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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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FORGIVENESS – Forgiveness is one of the attributes ascribed to Yhwh: "to the Lord our God belong mercies and forgiveness" (Dan. ix. 9; comp. Ex. xxxiv. 6-7; Num. xiv. 18 et seq.; Ps. lxxxvi. 5; Jonah iv. 2). The condition essential to God's...
FORLI – City in the Romagna, Italy. It is mentioned for the first time in connection with Jewish history by Hillel of Verona, who lived at Forli for some time about 1290, and there wrote his circular letter to Maestro Gaio and his work...
FORMON, ẒADDIḲ BEN JOSEPH – Turkish Talmudist and translator of the middle of the sixteenth century. He translated Baḥya's "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot" into Judæo-Spanish (Ladino) under the title "Obligacion de los Coraçones." It was published the first time in...
FORMSTECHER, SOLOMON – German rabbi; born at Offenbach July 28, 1808; died there April 24, 1889. After graduating (Ph.D. 1831) from the Giessen University, he settled in his native city as preacher, succeeding Rabbi Metz in 1842; he filled this office...
FORNARAKI AFFAIR – Accusation of ritual murder which was made in Egypt in 1881, and which agitated the European press for nine months. On May 18, 1881, Evangeli Fornaraki, a Greek child, disappeared in Alexandria, and after some time the body was...
FORNICATION – Cohabitation between a man, married or unmarried, and an unmarried woman. While the common law speaks of intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman as adultery, followed herein by many American statutes which grant...
FORSTENHEIM, ANNA – Austrian writer and poetess; born at Agram Sept. 21, 1846; died at Vienna Oct. 19, 1889. She went to Vienna in 1867, and founded there the Society of Women Writers and Artists, of which she was the treasurer. She wrote the...
FORT SMITH – See Arkansas.
FORT WAYNE – See Indiana.
FORT WORTH – See Texas.
FORTI (CHASCHETTO, V05p437001.jpg), BARUCH UZZIEL BEN BARUCH – Italian rabbi and editor; lived at Ferrara and Mantua in the sixteenth century. "Forti" is the Italian translation of "Ḥazaḳ", the name of a Hebrew family to which Baruch Uzziel belonged; the Italian diminutive "Chaschetto" was...
FORTI, HORTENSIUS (JOHANAN) ḤAZAḲ – Jewish convert to Christianity; lived in the sixteenth century; born at Gorima, and settled at Prague under Maximilian II. He wrote "Diḳduḳ Leshon Ḳodesh," a Hebrew grammar, Prague, 1564-1566, and "De Mystica Literarum...
FORTIS, LEONE – Italian critic, journalist, and dramatist; born at Triest Oct. 5, 1828; died at Milan 1895. He was baptized while a child, andeducated at Padua. In his early youth he wrote poems and a story entitled "Luigia." In 1848 he was...
FORTRESS – Principal Fortresses. A permanent fort or fortified place. The Israelites, when advancing into the country west of the Jordan, found a considerable number of walled cities and fortresses which they could not conquer (Num. xiii....
FORTSCHRITT IM JUDENTHUM, DER – See Periodicals.
FORTY, THE NUMBER – In the Bible, next to the number seven, the number forty occurs most frequently. In Talmudical literature it is often met with, in many instances having been apparently used as a round number or as a concrete and definite...
FOSTAT – See Egypt.
FOULD, ACHILLE – French statesman and financier; born at Paris Nov. 17, 1800; died at Tarbes Oct. 5, 1867. The son of a wealthy banker, he studied banking, and afterward traveled extensively. In 1847 he was chosen deputy for the town of Tarbes;...
FOULD, BENOIT – French politician; born at Paris Nov. 21, 1792; died there July 28, 1858. In 1827 he was nominated judge of the tribunal of commerce. At the legislative elections of May, 1834, he was chosen to represent St. Quentin, and devoted...
FOULD, ÉDOUARD MATHURIN – French politician; born at Paris Dec. 18, 1834; died at Moulins April 8, 1881. On June 1, 1863, he was elected deputy for Allier, and supported the empire. He resigned in 1868. In 1876 he was defeated by the Republican candidate...
FOULD, GUSTAVE EUGÈNE – French politician and author; born at Paris Feb. 19, 1836; died at Asnières Aug. 27, 1884. On June 6, 1869, he was elected deputy of the Basses-Pyrénées, and during the Franco-Prussian war served with the Scouts of the Seine....
FOUNDATION-STONE – See Corner-Stone.
FOUNDLING – A deserted child whose parents are unknown. The question as to the status of such a child in the Jewish community was chiefly decided by the condition in which it was found. If there was evidence that its parents had abandoned...
FOUNTAIN – A natural spring of water. Although Palestine as a whole is scantily supplied with water, it has a number of fountains. These often spring up in the hollows of cliffs; but sometimes wells have been dug. The Old Testament makes...
FOUR COUNTRIES – See Council of Four Lands.