German physiologist; born at Liegnitz, Prussian Silesia, Jan. 27, 1839; educated at the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin (M.D. 1863). Attending the hospitals of Berlin University, he became assistant to Traube in 1865 and studied in the physiological laboratory. In 1871 he became assistant at the physiological institute connected with Leipsic University; in 1872 privat-docent; and in 1875 assistant professor. He was called to Bern University in 1878 as department chief of its physiological institute, and in 1885 was appointed professor of physiology, which position he still occupies (1904).

Kronecker's researches in physiology resulted in many discoveries: as, the center of coordination for the pulsation of the heart-ventricles; the innervation of the respiratory organs; the contraction of the unstriped muscles; the nerve-centers of the blood-vessels; the action of poison on the heart; etc. Kronecker has contributed many essays to the medical journals. He wrote "Beiträge zur Anatomie und Physiologie," Leipsic, 1874, and from 1881 to 1885 was, with Senator, editor of the "Centralblatt für die Medizinische Wissenschaft."

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