German ophthalmologist; born at Breslau June 4, 1838. After graduating from the gymnasium of his native town he studied chemistry and physics at the University of Heidelberg under Bunsen, Kirchhoff, and Helmholtz, and at the University of Breslau, receiving the degree of doctor of philosophy in 1860. In the same year he commenced the study of medicine at the University of Breslau, obtaining his M.D. degree from the University of Berlin in 1863.

From 1863 to 1866 Cohn was assistant to Forster, settling in Breslau in the latter year as an ophthalmologist. In 1868 he was admitted to the university as privat-docent with the inaugural essay "Ueber Xerosis Conjunctivæ," and was elected assistant professor in 1874. In 1883 he received the state's gold medal in hygiene.

Cohn noticed that many pupils in the schools of Germany were obliged to wear glasses at an early age. As an oculist he became interested in the matter, and tracing the source of the evil back to the schools, gave special attention to their hygienic conditions in relation to ophthalmology. Most of Cohn's writings treat of this branch of medicine, in which he has achieved great results. The following list of works affords an insight into his labors: "Untersuchungen der Augen von 10,060 Schulkindern Nebst Vorschlägen zur Verbesserung der den Augen Nachteiligen Schuleinrichtungen," Leipsic, 1867; "Schussverletzungen des Auges," Erlangen, 1872; "Die Schulhäuser und Schultische auf der Wiener Weltausstellung," Breslau, 1873; "Die Schul Hygiene auf der Pariser Weltaustellung," ib. 1879; "Studien über Angeborene Farbenblindheit," ib. 1879; "Die Hygiene des Auges in den Schulen," Vienna, 1883 (translated into English by Turnbull, London, 1886, and into Russian by Medem, Pultawa, 1887); "Ueber den Einfluss Hygienischer Massregeln der Schulmyopie," Breslau, 1890; "Lehrbuch der Hygiene des Auges," Vienna, 1892 (his greatest work); "Dreissig Jahre Augenärztlicher und Akademischer Lehrthätigkeit," Breslau, 1897; "Sehleistungen von 50,000 Breslauer Schulkindern," ib. 1899; "Wie Müssen Bücher und Zeitungen Gedrückt, Worden?" ib. 1902.

Cohn has been a very prolific writer, and has contributed nearly 250 essays on ophthalmology and hygiene to medical and other journals.

  • Pagel, Biog. Lex.;
  • Hirsch, Biog. Lex.;
  • Meyers Konversations-Lexikon.
S. F. T. H.
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