Hebrew anonymous literature is coeval with the literature of the nation. The Bible mentions two anonymous historical works: "Milḥamot Adonai" (Num. xxi. 14) and "Sefer ha-Yashar" (Josh. x. 13). The Hebrew writer of antiquity generally did not consider his work as his own property, but as the property of the whole nation whose ideas or traditions he noted. Assumption of authorship began after the Talmudical epoch; and then an author who deliberately omitted to put his name to his work had a motive for the omission.

Hebrew Anonymous Works, as to the reasons for their anonymity, may be divided into the following three classes: (1) Collectaneous works, such as the Midrashim, to which the editor, being a mere compiler, did not deem himself of sufficient importance to attach his name; (2) ancient works the authors of which, either because of modesty (see preface of "Sefer ha-Ḥinnuk") or, what is more frequently the case, because of the negligence of a copyist, are not given; (3) modern works not signed simply because their authors express ideas or criticisms they are unwilling to father.

The following is an approximate alphabetical list of all the printed anonymous Hebrew works known up to 1875:

See 1
Funeral elegy on the emperor Leopold II., in Judæo-German. Prague, 1705.3
Funeral elegy on Francis I. Triest, 1805.4
Letter-writer. Augsburg, 1534.8
Letter of the scholars and rabbis of Palestine concerning the pretended Bene Moshe. Amsterdam, 1731.9
Genealogy of various rabbis. Venice, 1626.10
Homilies on Esther. Prague, 1612.11
Geography of Palestine. Amsterdam, 1742.12
Letter of consolation to persecuted Jews. Bremen, 1803.13
Narrative, in Judæo-German (Eulenspiegel). Frankfort-on-the-Main, xviii.14
Ukase of the Russian emperor addressed to the minister of education, concerning Jewish schools. Rome, 1844.15
Ordinances enacted by the heads of the Jewish community of Amsterdam. 1708.16
Ethics. Zolkiev, 1801.17
"Light and Joy for the Jews," poem in Hebrew and in Dutch. Amsterdam, 1768.18
Laws concerning ritual benedictions, in Judæo- German. Basel, 1602.19
A treatise on geomancy. Dyhernfurth, 1728.20
Annual report of Jerusalem. Amsterdam, 1841.21
The ten precursory signs of the coming of the Messiah. 1519.22
The signs of the wars of Messiah. XVI. century.23
Ethics. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1680.24
Comedy, in Judæo-German. Frankfort-on- the-Main, 1708.25
Funeral elegy. Wilna, without date.26
Masoretic work. 1864.27
Letter of some rabbis against the new synagogue at Hamburg. Altona, 1819.28
Statutes of the Ḥebra Ḳaddisha of Mantua.29
On the punctuation of Scripture. Amsterdam, 1840.30
Religious controversies. Isny, 1542.31
Novellæ on the Talmud. Brünn, 1763.32
Ritual laws. Neuwied, 1752.32a
Account of a voyage, in Judæo-German. Wilna, 1818.33
Letters from rabbis on the controversy between Jacob von Emden and Eibenschütz. Altona, 1753.34
An adventure of the gaon Isaac Tirno. Königsberg, 1857.35
Purim comedy. Prague, 1720.36
Comedy, in Judæo-German, on the battle of David with Goliath. Hanau, 1711-26.37
Ethics. Isny, 1542.38
History of the patriarch Abraham. London, 1846.39
Satirical dialogue about the treatment of the Jews in Germany and Poland. Prague, XVIII. century.1
Sermons. Salonica, 1546.3
Poems, scientific articles, and letters collected by the Toelet society of Amsterdam. 1820.4
Prayer the words of which begin with the letter Lamed. Hamburg, 1830.5
Poem on Genesis, in Judæo-German. Constantinople, XVII. century.7
A letter from Jerusalem imploring relief. Constantinople, XVII. century.7
(For all Baraitot, see .)8
Laws, in Judæo-German, concerning the salting of meat. 1699.9
Program of the festivities ordered in Prague on the occasion of the birthday of Archduke Leopold. Prague, 1716.10
Pedagogics, in Judæo-German. London, 1870.1
Legends about Solomon, in Judæo- German. Lemberg, 1850 ?2
The ascent of Moses. Salonica, 1727.3
Geomancy. ? Amsterdam, 1713.4
On the expulsion of the Jews from Austria. Cracow, 1609.5
On the massacres of Chmielnicki. Wilna, 1854.6
A narrative, in Judæo-German. Offenbach, 1721.7
Commentary on the Pentateuch. Metz, 1849.1
The life of Moses. Constantinople, 1516.2
On Hebrew pronunciation. Amsterdam, 1795.3
Ethics. Warsaw, 1849.4
On penitence. Constantinople, 1519.5
Hebrew-German-Italian vocabulary. Cracow, 1590.6
Weekly paper. Amsterdam, 1797-98.7
Commentary on Rashi. Leghorn, 1783.8
The grammar of Rashi. Riva, 1560.9
Statutes of a relief society of Altona. Altona, 1808.10
A sermon by Jesus of Nazareth on happiness. ? Halle, 1704.11
Midrash on Esther. Leipsic, 1856.1
History of the knight Sigmund. Fürth, 1791.2
Novel, in Judæo-German. Metz, 1821.3
Novel, in Judæo-German.4
On the regulation of synagogal contributions. Venice, 1709.5
Decisions of the Geonim. Constantinople, 1516.6
On the examination of the lungs of slaughtered animals. Ferrara, 1552.7
On the slaughtering of cattle. Venice, 1509.8
Index of Biblical passages quoted by the Midrashim. Constantinople, 1644.9
On a divorce case. Venice, 1566.10
(See )11
Opening formulæ for letters. Homburg, 1724.13
(See 1
The key of the Zohar. Cracow, 1632-48.2
(See 3
(See 4
On the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, extracts from the Talmud (Giṭ. 56a). Cremona, 1566.1
(See 2
On Shabbethai Ẓebi. Venice, 1668.3
History of Sodom. Salonica, before 1645.4
Homilies on the Pentateuch. Constantinople, 1524.5
On the Messiah. Constantinople, 1524.6
Narratives and legends. Verona, 1647.1
The precepts incumbent upon women. Königsberg, 1861.2
Polemic against the review "He-Ḥaluẓ." Lemberg, 1861.3
(See 4
On a riot in the town of Ungarischbrod, Moravia, Tammuz 5th, 1583; poem in Judæo-German. Prague, 1583?5
A chess-problem, in Judæo-German. Berlin, 1873.6
Novellæ in the Talmud. Offenbach, 1723.7
Riddles in Esther. Amsterdam.8
Proclamations made in the synagogue of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1729?9
Hebrew-German vocabulary. Cracow, 1640.10
Ethics, in Judæo-German. Halle, 1747 ?11
On the calendar. Basel, 1527.12
Supplement to Esther. Wilna, 1813.13
On the precepts. Venice, 1523.14
Sufferings of the Jews of Jerusalem in the year 1604. Venice, 1636.16
Letters of certain rabbis against the Ḥasidim.17
Satire on gamblers. Venice, 1563.18
Thousand and one nights. Vienna, 1850-51.1
(See 2
On the precepts.1
On the calendar. Rome, 1547.2
Encyclopedia, translated from the Arabic. Fürth ? 1718.3
Arithmetic, in Judæo-German. Amsterdam, 1699.4
Commentary on the Pentateuch.5
Monthly paper. Prague, 1802.6
Commentary on Ruth. Cracow, 1569.7
Letter-writer. Prague, 1605-15.8
On the creation of man. Lublin, 1624.9
Prayer, in Judæo-German. Amsterdam, 1698.10
History (Book of Jashar). Venice, 1625.11
On the accents. Cracow, 1642.1
Mystic explanation of the Psalms. Hamburg, 1725.2
Against feminine extravagance. Amsterdam, 1695.3
Ritual laws. Salonica, VI. century.4
Jokes for Purim. Lemberg, 1855.5
Grammar. 1665.6
Reply to the letter of the physician Mordecai Herz concerning hasty interment. Berlin, without date.7
On Simeon Gelder. Amsterdam, 1755.8
Excommunication of Nehemiah Ḥiyya Ḥayyun. Constantinople, without date.9
Hebrew grammar. Paris, 1628.1
A directory. Brünn, 1799.2
Calendar. Venice, 1575.3
Grammar, in Hebrew and Judæo-German. Cracow, 1598.4
On the Decalogue. Cracow, 1631-56.5
Panegyric on the Torah. Prague. 1605-15.6
Biography of the emperor Joseph II. Brünn, 1799.7
Letter-writer. Cracow, 1661.8
A second Targum on Esther. Constantinople, 1732.9
(See 10
Historical magazine. Metz, 1821 ?1
Bibliographical notes. Constantinople, 1756.2
On the controversy between Emden and Eibenschütz. Without date and printing place.3
On the precepts. Cremona, 1556.4
Satire upon woman. Constantinople, 1570-71.5
A monthly, afterward a quarterly, review from 1783 to 1808. Königsberg, 1783-90.6
Medical work. Wilna, without date.7
Ethical letters. Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1800.8
On the Hebrew alphabet. Pesaro, 1510.9
On the Maccabean wars. Mantua, 1557.10
Adventures of Meir of Brody. Cracow, 1532.11
Letter-writer. Venice, 1552.12
Formulæ for various episodes in life. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1736.13
Midrash beginning with the name "Abba Gorion." Is also called or , because based upon the Book of Esther. Leipsic, 1856.14
Midrash on Genesis. Wilna, 1800.16
On the ten martyrs. Leipsic, 1853.17
Midrash on Gen. xlix. Leipsic, 1853.18
On the Pentateuch. Leipsic, 1855.19
Published lately by Professor Schechter.20
See "Jewish Quarterly Review," October, 1900, Adler, Broydé.21
On the Song of Moses; the same in Judæo-German. Leipsic, 1849.22
On Gen. xxxv. 5. Leipsic, 1854.23
Midrash on the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes. Verona, 1595.24
Midrash on Jonah. Prague, 1595.25
Mystical explanation of the Creation; also called . Frankfort-on-the- Oder, 1719.26
Collection of the Talmudical dicta beginning with the word "Leolam." Leipsic, 1854.27
Midrash on Esther, from the 4th chapter on. Venice, 1544.28
See Jellinek, "Bet ha-Midrash," ii. 14.29
Homilies on the Decalogue. Ferrara, 1554.30
On the death of Aaron. Leipsic, 1848.31
On the death of Moses. Leipsic, 1848.32
Midrash on the Pentateuch, the five Megillot, Proverbs, and Psalms. Constantinople, 1512.33
On Samuel, Psalms, and Proverbs. Constantinople, 1512.34
On the Pentateuch. Menaḥem b. Solomon, XII. century?35
Proclamation of rabbis against Ẓebi Ashkenazi and Moses Hagis. Without printing place, 1714.36
Ethics. Shklov, 1782.37
Poem on the birthday of Napoleon. Paris, 1797.38
Poem on the inauguration of the synagogue at Leyden. Amsterdam, 1858.39
Letter from a proselyte. Halle, 1747.40
Letters of the rabbis. Hamburg, 1796.41
Index of all Talmudical dicta which begin with the numbers from 3 to 15. Zolkiev, 1809.42
Criticisms and poems. Leipsic, 1872.43
Decision of the rabbis of Italy on the ritual bath at Reggio. Venice, about 1806.44
The duties of the head of the family. Venice ?45
Karaite religious customs. Venice, without date.46
Religious customs. Cracow, 1660.47
Cabala. Prague, 1580.48
Printed with all Bibles.49
Index of the Talmud. Salonica, 1523.53
Funeral elegy on Adolph V., duke of Mecklenburg- Strelitz, in Hebrew and German. Berlin, 1794.54
Funeral elegy on Francis I. of France. Vienna, 1835.55
Index to the Talmud. Altona, 1722.56
Homiletic commentary on the Pentateuch. Without printing place and date.57
Tales (Ma'asiyot).
History of the patriarch Abraham.58
Leipsic, 1848.
Sdilkov, 1793.59
Venice, 1585.59a
Prague, 1600.60
Prague, 1600.61
Prague, 1600.62
Basel, 1602.63
Fürth, 1691.64
Offenbach, 1714-30.65
Prague, 1657.66
Prague, 1657-60.67
(Nikolsburg) XVII. century ?68
Prague, 1660. 69
Offenbach, 1714 ?70
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1699.71
Wilhelmsdorf, 1671-90.72
Printing place and date not known.73
Prague, XVII.74
Printing place and date unknown.75
Printing place and date unknown.76
Halle, 1711 ?77
Prague, XVII. century.78
Fürth, 1691.79
Hanau, 1820.80
Place and date unknown.81
Prague, about 1660.82
Lemberg, 1848.83
. .84
Lemberg, 1848.
Lemberg, 1848 ?85
Index of the Zohar. Amsterdam, 1710.86
Cabala. Lublin, XVII century.87
On the laws concerning marriage. Johannisberg, 1751.88
Three precepts incumbent on women. Venice, 1552.89
Eschatology. Cracow, XVII. century?90
Hebrew glossary. Naples, 1488.91
Criticism of Geiger's "Urschrift." London, 1857.92
On Hebrew pronunciation. Amsterdam, 1795.93
On Shabbethai Ẓebi. Offenbach, 1863.93a
Poem. Berlin, 1794.94
Proverbs.Amsterdam, 1657.95
Aphorisms.Ferrara, 1552.96
On excommunication. Constantinople ? 1516 ?97
On the inconstancy of widows. 1577.1
The book of religious controversy. Altdorf, 1681.3
Hebrew lexicon. Place and date unknown.4
(See 1
Select medical remedies; Judæo-German. Prague, 1680-90.2
Rules of the Ghetto at Mantua. Mantua, 1620.3
Rules of the synagogue at Amsterdam, in Judæo- German. Amsterdam, XVIII. century.4
Orology, in Judæo-German. Frankfort-on- the-Oder, 1792.5
Order of prayers in the synagogue at Hamburg, in Judæo-German. Hamburg, 1819.6
Chronology. Prague. 1839.7
Eschatology. Basel, 1609.8
Index of the Psalms. Venice, 1876.9
Halakah. Venice ? 1551 ?9a
History of Shabbethai Ẓebi. Lemberg, 1804.10
Collection of tales. Mantua, 1725.11
Collection of tales. Sdilkov, 1837.12
Instructions for officiating ministers of the Sephardic rite. London, 1700.1
On the calendar. Riva, 1560.2
Letters of the rabbis of Palestine on Ẓebi Ashkenazi and Moses Hagis. 1714.3
Ethics. Shklov, 1783.4
Poem enumerating all the ritual laws. Prague, 1614.5
Decisions of the magistrates of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1735.6
Poems. Venice, 1600.1
Many new poems. Bombay, 1856.2
(See )3
Commentary on Ecclesiastes. Leipsic, 1855.5
Poems. Mantua, 1730.6
Program of the festivities in the city of Prague on the occasion of the birthday of Archduke Leopold. Prague, 1716.7
On the prague. Prague, 1714.8
Cabalistic. Shklov, 1785.9
Description of a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Wilna, 1817.10
On grammar. Naples, 1492.11
On the interpretation of dreams. Wilhelmsdorf, 1690.12
(See 1
Two poems, in Judæo-German. Place and date unknown.2
Calendar. Tarnopol, no date.3
Register of all the chapters of the Talmud. Prague, 1617.4
Tale, in Judæo-German. Rödelheim, without date.5
The martyrs of Wilna. Amsterdam, 1692.1
Poem. Berlin, 1793.2
Criticisms. Triest, without date.3
Proclamation on the abolition of the poll-tax. Rödelheim, 1797.4.
Household remedies. Amsterdam,XVIII. century.5
On the martyr R. Mattes. 1666-92.6
Laws for the slaughtering of cattle. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1712.7
Medical work. Place and date unknown.8
Moral aphorisms. Place and date unknown.9
Commentary on the Song of Solomon. Zolkiev, 1805.1
Miscellaneous essays. Lemberg, 1837.2
On the Messiah. Prague, 1568.3
Meteorology. Lemberg, 1848.4
Medical works.Amsterdam, XVII. century.5
Amsterdam, XVII. century.6
On convulsions. 1552.7
Many catalogues. Hamburg, 1782.8
Responsa.Constantinople, 1575.1
Berlin, 1848.2
Prague, 1816.3
Amsterdam, 1741.4
Philosophy. Lublin, 1561.5
Panegyric on Jerusalem. Wilna, 1817.6
Miscellaneous. Leghorn, 1745.7
Statutes of the Ḥebra Ḳaddisha of Amsterdam. Altona, 1766.8
Poem on Sabbath observance. Zolkiev, 1805.9
Statutes (congregational). Hamburg, 1851.10
Poem, in Judæo-German. Prague, XVII. century.11
Against feminine extravagance ("Falling Stars")12
Satirical poem. Prague, XVII. century.13
Ethics. Lublin, 1632.14
Poem in honor of Napoleon. Frankfort-on-the Main, 1795.15
Poem in honor of George IV. of England. Hanover, 1822.16
Poem in honor of Christian VII. of Denmark. Altona, 1799.17
Poem in honor of Frederick William III. of Prussia. Posen, 1793.18
Poem on the end of the Seven Years' War. Berlin, 1763.19
Elegy on Frederick William III. Berlin, 1798.20
On the passage of Napoleon through Rotterdam. Rotterdam, 1801.21
(See 22
Cabalistic explanation of some Psalm verses. Venice, 1555.23
Purim jokes. Amsterdam, 1650.24
Responsa. Salonica, 1792.25
A story. Amsterdam, 1700-30.26
Hebrew grammar. Amsterdam, 1655.27
Hebrew roots. Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1768.28
Poem in honor of Sir Moses Monteflore. Amsterdam, 1841.1
Lectures on the prayer ritual. Venice, 1544.2
Thanksgiving poem. Altona, 1814.3
Reproof of synagogue-readers (ḥazanim). Place and date unknown.4
Medical work. Zolkiev, 1720.5
The history of Jesus (in Wagenseil, Altdorf, 1681).6
Commentary on the Pentateuch. Venice ?7
On the ritual bath. Prague, XVI.-XVII. cent.8
Institutions of the Karaites. 1733.9
Forms of contracts. Venice, 1552.10
On penitence. Cracow, 1666 ?11
Statutes of the Ashkenazic community of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1737.12
Statutes of the congregation of Fürth. Amsterdam, 1728.13
Against feasting and extravagance.14
Amsterdam, 1709.
Amsterdam, 1707.15
Statutes of the city of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1737.16
Confirmation of the statutes by the magistratesof Amsterdam.17
Amsterdam, 1758.
Amsterdam, 1752.
Amsterdam, 1759.
Statutes of the Orphan Asylum Society of Amsterdam.20
Amsterdam, 1739.
Amsterdam, 1799.
Remedy for soul-ailments. Basel, 1530.22
On penitence, institution of amen, and fasting. Lublin, 1677 ?23

As to the works attributed, correctly or incorrectly, to earlier writers, such as the Zohar, the Book of Creation, etc., see Pseudonymous Literature.

  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl.;
  • Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim;
  • Roest, Catalogue of the Rosenthal Library.
I. Br.