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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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GAMALIEL IV. – Son and successor of the patriarch Judah II., and father of the patriarch Judah III. The period of activity of these patriarchs can not be determined. Grätz puts Gamaliel IV. in the last third of the third century. According to...
GAMALIEL V. – Son and successor of the patriarch Hillel II.; celebrated in connection with the perfecting of the Jewish calendar in 359. From geonic sources ("Seder Tanna'im we-Amora'im") only his name and those of his two successors are...
GAMALIEL VI. – The last patriarch. The decree of the emperors Honorius and Theodosius II. (Oct. 17, 415) contains interesting data concerning him. By this decree the patriarch was deprived of all the higher honors which had been given him, as...
GAMALIEL BEN PEDAHZUR – The pseudonym of the unknown author of a work on the Jewish ritual, the title-page of which reads. "The Book of Religion, Ceremonies, and Prayers of the Jews as Practised in Their Synagogues and Families on All Occasions; on...
GAMBLING – Playing at games, especially games of chance, for money. Among the ancient Israelites no mention is made of games of chance, and no provision was made against them until the period of the Mishnah. With the introduction of...
GAMES AND SPORTS – Playful methods of enjoying leisure moments. The ancient Hebrews practised target-shooting with arrows (I Sam. xx. 20; Job xvi. 12; Lam. iii. 12; comp. also Bacher in "R. E. J." xxvi. 63), or with slings and stones (Judges xx....
GAN 'EDEN – See Eden, Garden of.
GAN SHA'ASHU'IM – See Periodicals.
GANGANELLI, LORENZO – See Clement XIV.
GANS, DAVID BEN SOLOMON BEN SELIGMAN – German historian; astronomer; born at Lippstadt, Westphalia, 1541; died at Prague Aug. 25, 1613. After having acquired a fair knowledge of rabbinical literature at Bonn and Frankfort-on-the-Main, he went to Cracow, where he...
GANS, EDUARD – German jurist; born at Berlin March 22, 1798; died there May 5, 1839. He was the son of the banker Abraham Gans, and received his early education at the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster; in 1816 he entered the Berlin University to...
GANS, SOLOMON PHILIP – German jurist; born 1788; lived at Celle, Hanover. He was the author of: "Das Erbrecht des Napoleonischen, Gesetzbuches für Westphalen," Hanover, 1810; "Ueber die Verarmung der Städte und-des Landmannes," Brunswick, 1831;...
GANZFRIED, SOLOMON – Hungarian rabbi and author; born at Ungvar about 1800; died there July 30, 1886. He frequented the yeshibah of Hirsch Heller at Bonyhad (see Jew. Encyc. i. 472), and entered upon a business career first at Homona, then at...
GAON – An influential Jewish family in Vitoria, Spain.Don Gaon: Chief farmer of taxes under Henry IV. of Castile, whose suite he accompanied through the Basque territory on the way to S. Juan de Luz on the Spanish-French frontier....
GAON – In Babylon: The title of "gaon," probably an abbreviation of (Ps. xlvii. 5), was given to the heads of the two Babylonian academies of Sura and Pumbedita, though it did not displace the title of "rosh yeshibah"(Aramaic, "resh...
GAP – See Dauphiné.
GARCIA, BERNARDO (BENJAMIN?) NUÑEZ – Spanish poet; lived in Amsterdam about the middle of the eighteenth century. His little burlesques and occasional poems are extant in manuscript. Among them are an epithalamium, written in the year 1735 for the wedding...
GARDEN – See Horticulture.
GARLIC – See Botany.
GARMENTS – See Costume.
GARMISON, SAMUEL – Palestinian rabbi of the seventeenth century. He was a native of Salonica, and settled in Jerusalem, where he became rabbi. Of his numerous works only two, and these in manuscript, are extant: "Imre Binah," novellæ on Talmudic...
GARMON, NEHORAI – Rabbi of Tunis; poet; born at Tripoli about 1682; died at Tunis 1760. Garmon went to Tunis at twenty, and studied Talmud under Isaac Lombroso, whom he succeeded in the rabbinate. He was the author of "Yeter ha-Baz," novellæ on...
GARMU, BET – A family of skilled bakers employed in the Temple at Jerusalem as bakers of the showbread (Ex. xxv. 30). They kept secret their method of baking. Fearing the family might die out and the secret perish with them, the chiefs of...
GARNISHMENT – In law, the process by which A collects his demand from his debtor, B, by attaching money owing to B from a third person; hence called "Dritt-Arrest" in German law. The power of a court to enforce a judgment against B by...
GART, JOSEPH – Provençal liturgical poet and commentator; probably lived at Aix in the fifteenth century. The surname is, according to Neubauer, the equivalent of the Hebrew "Shimroni," borne by the Gard family of Avignon (to which Joseph...