that this could be done with any approach to accuracy, but a considerable number of subject lists have been made from which a close approximation can be given for the various branches. The sources from which lists are derived vary in thoroughness, mainly according to their date. Information from Reland, or the old Oppenheim catalogue of 1826, naturally does not vie with points ascertained from Steinschneider or S. Wiener, but such as it is, the following list will serve both as an indication of the topics treated of in Hebrew literature and as a guide to the sources in which the fullest account at present known is given. Occasionally the lists include sections of works which should not strictly be counted, as this leads to duplication, and besides some of the entries include also manuscripts. On the other hand, these items probably do not more than compensate for the omissions in the older lists. In some few instances no actual enumeration is accessible, and in these cases the number given by the Chazanowicz collection has been repeated as being the closest approximation that can now be offered. Altogether about 15,380 works are thus accounted for out of the 18,000 or 20,000 Hebrew works and editions that have been produced.

I.Bibles......British Museum Catalogue.
Pentateuch Parts.15
Megillot Parts.10
Prophets, additional.11
II.Bible Commentaries......Reland, "Analecta Rabbinica."
Complete Bible11
III.Talmud172Zedner and Van Straalen.
IV.Talmud Commentaries on Separate Tractates.196Jellinek, "Ḳonṭres."
Indexes90Jellinek, "Ḳonṭres."
Hermeneutics237Jellinek, "Ḳonṭres."
VI.Codes310Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl."
VII.Code Commentaries185Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl."
Maimonides207Jellinek, "Ḳonṭres ha-Rambam."
On the 613 Commandments.171Jellinek, "Ḳonṭres Taryag."
VIII.Novellæ298Benjacob, s.v. "Ḥiddushim."
Names93Jellinek, "Ḳonṭres Mazkir."
IX.Responsa611Merzbacher, "Ohel Abraham," 1888.
X.Liturgy1,544Zedner and Van Straalen.
Haggadah898S. Wiener, "Oster-Haggadah." St. Petersburg, 1902.
XI.Midrash213Jellinek, "Ḳonṭres Midrash."
Burial123Jellinek, " "Ḳonṭres ha- Masped."
XIV.Grammar and Dictionaries.588Chazanowicz.
Grammar424Steinschneider, "Bibl. Hand."
XV.History, Archeology, and Memoirs.
History317Steinschneider, "Geschichts-Litteratur der Juden," 1905.
Tombstone Inscriptions.21Jew. Encyc. iii. 641-642, s.v. "Cemeteries."
Taḳḳanot17Steinschneider, "Hebr. Bibl." vi. 16.
XVI.Geography118Zunz. "G. S."
Palestine154Steinschneider, in Luncz's "Luaḥ," 1872.
XVII.Poetry, Criticism585Chazanowicz.
Occasional Poetry207Benjacob, s.v. "Shirim."
Letters142Benjacob, s.v. "Iggerot."
Tales150Benjacob s.v. "Ma'assim."
Purim and Parodies.28Steinschneider. in "Monatschrift 1903.
Purim Parodies57Steinschneider, in "Letterbode."
Drama, Original52Berliner, "Yesod 'Olam," p. xiii.
Mathematics271Steinschneider, "Mathematik bei den Juden" (to 1650).
Medicine46Benjacob, s.v. "Refu'ah."
Calendar77Zeitlin, in Gurland's "Luaḥ," 1882.
XIX.Theology and Polemics.449Chazanowicz.
Anti-Christian Polemics.182De Rossi, "Bibliotheca Judaica Anti-Christiana."
Future Life44E. Abbot, "Literature of Future Life." 1891.
Karaitica51Deinard (MS. list).
XX.Ethics34Stein, "Ethik des Talmuds."
Wills, Ethical60Abrahams, in "J. Q. R." 481, 4.
Proverbs184Bernstein, "Livres Parémiologiques Warsaw, 1900.
Almanacs58Benjacob, s.v. "Luḥot."
XXIV.Yiddish311Wiener. "Yiddish Literature," p. 99.
Judæo-German385Steinschneider, "Serapeum," 1848.
XXV.Ladino164Kayserling, "Bibl. Esp.-Port.-Jud."
XXVI.Translations, Modern.152Jew. Encyc. s.v.

In addition to the examples of Hebrew printing which are given as illustrations in the present article (all of them being derived from the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York city), the volumes of The Jewish Encyclopedia contain a larger number of reproductions of Hebrew typography than have ever yet been brought together, a list of which, in order of place of publication, may fitly conclude this account.

Where Printed.Date.Title.Jew. Encyc.
Alcala1514Bible Polyglotiii.159
Altdorf1644Title-page of "Sefer Niẓẓaḥon"xii.153
Amsterdam1666Title-page of Shabbethaian "Tiḳḳunxii.156
Amsterdam1679Title-page of Biblexii.155
Amsterdam1701"Sefer Raziel"x.336
Amsterdam1726Picart, title-page of Pentateuchx.29
Amsterdam1787"Me'ah Berakot"iii.8
Amsterdam....Title-page of miniature Siddurxii.156
Amsterdam....Title-page of Biblexii.157
Basel1534Münster Bibleix.113
Berlin1702Jacob b. Asher, Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyimv.151
Bologna1477Psalms with Ḳimḥiiii.155
Bologna1482Psalms with Pentateuchiii.157
Bologna1538"Tefillot Latini"iii.299
Brescia1491Immanuel b. Solomon, "Meḥabberotvi.565
Budapest1903Karaite Siddurx.179
Constantinople.1512Midrash Tillimiv.241
Constantinople.1517Moses ibn Tibbon translation of Maimonides' "Sefer ha-Miẓwotvi.547
Constantinople.1520Baḥya b. Asher, "Kad haḲemaḥ"iv.243
Constantinople.1532Elijah Mizraḥi "Mispar," Soncinov.45
Constantinople.1620Midrash Eleh Ezkerahviii.577
Cracow1571Maḥzor (Judæo-German)iv.330
Cracow....Printer's mark of Isaac b. Aaron of Prossnitzx.200
Fano1503Hai Gaon, "Musar Haskel".v.340
Fano1506Judah ha-Levi, "Cuzari"vii.349
Fano1516Jacob b. Asher, "Arba' Ṭurimiii.643
Ferrara1555Ḥasdai Crescas, "Or Adonai"v.371
Genoa1612Title-page of "Shefa' Ṭal"xii.154
Guadalajara1482David Ḳimḥi's Commentary on the Prophetsvi.103
Homberg-vor-der-Hohe1737Schiff, "Hiddushe Halakot"xi.99
Isny1541Elijah Levita, "Tishbi"viii.47
Ixar1485Jacob b. Asher, Oraḥ Ḥayyimvii.13
Lisbon1489Naḥmanides Commentary on the Pentateuchix.89
Lublin1590Mordecai Jaffe, "Lebushim"vii.59
Mantua1476Jacob b. Asher, Ṭur Oraḥ Ḥayyim.iv.205
MantuaBefore 1480Levi b. Gershon, Commentaryiv.173
MantuaBefore 1480Levi b. Gershon, Commentary on the Pentateuchviii.27
Mantua1561"Tefillot Vulgar"iv.172
Naples1487Ḳimḥi Commentaryx.247
Naples1488Abraham ibn Ezra, Commentary on the Pentateuchvi.523
Naples1489Baḥya's "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot"ii.449
Naples1489kalonymus, "Eben Boḥan"vii.427
New York1899Periodicalsix.609
Paris1543Stephanus Bibleix.538
Paris1807Sanhedrin Prayersxi.47
Pesaro1512Soncino, "Sefer Yehoshua'"iii.321
Piove di Sacco1475Jacob b. Asher, "Arba' Ṭurim"vii.29
Reggio1475Rashi, Commentary on the Biblex.329
Rome1480"Morch Nebukim"ix.79
Salonica1522Isaac Arama, "'Aḳedat Yiẓḥaḳ"v.581
Soncino1484Solomon ibn Gabirol, "Mibḥar ha-Peninim"vi.531
SoncinoBefore 1500Title-page of an unknown edition of the Talmudxii.13
Venice1517Bomberg Bibleiii.160
Venice1520Bomberg Talmudxii.17
Venice1522Title-page of Bomberg Talmudxii.152
Venice1526Bomberg Talmudiii.301
Venice1564Gershon b. Solomon, "Shefer Sha'ar ha-Shamayim"iii.645
Venice1547Caro, Shulḥan 'Arukiii.587
Venice1694"She'elot u-Teshubot"xi.655
Venice....Title-page of Ritualxii.414
Wilna1865Title-page of Biblexii.157
Wilna1880Shulḥan 'Arukxii.529
Wilna1884Romm Talmudxii.22
Zurich1546"Yosippon" (Judæo-German)vii.263
  • Cassel and Steinschneider, Jüdische Typographie, in Ersch and Gruber, Encyc. section ii., part 28, pp. 21-94, on which the above account is founded;
  • De Rossi, Annales Hebrœo-Typographici, Parma, 1795;
  • Schwab, Les Incunables Orientaux, Paris, 1883;
  • Harkavy, in Cat. of Book Exposition, part viii. (in Russian), St. Petersburg, 1894;
  • Simonsen, Hebraisk Bogtryk, Copenhagen, 1901;
  • Theodore L. De Vinne, Modern Methods of Book Composition, p. 246, New York, 1904;
  • Ebrard, Ausstellung Hebräischer Buchdrucke, 2d ed., Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1902;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2813-3103.