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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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NATHAN BEN SAMUEL – Spanish physician; flourished, as far as is known, at the beginning of the fourteenth century. He is designated in some manuscripts by the abbreviation which some render "Nathan ben Samuel Tibbon," and others, more correctly...
NATHAN, WOLF BEN ABRAHAM – German Biblical exegete and theologian; born at Dessau July 8, 1751; died there Sept. 6, 1784. He wrote a commentary on the Book of Job entitled "Pesher Dabar" (Berlin, 1777), which was highly praised and recommended for its...
NATHAN DE-ẒUẒITA, THE EXILARCH – According to Joseph b. Ḥama (Shab. 56b), Nathan de-Ẓuẓita is to be identified with the exilarch 'Uḳban b. Nehemiah, Joseph's contemporary (first half of the 4th cent.), who was a contrite sinner. The Seder 'Olam Zuṭa, too, in...
NATHANAEL OF CHINON – French tosafist; flourished about 1220. He was a disciple of Isaac ben Samuel of Dampierre. After 1224 Nathanael was director of the yeshibah in Chinon and was in correspondence with the most famous and learned of his...
NATHANAEL B. NEHEMIAH CASPI – See Caspi, Nathanael ben Nehemiah.
NATHANSON, BERNHARD – Russian-Hebrew journalist and author; born at Satanow, Podolia, April 15, 1832. He received his early Hebrew education under J. Z. Polichinetzki, author of "Ḳero Miḳra," and then under the supervision of his own father. After...
NATHANSON, JACOB – Polish professor of chemistry; born at Warsaw 1832; died there Sept. 14, 1884; educated at the University of Dorpat. In 1862 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the academy Szkola Glawna at Warsaw, where he remained until...
NATHANSON, JOSEPH SAUL – Polish rabbi and author; born at Berzan 1808; died at Lemberg March 4, 1875; son of Aryeh Lebush Nathanson, rabbi at Berzan and author of "Bet El." He pursued his Talmudic studies at Lemberg in company with his brother-in-law R....
NATHANSON, MARCUS – Russian scholar; born at Wilna 1793; died at Telsh, government of Kovno, June 10, 1868. He was the son-in-law of Joshua Zeitels. Nathanson devoted himself to the study of ancient Hebrew literature, publishing the following...
NATHANSON, MENDEL LEVIN – Danish merchant, editor, and economist; born in Altona Nov. 20, 1780; died in Copenhagen Oct. 6, 1868. When only eighteen years of age Nathanson established himself in business, and in 1806 became associated with the large...
NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL – American institution having for its object the training of Jewish lads in practical and scientific agriculture; situated at Farm School, Doylestown, Bucks County, Pa. The founding of the school was proposed in 1894 by the Rev....
NATIONS AND LANGUAGES, THE SEVENTY – In the Book of Jubilees. The haggadic assumption that there are seventy nations and languages in the world is based upon the ethnological table given in Gen. x., where seventy grandsons of Noah are enumerated, each of whom...
NAṬRONAI II., B. HILAI – Gaon of the academy at Sura early in the second half of the ninth century; he succeeded Sar Shalom. His father had occupied the position about thirty years before. Although Naṭronai was of advanced age when he entered on the...
NAṬRONAI B. NEHEMIAH (MAR YANḲA) – Gaon of Pumbedita from 719 to 730; son-in-law of the exilarch Ḥasdai I. Vain of his family connections and secure in his position, he was so arrogant in his dealings with the students that many of them left the academy,...
NATURAL HISTORY IN THE BIBLE – See Animals of the Bible; Botany; Metals.
NAUMBOURG, SAMUEL – French composer; born at Dennenlohe, Bavaria, March 15, 1817; died at Saint-Mandé, near Paris, May 1, 1880. After having held the office of ḥazzan and reader at Besançon and directed the choir of the synagogue at Strasburg, he...
NAUMBURG, JACOB – Rabbi of Mayence and Offenbach at the end of the eighteenth century. He was the grandson of Jonah Te'omim, the author of "Ḳiḳayon de-Yonah." Naumburg wrote: "Naḥalat Ya'aḳob," commentary on the smaller tractates (Fürth, 1793);...
NAUMBURG, LOUIS – Cantor; born in Treuchtlingen, Bavaria, 1813; died in New York city March 4, 1902. He was descended from a family of cantors, traceable in an unbroken line as far back as 1612, every generation having had at least one member...
NAVARRA, ABRAM – Rabbi at Casale (Casale-Monferrato) in 1650. Responsa by him are found, in manuscript, in the collections of David Kaufmann of Budapest and of the Jews' College at London (Mortara, "Indice," p. 43).G. I. E.
NAVARRE – Former kingdom in Spain, surrounded by Aragon, Castile, and the Basque Provinces; now comprised in the provinces of Navarre (Spain) and Basses-Pyrénées (France). Sometimes independent, and at other times under French suzerainty,...
NAVARRO – Portuguese family, the following members of which became well known:Judah ben Moses Navarro: Son of Moses Navarro, body-physician of Pedro I. of Portugal; "tesoreiro é almoxarife mór" (treasurer and receiver-general of taxes) of...
NAVIGATION – Biblical Data: That the Israelites, practically, did not engage in navigation is due to the fact that they never held the sea-coast for any length of time. According to Judges v. 17, Josh. xix. 26, 28, Gen. xlix. 13, and Deut....
NAZARENES – Sect of primitive Christianity; it appears to have embraced all those Christians who had been born Jews and who neither would nor could give up their Jewish mode of life. They were probably the descendants of the...
NAZARETH – Town in Galilee, situated in a valley to the north of the plain of Esdraelon. It is about 1,200 feet above the level of the Mediterranean. Nazareth first appears in the New Testament as the place where Jesus passed his boyhood...
NAZARITE – One who lives apart; one who has made a vow of abstinence; in the former sense used as early as Sifra, Emor, iv. 3; Sifre, Num. 23.Nazarite Laws. —Biblical Data: Three restrictions are imposed upon the Nazarite, according to...