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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CHRISTIAN – A word denoting a follower of Jesus as the Messiah or Christ. It originated, according to Acts xi. 26, in Antioch, the Syrian capital, where, shortly after the failure of the Hellenistic movement in Jerusalem (ib. viii. 1, xi....
CHRISTIAN, GUSTAV CHRISTOPHER – German author and Christian missionary; born of Jewish parents; baptized in 1719; died at Nuremberg about 1735. He was the author of two Judæo-German works: "Yesod Emunat Yeshu'a" (The Basis of the Faith of Jesus), Berlin, 1712;...
CHRISTIANI, FRIEDRICH ALBRECHT – Jewish convert to Christianity; born in the middle of the seventeenth century; died at Prossnitz at the beginning of the eighteenth. He was baptized in 1674 at Strasburg, having formerly borne the name of Baruch as ḥazzan at...
CHRISTIANI, MORITZ WILHELM – Author and Jewish convert to Christianity; born at Altorf at the end of the seventeenth century; died at Prague about 1740; probably a member of the Keyser family of Schleusingen (Bavaria). He claimed to have been a rabbi at...
CHRISTIANI, PABLO – Jewish convert of Montpellier, France; contemporary of NaḤmanides. After having been baptized, Christiani joined the Order of the Dominicans and attempted to convert his former coreligionists. Failing to make proselytes among...
CHRISTIANITY IN ITS RELATION TO JUDAISM – Christianity is the system of religious truth based upon the belief that Jesus of Nazareth was the expected Messiah, or Christ, and that in him all the hopes and prophecies of Israel concerning the future have been fulfilled....
CHRISTINA AUGUSTA – Queen of Sweden; born at Stockholm Dec. 7, 1626; died at Rome April 19, 1689. She was a daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Mary Eleanora of Brandenburg, and reigned from 1632 to 1654. Her attitude toward the Jews was most...
CHRISTOLOGY – See Messiah.
CHRONEGK, LUDWIG – German actor; born at Brandenburg-on-the-Havel Nov. 3, 1837; died at Meiningen July 8, 1890. He was the stage-manager and "Intendanzrath" of the famous Meininger troupe established at Weimar by Duke George of Meiningen. Chronegk...
CHRONICLES – See Historiography.
CHRONICLES, BOOKS OF – Biblical Data: The two books of Chronicles form a history of the Temple and its priesthood, and of the house of David and the tribe of Judah, as guardians of the Temple, with references to the other tribes, and with some...
CHRONOGRAM – A sentence or verse certain letters of which express a date, while the sentence itself alludes to or is descriptive of the event to which the date belongs. The words "chronograph," "chronicon," "chronostichon," "eteostichon,"...
CHRONOLOGY – The science that treats of the computation and adjustment of time or periods of time, and of the record and arrangement of events in the order of time. The chronology of Jewish literature may be divided into two periods: (1)...
CHRYSOSTOMUS, JOANNES – Patriarch of Constantinople, one of the most celebrated of the Church Fathers, and the most eminent orator of the early Christian period; born in 347 at Antioch; died Sept. 14, 407, near Comana, in Pontus. Chrysostom originally...
CHUDNOV – Town in the government of Volhynia, Russia. A Jewish community existed here before the uprising of the Cossacks in 1648. In 1898 the town had nearly 8,000 inhabitants. Among them there were about 3,500 Jews, who were principally...
CHUETAS – Names given to the descendants of the secret Jews in Majorca, who at heart were still faithful to Judaism, but who, in order to induce the belief that they were good Christians, publicly ate pork ("chuya," diminutive "chueta");...
CHUFUT-KALE – Suburb of Bakhchiserai, a town in the government of Taurida, Russia. It is called by the Tatars "Kirk-er" (Place of Forty), and by the Karaites. to which sect the greater part of its inhabitants belong, "Sela' ha-Yehudim" (The...
CHUMACEIRO, ARON MENDES – akam of Curaçao, Dutch West Indies; born at Amsterdam Jan. 28, 1810; died there Sept. 18, 1882. He received the various rabbinical degrees (that of "morenu" in 1846) at the celebrated bet ha-midrash Ets Haim. In 1848 he was...
CHURCH COUNCILS – Synods of the Roman Catholic Church, possessing legislative power in matters pertaining to doctrine and discipline. The Apostles' synod at Jerusalem (Acts xv.) is regarded as the oldest example of such an assembly. Besides the...
CHURCH FATHERS – Their Importance to Judaism. The early teachers and defenders of Christianity. The most important of the fathers lived and worked in a period when Christianity still had many points of contact with Judaism, and they found that...
CHURRIKER, ABRAHAM DAVID – Beni-Israel soldier and police officer; born 1822; died at Puna Nov. 2, 1867. He enlisted in the Third Regiment of the Bombay Native Light Infantry, in which he served in the Punjab army in the years 1848-49, being present at...
CHUSHAN-RISHATHAIM (R. V., Cushanrishathaim) – Biblical Data: A king of Mesopotamia, or, more specifically, of Aram-naharaim ("Aram of the two rivers"), probably a kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (see Aram). He was the first of the oppressors of Israel in the time of the...
CHWOLSON, DANIEL ABRAMOVICH – Russian Orientalist; born at Wilna Dec. 15, 1819. As he showed marked ability in the study of Hebrew and Talmud, his parents, who were very religious, destined him for the rabbinate, and placed him at the yeshibah of Rabbi...
CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS – Roman statesman and orator; born 106; died 43 B.C. In 59 he delivered in the Aurelian Forum at Rome a speech in behalf of Flaccus, in which he spoke disparagingly of the Jews; this was perhaps not from conviction so much as in...
CICIRUACCHIO – See Brunetti, Angelo.