ḤAYYIM (lit. "life"):

A common prænomen among the Jews, especially during the Middle Ages. In its Latin form it occurs on the Hebrew mosaic of Kafr Kenna as , i.e. "Vita" ("Pal. Explor. Fund Statement," 1901, p. 377), and in the Jewish catacombs of Venosa (also ; Ascoli, "Inscrizioni," No. 21). The Greek B τα occurs upon an inscription at Gallipoli ("C. I. G." No. 2014); it may be the name of a Jewess. In early transcriptions "Ḥayyim" occurs in various forms: in Spain, as "Aim" (Jacobs, "Sources," p. 151), or "Haym" (ib. No. 1293); in Germany, as "Hayum" ("Zeit. Gesch. des Oberrheins," xv. 44), "Heyum" (Löwenstein, "Juden in der Kurpfalz," p. 298), "Heium" (ib. p. 299), and, in later times, "Chajim"; in France, as "Haguin," "Haquin," "Hagin," "Chakin" ("Sefer ha-Yashar," § 27), "Hakinet," "Haquinet" ("R. E. J." i. 68), "Hakinet," "Chakinet"; in England, as "Hagin"("Jew. Hist. Soc. Eng." i. 156) and "Agim" (Jacobs, "Jewish Ideals," p. 216).

The Latin "Vita" occurs in various forms. "Vitalis" was a name used by Christians of the first century; from this come "Vital" (, Würzburg, 1298) and (Bonn, 1288); and from this, "Vida" (Worms, 1349) and the later "Veitel." It occurs in Provence and Catalonia with the addition of a prefix, as "Anvidal." "Vida" also occurs as a feminine name, or, synonymously, as "Zoë" ( Zunz, "G. S." ii. 61). Other forms of the same name are "Vives" (, Germany, 13th cent.; , "Or Zarua'"), "Vivis," "Viva" (Majorca, 1391; "R. E. J." xiv. 261), "Vivo" (De Meaux =Jehiel of Paris, this form being often a translation of "Jehiel"). In the later Middle Ages the forms "Vivant" ("R. E. J." i. 69) and "Vivian" occur (Zunz, "G. S." ii. 35). As "caritatives" there are "Vivelin" (, Nuremberg, 1298) and "Vivelman" (, Bamberg, 1298). In Italy the old form "Vita" was used.

It is interesting to note that in Germany the name became "Hain" ("Hain" or "Heine Goldschmidt" ="Ḥayyim Hamelin"); and the family name of the poet is a derivative of this by way of "Heine-mann" (Freudenthal, in "Monatsschrift," xlv. 460). "Ḥayyim" was also one of the names given to those who had recovered from an illness (Zunz, "Namen des Juden," p. 51). In modern usage its secular parallel is "Henry." It also forms the basis of the surnames "Hyam," "Hyams," "Hiam," and "Hayem."

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