American rabbi and scholar; born at Zabno, Galicia, March 23, 1867; educated at the Zabno elementary school, and at the universities of Berlin (1889-93) and Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1894). He pursued his Jewish studies at the Veitel Heine-Ephraimsche Lehranstalt, Berlin (under Steinschneider) from 1890 to 1898, and at the Berlin Hochschule from 1894 to 1898, receiving his rabbinical diploma from the latter institution. He acted as librarian of the scientific library of the Jewish community at Berlin in 1899, and in 1900 was appointed professor of medieval philosophy and Arabic at the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati; since 1902 he has also filled the office of rabbi of the Sheerith Israel Congregation of Cincinnati. His publications include: "Sifrut Yisrael," a Hebrew edition of Steinschneider's "Jewish Literature," with additional bibliographical notes; "Die Beschneidung in der Neueren Zeit" (in Glasberg's "Die Beschneidung," Berlin, 1896); "Die Abhandlung des Abu Hamid al-Gazzali" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1896); "Katalog der von Fischel Hirsch Nachgelassenen Bücher" (Berlin, 1899). He has also contributed to "Ha-Maggid," "Ha-Shiloaḥ," "Mi-Mizraḥ umi-Ma'arab," "Jüdischer Volkskalender," "Deborah," "American Journal of Semitic Languages," and the "Hebrew Union College Journal" and "Annual."