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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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RITTER, IMMANUEL HEINRICH – German rabbi; born March 13, 1825, in Ratibor, Prussian Silesia; died July 9, 1890, in Johannisbad, Bohemia. While studying at the gymnasium of his native town he received his Talmudic instruction under Rabbi Loewe. At the...
RITTER, JULIUS – German physician and author; born in Berlin Oct. 4, 1862; son of Immanuel H. Ritter. He received his degree of M. D. from the University of Berlin in 1887, and is at present (1905) chief physician at the Institute for Invalid...
RITUAL – See Ceremonies and the Ceremonial Law; Liturgy.
RITUAL MURDER – See Blood Accusation.
RIVA DI TRENTO – Small town on the Lake of Guarda, under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Trent. Christoforo Madruz, Cardinal of Trent and Archbishop of Brixen, granted in 1558 the privilege of printing Hebrew books to Joseph Ottolengo, a...
RIVERA – Spanish Jewish family that appears in American history at an early date. The family seems to have come from Seville, Spain, though some members of it have been traced to Portugal; many were settled in Mexico before the middle of...
RIVISTA ISRAELITICA – See Periodicals.
RIVKIN, MIRON DAVIDOVICH – Russian writer; born in Vitebsk in 1869. His father, who was employed as clerk in the police department, was a Talmudist of no mean ability. Rivkin obtained his early education in the ḥeder, where he showed marked ability in...
RIZPAH – Daughter of Aiah and concubine of Saul. After Saul's death Rizpah, with the other women of his harem (comp. II Sam. iii. 13), remained with his son and successor, Ish-bosheth, but Abner, the general of Saul, took possession of...
ROADS – In primitive times the chief use of roads in Palestine was to afford communication with markets. Later on roads were used for military purposes, for the movement of troops and commissariat. Of the three great trading countries...
ROBBERY – In law the taking of the movable property of another under constraint of force or fear; in the Bible the word is sometimes applied to the forcible taking of land or of slaves. From the penalty for robbery (at least under certain...
ROBBIO, MORDECAI – Talmudist of the seventeenth century; lived probably in northern Italy. Under the title "Shemen ha-Mor" he wrote responsato the four ritual codices, with an appendix consisting of "exhortations" to his son (Leghorn,...
ROBERT OF BURY ST. EDMUNDS – Alleged martyr of a blood accusation at Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England, in 1181. No details are known of the circumstances under which he was created a martyr; but the expulsion of the Jews from Bury St. Edmunds ten years...
ROBERT, RAHEL – See Levin, Rahel.
ROBLES, ANTONIO RODRIQUES DA – English Marano merchant and shipper; born at Fundăo, Portugal, about 1620. It is probable that he was one of the Neo-Christians who attempted to reestablish the Spanish dominion in 1641 (Kayserling, "Geschichte der Juden in...
ROCAMORA, ISAAC (VICENTE) DE – Spanish monk, physician, and poet; born about 1600 of Marano parents at Valencia; died April 8, 1684, at Amsterdam. Educated for the Church, he became a Dominican monk (assuming the name "Vicente de Rocamora") and confessor to...
ROCHESTER – Capital of Monroe county, and the third city in size in the state of New York. According to the latest census (1900) it has 162,608 inhabitants, among whom, it is estimated, the Jews number about 5,000.Although a few Jews lived...
RÖDELHEIM – Prussian town near Frankfort-on-the-Main. A Jewish community existed there probably as early as the middle of the thirteenth century, for it appears from the municipal archives that the legal status of the Jews was determined as...
RODENBERG, JULIUS – German poet and author; born at Rodenberg, Hesse, June 26, 1831. He studied law at the universities of Heidelberg, Göttingen, Berlin, and Marburg, but soon abandoned jurisprudence for literature. In 1851 appeared in Bremen his...
RODER, ANTON – See Rado, Anton.
RÖDER, MARTIN – German composer and conductor; born in Berlin April 7, 1851; died at Boston, Mass., June 7, 1895; studied at the Königliche Hochschule für Musik in his native city. From 1873 to 1880 Röder was chorus-master at the Teatro dal...
RODKINSON, MICHAEL LEVI – See Frumkin, Israel Dob (Bär).
RODOSTO – Port of Turkey in Europe on the Sea of Marmora, 78 miles west of Constantinople. The city had a Jewish community as early as the twelfth century; for in 1173 Benjamin of Tudela found 400 Jews there, among whom were the noted...
RODRIGO DE CASTEL-BRANCO, JUAN – See Juan Rodrigo de Castel-Branca.
RODRIGUES, HIPPOLYTE – French banker and writer; born at Bordeaux in 1812; died at Paris 1898. He was a son of Isaac Rodrigues-Henriques, head of a great banking-house in Bordeaux. In his "Papiers de Famille," published in 1893, Rodrigues relates the...