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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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LEWIS, DAVID – English merchant and philanthropist; born in London 1823; died in Liverpool Dec. 4, 1885. Settling in Liverpool in 1840, he by 1856 had accumulated sufficient capital to commence business on his own account as a boys clothier in...
LEWIS, SIR GEORGE HENRY – English lawyer; born in London April 21, 1833; educated at University College, London. In 1850 he was articled to his father, James Graham Lewis (1804-1869), founder of Lewis & Lewis, one of the best-known firms of solicitors in...
LEWIS, HARRY S. – English author and communal worker; born in London in 1861; educated at King's College School and St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A. 1884). At Cambridge he was one of the earliest to take honors in the Semitic languages tripos...
LEWIS, LEOPOLD DAVIS – English dramatist; born in London 1828; died there Feb. 23, 1890. Lewis was educated at the King's Collegiate School, London, and upon graduation became a solicitor, practising as such from 1850 to 1875. In 1871 he translated...
LEWIS, SAMUEL – English money-lender and philanthropist; born in Birmingham 1837; died in London Jan. 13, 1901. Lewis began work when thirteen years old. He became a salesman of steel pens, then opened a jeweler's shop, and finally entered the...
LEWIS, SAMUEL A. – American politician and philanthropist; born in New York city 1831. He early engaged in business, and was so successful that he retired with a competency in 1862. In 1868 he was elected a member of the board of education of the...
LEWISOHN, LEONARD – American merchant and philanthropist; born in Hamburg Oct. 10, 1847; died in London March 5, 1902. His father, Samuel Lewisohn, a prominent Hamburg merchant, sent him to the United States in 1863; about three years later he was...
LEWITA, GUSTAW – Polish pianist; born at Plock, Poland, 1855; died at Paris Feb., 1889. After graduating from the Vienna Conservatorium with distinction, he went to Paris, where he became a member of the orchestra of the Pas de Loup concerts. In...
LEWY, BERGNART (BERNHARD) CARL – Danish chemist; born in Copenhagen July 5, 1817; died there Jan. 1, 1863. He obtained the degree of graduate of pharmacy in 1835, and then studied chemistry for three years at the polytechnic school. In 1839 he studied in Berlin...
LEWY, ISRAEL – German scholar; born at Inowrazlaw in 1847; educated at the Jewish Theological Seminary and the University in Breslau. In 1874 he was appointed docent at the Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums in Berlin, and in...
LEWYSOHN, ABRAHAM – Hebraist and rabbi of Peiskretscham, Upper Silesia; born Dec. 6, 1805; died Feb. 14, 1860. He left a large number of manuscripts—several hundred sermons in Hebrew and German, novellæ on the Talmud, verses, a German work on...
LEWYSOHN, LUDWIG – German rabbi; born April 15, 1819, at Schwersenz, Posen; died at Stockholm May 26, 1901. Graduating from the Realgymnasium, Berlin, in 1843, he studied Orientalia in that city, and received his doctor's degree from the...
LEX TALIONIS – See Retaliation.
LEXICOGRAPHY – See Dictionaries.
LEYDEN – See Netherlands.
LHÉRIE – See Brunswick, Léon Lévy.
LIBATION – See Sacrifice.
LIBAU – Russian city in the government of Courland. It has a population (1897) of 64,505, including 9,700 Jews. Among the latter are 3,225 artisans (1,309 being masters) and 117 day-laborers. Among its educational institutions are a...
LIBEL AND SLANDER – See Slander.
LIBERTINES – See Slaves and Slavery.
LIBIN, Z – See Hurewitz, Israel.
LIBOSCHÜTZ, JACOB – Russian physician; born in 1741; died at Wilna Feb. 10, 1827. After studying at the University of Halle he went to St. Petersburg. His religious belief, however, rendered it impossible for him to settle there, and he established...
LIBOSCHÜTZ, OSIP YAROVLEVICH – Russian physician; died at St. Petersburg in 1824; probably the son of Jacob Liboschütz. He studied medicine at Dorpat (M.D. 1806, his graduating thesis being "De Morbis Primi Paris Nervorum"). He then settled at St. Petersburg,...
LIBOWITZ, NEHEMIAH SAMUEL – Russian Hebrew scholar and author; born Jan. 3, 1862, at Kolno, government of Lomza (Lomzha). He studied Talmud under R. Elijah Ḥasid and then under his own father, Isaac Libowitz; in addition he devoted himself to Hebrew...
LIBRARIES – Very little is known concerning the methods employed by Jews in the collection and preservation of books. The Biblical writings are silent on this point. That there were royal archives in Jerusalem may be surmised with some show...