Hebrew expression for "dictionary," corresponding with the Arabic "ta'alif," and derived from "'arak [millin]" (Job xxxii. 14), "arranged words" (A. V. "directed words").

A Biblical dictionary, under the title "MaḦberet ha-'Aruk" (Composition of the Dictionary), was written by Solomon ibn ParḦon of Aragon in the twelfth century.

A Talmudical 'Aruk was first composed by ẒemaḦben Palṭai, a gaon of Pumbedita, at the close of the ninth century; but only traces of it have been preserved (see Rapoport's biography of Nathan, the author of the 'Aruk, in "Bikkure ha-'Ittim," x. 24; and Kohut's "'Aruk ha-Shalem" [Aruch Completum] I., introduction, xviii.).

The work generally quoted as "'Aruk" is the great Talmudical dictionary composed by Nathan ben Jehiel of Rome, and completed in 1101. (See Nathan B. Jehiel.) Of this greater work different compendia were made later on for the use of larger circles of readers, with the explanation in modern languages of difficult words, under the title "Sefer ha 'Aruk ha-Ḳaẓer" (The Smaller 'Aruk), and were used by Sebastian Münster, Reuchlin, and other Christian scholars. See J. Perles, " Beiträge zur Gesch. der Hebräischen und Aramäischen Studien," 1-112, Munich, 1884.

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