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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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TROKI – District city in the government of Wilna, Russia. It was an important Jewish center in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries; and there is a tradition, quoted by Firkovich, that 330 out of the 483 Karaite families...
TROKI – Karaite family deriving its name from the city of Troki, in the government of Wilna, Russia. The more important members of the family are:Abraham ben Aaron Ḥazzan Troki: Karaite liturgical poet; lived at Troki in the sixteenth...
TROP – Judæo-German term for tropes, the short musical cadences, called "distinctions" in theChurch plain-song, which are the traditional vocal interpretation of the accents in the Cantillation of the Hebrew Scriptures. See also...
TROY, N. Y. – City and the capital of Rensselaer county in the state of New York; situated on the east bank of the Hudson River six miles above Albany. Although it was settled in 1787, no authentic record is found of a Jewish inhabitant until...
TROYES – Capital of the department of Aube, France. It contained a Jewish population as early as the tenth century, as is clear from a responsum addressed to the community of Troyes about the year 1000 by Judah ben Meïr ("Sire Léontin")...
TRUMBULL, HENRY CLAY – American Christian Orientalist; born at Stonington, Conn., June 8, 1830; died at Philadelphia Dec. 8, 1903. He was educated at Williston Seminary, Mass., and took up Sunday-school work, becoming in 1858 state missionary of the...
TRUMPET – In Shab. 36a (comp. Suk. 34a) it is noted that since the destruction of the Temple the names for the shofar and the trumpet had been confused. The same complaint may be made against the Septuagint, which generally renders the...
TRUMPETS, FEAST OF – See New-Year.
TRUSTS AND TRUSTEES – It has been shown under Guardian and Ward and under Community how the Jewish law took notice of the various powers and duties of those to whom the property of orphan children or of the community was entrusted for management. But...
TRYPHON – 1. Son of Theudion; one of the four envoys sent by the Jews in 45 C.E. to petition Emperor Claudius that the high-priestly vestments might remain in the possession of the Jews (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 1, §§ 1-2; see also...
TSCHERNIGOFF – See Chernigov.
TUBAL-CAIN – Brother of Jabal and Jubal, sons of Lamech, who appear to have been the originators of several industries and arts. The correctness of the Masoretic text ( ) of Gen. iv. 21-22, describing Tubal-cain, is in dispute. Holzinger and...
TUBERCULOSIS – See Consumption.
TUCHMANN, JULES – French folklorist; born in Paris March 23, 1830; died there Feb. 28, 1901. Privately educated, he devoted his whole life to investigating the traces of supernaturalism in traditional beliefs. The results of some of his...
TUDELA – Jewish Body-Physicians. The oldest and most important Jewish community in the former kingdom of Navarre. When Alfonso the Valiant captured the city from the Moors in 1114 it contained a large number of Jews. As they were...
TUGENDHOLD, JACOB – Russian educator and author; born in Breslau 1791; died at Warsaw April 20, 1871. Realizing that education was one of the best means for improving the condition of the Jews in Poland and Lithuania, he founded at Warsaw in 1819 a...
TUGENDHOLD, WOLF – Russian educator and author; brother of Jacob Tugendhold. He was teacher in the rabbinical school of Wilna and also censor of all the Jewish publications that appeared in that city. Of his writings the following are the most...
TULL, EDMUND – Hungarian artist; born at Szekesfejervar 1870. He was educated at Budapest, Milan, and Paris, being in the last-named city a pupil of J. P. Laurens and of B. Constant. His first work, "The Cathedral of Notre Dame," attracted...
TUNIS – In Roman Times. Formerly one of the Barbary States of North Africa, but since 1881 a dependency of France; situated between latitude 31° and 37° north, and longitude 8° and 11° east, and bounded north and northeast by the...
TUR, NAPHTALI WOLF – Russian Hebraist; born at Wilna; died there May 29, 1885 (according to Zeitlin, June 8, 1884). Tur settled in Warsaw, where he taught Hebrew and several modern languages. He was a talented poet; but, owing to his untimely death,...
ṬURIM – See Jacob ben Asher.
TURIN – Italian city on the River Po; formerly capital of the duchy of Savoy, and later of the kingdom of Sardinia; now (1905) the chief city of the province of like name. Jews were admitted to Turin in 1424, probably because they...
TURKEY – Empire of southeastern Europe and western Asia. For present purposes Turkey is taken to mean that part of Europe which is directly under Ottoman rule, Asia Minor, the islands of the Archipelago, and Mesopotamia. Syria and...
TURTELTAUB, WILHELM – Austrian physician and poet; born at Rzeszow, Galicia, March 25, 1816. At the age of twelve he wrote a comedy in imitation of Kotzebue's "Sorgen Ohne Noth." In 1830 he entered the University of Vienna to study medicine (M.D....
TURTLE-DOVE – See Dove.