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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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NOSSIG, ALFRED – Austrian author and sculptor; born at Lemberg, Galicia, April 18, 1864. He studied law, philosophy, and natural science at the universities of Lemberg and Zurich (Ph.D.), and then studied medicine for several years at the...
NOTARIES AND SCRIBES – See Soferim.
NOṬARIḲON – A system of shorthand consisting in either simply abbreviating the words or in writing only one letter of each word. This system, used by the Romans in their courts of justice for recording the proceedingsof the court (comp....
NOTHHANDEL – Technical term used in the laws referring to the petty trading of the Jews, which laws aimed to exclude the Jews from such occupations. "Nothhandel" (emergency trade) is defined as the itinerant trade of villages—pawnbroking,...
NOTKIN (NOTE), NATHAN – Russian army-contractor and financier; born at Shklov about the middle of the eighteenth century; died at St. Petersburg 1804. He was one of a number of Jews who, notwithstanding a law to the contrary, lived permanently in St....
NOTOVICH, OSIP KONSTANTINOVICH – Russian journalist; born in 1849 at Kertch, where his father was rabbi. Notovich studied law at the University of St. Petersburg. During 1873-74 he was publisher and editor of the Russian daily "Novoe Vremya"; after surrendering...
NOVEIRA, MENAHEM – Italian rabbi of Verona and poet of the eighteenth century. He was a grandson of Hezekiah Mordecai Basan. His three responsa are appended to his grandfather's "Pene Yiẓḥaḳ," which he published in Mantua in 1744. He was also the...
NOVGOROD – One of the oldest of Russian cities, on the River Volkhoff; it has been in existence since the ninth century. In the first half of the eleventh century the Bishop of Novgorod was Luka Zhidyata (= "the Jew"), whose name is...
NOVGOROD-SYEVERSK – Russian town in the government of Chernigov. The town dates its origin as far back as the eleventh century. Jews lived there in the sixteenth century, contributed toward the repairs of the streets, and paid taxes on an equal...
NOVGOROD-VOLHYNSK – Russian town in the government of Volhynia. It has a total population of 16,873, of whom about 9,000 are Jews (1897). The latter are prominent in the commercial affairs of the town, being largely engaged in the export trade. The...
NOVOALEKSANDROVSK – Russian city in the government of Kovno. It has (1897) a total population of 6,370, of whom 4,277 are Jews. Among the latter are 445 artisans and 48 day-laborers; 60 pupils receive instruction in the Talmud Torah, 240 in the...
NOVOGRUDOK – Russian town in the government of Minsk. The first mention of Jews in connection with Novogrudok dates back to 1484, when King Casimir Jagellon leased the customs duties of the place to Ilia Moiseyevich, Rubim Sakovich, Avram...
NOVOKONSTANTINOV – Russian town in the government of Podolia; it has a population of2,855, including 1,825 Jews. There are 245 Jewish artisans and 22 Jewish day-laborers. The nineteen ḥadarim give instruction to 310 pupils. There are three houses...
NOVOMOSKOVSK – Russian city in the government of Yekaterinoslav; it has a total population of 12,862, including 1,147 Jews. Among the latter are more than 900 Jewish artisans and day-laborers, but Jews form a very slight proportion of the...
NOVY-DVOR – Village in the district of Grodno. In the sixteenth century Novy-Dvor had a well-organized Jewish community, some of whose members owned farms. There are several documents to show that the Jews of Novy-Dvor came in conflict, at...
NOVY ISRAEL – Name of a Jewish reformed religious party or sect, with tendencies toward Christianity, which arose in Odessa at the end of 1881, and which was originated by Jacob Prelooker, a Russian Jewish school-teacher there. Prelooker's...
NUISANCE – See Neighboring Landowners.
NUMBERS, BOOK OF – Fourth book of the Pentateuch. In the Septuagint version it bears the title 'ΑριΘμο in the Vulgate, "Numeri," from the command given by God, contained in the first chapter, to number the children of Israel. In Jewish literature...
NUMBERS RABBAH – See Bemidbar Rabbah. Illuminated Page of the Book of Numbers.(From a manuscript formerly in the possession of the Duke of Sussex.)
NUMBERS AND NUMERALS – Numerical Notation. The letters of the alphabet were used as numerical symbols as early as the Maccabean period (comp. Numismatics). Whether such a usage was known in earlier times also, whether there existed in Israel, as among...
NUMENIUS – Son of Antiochus. Together with Antipater, son of Jason, he was sent to Sparta and Rome, first by Jonathan Maccabeus (I Macc. xii. 16; Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 5, § 8), and then by Simon (I Macc. xv. 15-24), returning with decrees...
NUMISMATICS – No Coins Before Maccabeans. The study of Jewish coinage, strictly speaking, begins with the Maccabean period. Some information, however, concerning the use of money, or substitutes for money, among the Jews previous to the...
NUN – Fourteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The name signifies "fish," and perhaps indicates the original shape of the letter (see Alphabet). The "nun" has two forms, one (נ) for the beginning or middle of a word and one (ן) for...
NUNES, HENRIQUE (ENRIQUE) – Judæo-Portuguese convert to Christianity; born in Borba, Portugal; died July, 1524. After being baptized in Castile, he entered the service of the inquisitor Lucero. His hatred toward his former coreligionists was so well known...
NUNES, ROBERT – Jamaican magistrate; born in Montego Bay, Jamaica, Dec. 12, 1820; died at Falmouth, Jamaica, Jan. 31, 1889. Originally destined for the medical profession, he studied under Doctors Spence and Gordon for three years. He then...