City in the state of New York. The first settlement of Jews dates from about 1851. In 1860 twelve families organized a congregation under the name "Children of Israel," the services being conducted by Jacob Stahl. In 1885 Dr. Adolph M. Radin became rabbi, and introduced the Jastrow prayer-book. In 1886 a new synagogue was dedicated. The successors of Dr. Radin were Rabbis Kopfstein, Poseman, and Jacob Marcus; the last-named is the present (1902) incumbent. The congregationnow includes about sixty families. Since 1881 Russian Jews have settled in Elmira and have formed two Orthodox congregations: Shomre Hadath, founded 1883, and the Chevra Talmud Torah, organized 1888. Elmira has a branch of the Council of Jewish Women, lodges of the Order of the B'nai B'rith and B'rith Abraham, and several benevolent societies. The Jewish population is about 1,200. Jacob Schwartz, who died in 1891, aged 38, was the leading lawyer of the city. A. Anhalt is the overseer of the poor, and Dr. Jonas Jacobs the city physician.

The New York State Reformatory at Elmira has (1902) 180 Jewish inmates. They are between the ages of 16 and 29, are taught trades, reading, and writing, and may regain their liberty in twelve months by good behavior. A small Jewish library is provided for them, and Jewish services are conducted at the Reformatory every other Sunday and on Jewish holidays. Twenty-four Jewish Confederate prisoners are buried in Woodlawn Cemetery.

A. J. M.
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