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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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JAARBOOKEN VOR DE ISRAELITEN – See Year-Books.
JAAZER – A city east of the Jordan, in or near Gilead (Num. xxxii. 1, 3; I Chron. l.c.), and inhabited by the Amorites. It was taken by a special expedition sent by Moses to conquer it (Num. xxi. 32). From the Septuagint, which reads...
JABAL IBN JAWWAL – Jewish Arabic poet of the seventh century; contemporary of Mohammed. According to Ibn Hisham ("Kitab Sirat Rasul Allah," ed. Wüstenfeld, pp. 690, 713) and Abu al-Faraj al-Iṣbahani ("Kitab al-Aghani," viii. 104), Jabal was a...
JABALI, ABU AL-ṬAYYIB AL- – Karaite scholar of the tenth century. His full name is said to have been Samuel ben Asher ben Manṣur. The surname "al-Jabali" indicates that he came from the province of Jabal, in the neighborhood of Hamadan. According to Ibn...
JABBOK – One of the principal tributaries of the Jordan; first mentioned in connection with the meeting of Jacob and Esau and with the struggle of Jacob with the angel (Gen. xxxii. 23 et seq.). It was the boundary separating the...
JABESH – Principal city of Gilead, east of the Jordan. It is first mentioned in connection with the war between the Benjamites and the other tribes of Israel (Judges xxi. 8-24). Because its inhabitants had refused to march against the...
JABEZ – Eponym of a clan of the Kenite family of the Rechabites, which clan was merged into the tribe of Judah. I Chron. ii. 55 refers to "families of scribes" ("soferim") dwelling at Jabez; while in another passage (ib. iv. 9-10) Jabez...
JABEZ, BARZILLAI BEN BARUCH – Turkish Talmudist of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; son-in-law of Elijah Ḥako, author of "Ruaḥ Eliyahu." Jabez was a Talmudist of considerable reputation, and had many pupils, among whom were his son-in-law Judah...
JABEZ, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON BEN ISAAC BEN JOSEPH HA-DORESH – Turkish Biblical exegete and preacher in the second half of the sixteenth century; a descendant of Joseph Jabez. He wrote: (1) "Ḥasde Abot," commentary on Pirḳe Abot (Constantinople, 1583); (2) "Yafiḳ Raẓon," homiletic...
JABEZ, JOSEPH BEN ḤAYYIM – Spanish theologian of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He lived for a time in Portugal, where he associated with Joseph Ḥayyun, who inspired him with that taste for mysticism which he subsequently displayed in his...
JABIN – 1. King of Hazor; head of one of the great confederations which faced Joshua in his conquest of Canaan (Josh. xi.). He summoned his allies from every side, including the Amorites, Hittites, and many petty kingdoms. By "the...
JABLONSKI, DANIEL E. – German Christian theologian and Orientalist; born Nov. 26, 1660, in Danzig; died May 25, 1741, in Berlin. After spending some time as a wandering scholar in the universities of Holland and England, he settled in Lissa in 1686,...
JABNEH – Philistine city; taken by Uzziah, who demolished its wall (II Chron. xxvi. 6). Jabneh is mentioned with Gath and Ashdod, two other cities of the Philistines, and is generally identified by Biblical students with Jabneel ( ), on...
JACA – City of Aragon, Spain. Jews were settled here as early as the eleventh century, during which the city became the seat of a Jewish high school. Sancho Ramirez the Great, King of Navarre, did not permit the Jews to grind their...
JACHIN – 1. The righthand pillar of the two brazen ones set up in the porch of the Temple of Solomon, that on the left or north being called "Boaz" (I Kings vii. 21; II Chron. iii. 17). For an elaborate reconstruction of these pillars...
JACKAL – See Fox.
JÄCKLIN (JACOB) – Jewish financier of Ulm in the fourteenth century; married the daughter of the "Grossjuden" Moses of Ehingen. Jäcklin had several sons; one of them, Isaac, lived in Strasburg, another in Riedlingen, or Reutlingen, and a third,...
JACKSON, HARRY – English actor; born in London 1836; died there Aug. 13, 1885. At an early age he left England for Australia, where he adopted the stage as a profession. After playing at Auckland, New Zealand, and at San Francisco (1856-1862) he...
JACOB – Biblical Data: Third patriarch; son of Isaac and Rebekah, and ancestor of the Israelites. Hewas born when his father was sixty years old and after his mother had been barren for twenty years. For the account of his birth and...
JACOB, BLESSING OF – Biblical Data: Name given to the chapter containing the prophetic utterances of Jacob concerning the destiny of his twelve sons as the fathers and representatives of the twelve tribes (Gen. xlix. 1-27). It is called thus after...
JACOB – 1. Tanna of the second century; probably identical with Jacob b. Ḳorshai (= "the Ḳorshaite," or "of Ḳorsha"), the contemporary of Simon b. Gamaliel II. Of his relations with this patriarch the Talmud has preserved the following...
JACOB B. AARON OF KARLIN – Russian rabbi and author; died at Karlin, government of Minsk, 1855. He was a grandson of Baruch of Shklov, the mathematician and author, and was one of the earliest and most renowned graduates of the yeshibah of Volozhin. He...
JACOB B. ABBA – 1. Babylonian scholar of the third century; junior to Rab (B. M. 41a). He was an expert dialectician, and prevailed in argument even against his famous senior (Yer. Sanh. vii. 25c).2. Amora of the fourth century; contemporary of...
JACOB B. ABBA MARI – See Anatolio (Anatoli), Jacob ben Abba Mari.
JACOB BAR ABINA (ABIN; BUN) – Palestinian amora of the fourth century. He is known as having transmitted the haggadot of Samuel b. Naḥman, Abbahu, and Abba b. Kahana (Eccl. R. i. 5). Jacob is reported to have had a heated controversy with R. Jeremiah on the...