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PAPPENHEIM, ISRAEL HIRSCH – Representative of the Bavarian Jews and champion of their emancipation; born at Munich; died there Sept. 8, 1837. He was liberal-minded and progressive. As early as Feb. 24, 1805, in a letter addressed to a nobleman he pleaded...
PAPPENHEIM, SIMON – German writer; born at Dembiohammer 1773; died at Ratibor Aug. 6, 1840. He at first supported himself as a private tutor, and then he obtained in Ratibor a position as manager in a pottery. Pappenheim meanwhile pursued his...
PAPPENHEIM, SOLOMON – German scholar; born Feb. 2, 1740, at Zülz, Silesia; died March 4 or 5, 1814, at Breslau; son of Associate Rabbi Seligmann Pappenheim of Zülz. He himself became associate rabbi at Breslau. Pappenheim is especially known for his...
PAPPOS B. JUDAH – Haggadist of the first half of the second century; contemporary and fellow prisoner of Akiba. At the time of the persecutions by Hadrian, when it was forbidden to study the Torah, Akiba imperiled his life in order to hold...
PAPPUS – Leader of a rebellion under Emperor Hadrian (117-138). He is always mentioned together with Luliani, who was probably his brother ("'Aruk," s.v. ). They came originally from Alexandria (hence their Greek names); but they lived...
PARABLE – A short religious allegory. That the Hebrew designation for "parable" is "mashal" (comp. David Ḳimḥi's commentary on II Sam. xii. 1-4 and on Isa. v. 1-6) is confirmed by the fact that in the New Testament the Syriac "matla,"...
PARACLETE – Rabbinical term adopted from the Greek παράκλητός (= "advocate," "intercessor"): Targumic translation of (Job xvi. 20, xxxiii. 23): "He who performs one good deed has gotten to himself one advocate [paraclete], and he who...
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
PARAH – Name of a treatise in the Mishnah and the Tosefta, included in the order Ṭohorot. The Pentateuchal law (Num. xix.) decrees that a red heifer, "wherein is no blemish, and upon which never came yoke," shall be burned and her ashes...
PARALLELISM IN HEBREW POETRY – It is now generally conceded that parallelism is the fundamental law, not only of the poetical, but even of the rhetorical and therefore of higher style in general in the Old Testament. By parallelism in this connection is...
PARAN – 1. Desert, corresponding to the present Badiyyat al-Tih, bounded on the north by the Jabal al-Makhrah, on the south by the watershed toward the Sinai Peninsula, on the east by the mountains of Wadi al-'Arabah, and on the west by...
PARASHAH – A section of the Pentateuch. The Sephardim apply the word to each of the fifty-four weekly lessons into which the Torah is divided in the one-year cycle, as well as to smaller sections; the Ashkenazim call the week's lesson a...
PARASHIYYOT, THE FOUR – Besides the weekly lesson or parashah that is read from the scroll of the Law every Sabbath, there is sometimes read after it an additional portion appropriate to the particular day. Among such occasional Sabbaths are the two...
PARDO – A family deriving its name from Prado in Castile. Its members have mostly distinguished themselves in the Levant. Among them may be mentioned:David Pardo: Rabbinical commentator and liturgical poet; born at Venice March 29,...
PARENTS – See Father; Mother.
PARENZO, ASHER B. JACOB – Hebrew printer in Venice from 1580 to 1600; brother of the printer Meïr b. Jacob. He was employed by Giovanni Bragadin in printing a large number of works of Hebrew literature; among them were: Isaac Abravanel's commentary on...
PARENZO, CESARE – Italian senator and deputy; born at Rovigo 1839; died at Nervi, near Genoa, April 15, 1898. He studied law, but after receiving his degree he volunteered under Garibaldi in 1860, and took part in the Sicilian expedition,...
PARḤI – See Farḥi.
PARḤON, SOLOMON B. ABRAHAM IBN – Spanish philologist of the twelfth century; a native of Ḳal'ah (Ḳal'at Ayyub, Calatayud), Aragon. In the preface to his lexicon he mentions as his teachers, besides a certain R. Ephraim of whom nothing more is known, the two...
PARIS – Capital city of France. There were Jews in Paris prior to the date of the Frankish invasion. The councils of Varennes in 465 and of Orleans in 533, 538, and 541 adopted certain measures against the Jews, from which it would...
PARISH-ALVARS, ELIAS – English harpist and composer; born at Teignmouth, England, Feb. 28, 1810; died at Vienna Jan. 25, 1849; a pupil of Dizi, Labarre, and Bochsa. In 1831 he visited Germany and played at Bremen, Hamburg, and other cities with great...
PARMA – Italian city, formerly capital of the duchy of the same name; the seat of an ancient Jewish community. When the plague devastated Italy in 1348 many of the Jews of Parma fell victims to the fury of the populace, which regarded...
PARNAS – Neo-Hebraic word designating the president or the trustee of a congregation. It is found in the Targum as the equivalent of words which are interpreted as "steward" (see Isa. xxii. 15; Zech. xi. 3), and it is frequently met with...
PARODY – A composition either in verse or in prose, modeled more or less closely on an original work, or class of original works, but by its method of treatment turning the serious sense of such original or originals into ridicule....
PARONOMASIA – See Alliteration.