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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Listing of Patrons

EDITORIAL BOARD

CYRUS ADLER, Ph.D. (Departments of Post-Biblical Antiquities and the Jews of America.) President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.
WILHELM BACHER, Ph.D. (Departments of the Talmud and Rabbinical Literature.) Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, Hungary.
GOTTHARD DEUTSCH, Ph.D. (Department of History from 1492 to 1906.) Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio; Editor of "Deborah."
RICHARD GOTTHEIL, Ph.D. (Departments of History from Ezra to 1492 and History of Post-Talmudic Literature.) Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library.
EMIL G. HIRSCH, Ph.D., LL.D. (Department of the Bible.) Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, Ill.; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Editor of "The Reform Advocate."
JOSEPH JACOBS, B.A. (Departments of the Jews of England and Anthropology; Revising Editor.) Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England; Author of "Jews of Angevin England," etc.
KAUFMANN KOHLER, Ph.D. (Departments of Theology and Philosophy.) President of Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio; Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New York.
HERMAN ROSENTHAL. (Department of the Jews of Russia and Poland.) Chief of the Slavonic Department, New York Public Library.
ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D. Managing Editor. (Department of Modern Biography from 1750 to 1906.)
CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, D.D., LL.D. (Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature.) Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; Author of "The Religion of Israel," etc.
I. K. FUNK, D.D., LL.D. (Chairman of the Board.) Editor-in-Chief of the Standard Dictionary of the English Language, etc.
FRANK H. VIZETELLY, F.S.A. (Secretary of the Board.) Associate Editor of the Standard Dictionary; Author of "The Preparation of Manuscripts for the Printer," etc.
WILLIAM POPPER, M.A., Ph.D. (Associate Revising Editor; Chief of the Bureau of Translation.) Instructor in Semitic Languages, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.; Author of "The Censorship of Hebrew Books."

AMERICAN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS

BERNARD DRACHMAN, Ph.D. Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim; Instructor in the Bible and in Hebrew Grammar, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.
B. FELSENTHAL, Ph.D. Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago, Ill.; Author of "A Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language."
GUSTAV GOTTHEIL, Ph.D. (Deceased) Late Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-El, New York.
HENRY HYVERNAT, D.D. Head of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.
MARCUS JASTROW, Ph.D. (Deceased) Late Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Dictionary of the Talmud."
MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., Ph.D. Professor of Semitic Languages and Librarian in the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," etc.
J. FREDERIC McCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D. Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, Canada; Author of "History, Prophecy, and the Monuments."
H. PEREIRA MENDES, M.D. Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portuguese), New York; President of the Board of Jewish Ministers, New York.
MOSES MIELZINER, Ph.D., D.D. (Deceased) Late President of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio; Author of "Introduction to the Talmud."
GEORGE F. MOORE, M.A., D.D. Professor of Biblical Literature and the History of Religions in Harvard University Cambridge, Mass.; Author of "A Commentary on the Book of Judges," etc.
DAVID PHILIPSON, D.D. Rabbi of the Congregation B'ne Israel; Professor of Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio; President of Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America.
IRA MAURICE PRICE, B.D., Ph.D. Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, University of Chicago, Ill., Author of "The Monuments and the Old Testament," etc.
SOLOMON SCHECHTER, M.A., Litt.D. President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York; Author of "Studies in Judaism."
JOSEPH SILVERMAN, D.D. President of Central Conference of American Rabbis; Rabbi of Temple Emanu-El, New York.
JACOB VOORSANGER, D.D. Rabbi of the Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal.; Professor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.

FOREIGN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS

ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. Coeditor of "The Jewish Quarterly Review"; Author of "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," etc.; Reader in Talmudic, Cambridge University, England.
M. BRANN, Ph.D. Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Germany; Editor of "Monatsschrift füCr Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums."
H. BRODY, Ph.D. Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria; Coeditor of "Zeitschrift für Hebräische Bibliographie."
ABRAHAM DANON Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople, Turkey.
HARTWIG DERENBOURG, Ph.D. Professor of Literal Arabic at the Special School of Oriental Languages, Paris; Member of the Institut de France.
S. M. DUBNOW Author of "Istoriya Yevreyev," Wilna, Russia.
MICHAEL FRIEDLÄNDER, Ph.D. Principal of Jews' College, London, England; Author of "The Jewish Religion," etc.
IGNAZ GOLDZIHER, Ph.D. Professor of Semitic Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary.
M. GÜDEMANN, Ph.D. Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria.
BARON DAVID GÜNZBURG St. Petersburg, Russia.
A. DE HARKAVY, Ph.D. Chief of the Hebrew Department of the Imperial Public Library, St. Petersburg, Russia.
ZADOC KAHN Chief Rabbi of France, Honorary President of the Alliance Israélite Universelle; Officer of the Legion of Honor, Paris, France.
M. KAYSERLING, Ph.D. (Deceased) Late Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary; Late Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid, Spain.
MORITZ LAZARUS, Ph.D. (Deceased) Late Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin; Meran, Austria.
ANATOLE LEROY-BEAULIEU Member of the Institut de France; Professor at the Free School of Political Science, Paris, France; Author of "Israël chez les Nations."
ISRAEL LÉVI Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Editor of "Revue des Etudes Juives," Paris, France.
EUDE LOLLI, D.D. (Deceased) Late Chief Rabbi of Padua; Late Professor of Hebrew at the University, Padua, Italy.
IMMANUEL LÖW, Ph.D. Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary; Author of "Die Aramäischen Pflanzennamen."
S. H. MARGULIES, Ph.D. Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary; Chief Rabbi of Florence, Italy.
H. OORT, D.D. Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State University, Leyden, Holland.
ABBÉ PIETRO PERREAU Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatina, Parma, Italy.
MARTIN PHILIPPSON, Ph.D. Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and Brussels; President of the Deutsch-Israelitischer Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany.
SAMUEL POZNANSKI, Ph.D. Rabbi in Warsaw, Russia.
E. SCHWARZFELD, LL.D. Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris, France.
LUDWIG STEIN, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland; Editor of "Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie," etc.
HERMANN L. STRACK, Ph.D. Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages, University of Berlin, Germany.
CHARLES TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D. Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, England; Editor of "Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc.