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CRÉMIEUX, HANANEEL – French Hebraist and judge; born 1800; died 1878; son of Mordecai Crémieux. He was a Talmudic scholar, and was teacher of Hebrew to the Jewish children of Aix, besides often officiating in the capacity of shoḥeṭ, mohel, and...
CRÉMIEUX, HECTOR JONATHAN – French dramatist; born at Paris Nov. 10, 1828; died there in 1892; of the same family as Isaac Adolphe Crémieux. After a preparatory course of studies at the Lycée Bourbon he attended the Paris law school. In common with the...
CRÉMIEUX, ISAAC ADOLPHE – French statesman; born at Nîmes April 22, 1796; died in Paris Feb. 9, 1880. He was educated at the Lycée Impérial, where he and a cousin were the only Jewish students. Crémieux was at that time an ardent admirer of Napoleon I.,...
CRÉMIEUX, MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM – Rabbi at Aix, Provence; born at Carpentras in 1749; died May 22, 1825. He was the author of "Ma'amar Mordekai" (Treatise of Mordecai), a commentary on the Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, in two parts, Leghorn, 1784.Bibliography: J....
CRÉMIEUX, MOSES BEN SOLOMON – Scholar; born at Carpentras, France, in 1766; died May 4, 1837. He was a nephew and son-in-law of Mordecai Crémieux. In 1790 he removed to Aix, in Provence. Here he established a Hebrew printing-office, from which he issued...
CREMONA – Italian city in the plain of Lombardy; capital of the province of Cremona. The beginnings of the Jewish community in this city appear to date back to the middle of the twelfth century, but the first authentic notice is of the...
CRESCAS, ABIATHARIBN, HA-KOHEN – Physician in ordinary to King Juan II. of Aragon (1458-79); skilful oculist and learned astrologer. In Sept., 1468, he freed the king, who was seventy years of age, from a double cataract of the eyes, which had caused his total...
CRESCAS, ASTRUC DON – Provençal scholar; lived probably at Perpignan, in the fourteenth century. Samuel, son of Solomon Shalom of Perpignan (compare Azulai, "Shem ha-Gedolim," p. 188), consulted Crescas on a halakic question in a complicated case of...
CRESCAS, ḤASDAI BEN ABRAHAM – Religious philosopher; born in Barcelona, Spain, 1340; died 1410. He was of an illustrious and learned family, in "Ḳore ha-Dorot" falsely designated as of the family (the abbreviation of , found at the end of the genealogy in...
CRESCAS, MORDECAI EN, OF ORANGE – Prominent member of the community of Carcassonne, France; lived in the second half of the thirteenth century. As leader (syndic) of the Jews of the whole district, he succeeded in obtaining special jurisdiction for the Jews of...
CRESCAS, VIDAL, DE CASLAR – Physician and liturgical poet of Avignon; member of the Yiẓhari family of that place. In 1327 Crescas translated into Hebrew the "Regimen Sanitatis" of his contemporary, the Spanish physician Arnold de Villanueva, under the...
CRESCAS, (DON) VIDAL, OF PERPIGNAN – French Talmudist; flourished in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was probably a native of Spain, going to Perpignan shortly before the outbreak of the Maimonides controversy. His position in this
CRESCENZ, JULIUS BERNHARD – Anti-Jewish writer in Germany at the beginning of the seventeenth century. He wrote "De Judæorum Privilegiis," Darmstadt, 1604-12; "Geistliches Bedenken, ob die Juden und Ihr Wucher in dem Römischen Reich zu Dulden," ib....
CRESCENZI, ALEXANDER – Jewish convert to Christianity; lived at Rome in the seventeenth century. In 1666 he translated from the Spanish into Italian Antony Colmenarde Ludesina's treatise on chocolate, printed with notes by Alexander Vitrioli, Rome,...
CRESPIN, ELIAS – Rumanian rabbi, teacher, and journalist; born about 1850 at Eskee Sara, eastern Rumelia; he fled to Rumania after the Turco-Russian war of 1878. He was the first in the East to found a Judæo-Spanish journal in Latin characters,...
CRESPIN, SAMUEL – Turkish rabbinical author; lived at Smyrna in the first half of the nineteenth century; son of Joshua Abraham Crespin, grand rabbi of Smyrna. He was the author of "Mesheḳ Beti" (Steward of My House; Gen. xv. 2), novellæ to the...
CRESQUES LO JUHEU – Chartographer who flourished at Majorca and Barcelona at the end of the fourteenth century. Prince Juan of Aragon sent to Charles VI. of France in 1381, when the latter was a lad of thirteen years, a "mappa mundi" made by...
CRESSON, WARDER – Religious enthusiast, and convert to Judaism. Born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 13, 1798; died in Jerusalem, Palestine, Nov. 6, 1860. He was directly descended from Pierre Cresson, one of the settlers of "Haarlem," N. Y., whose...
CRETE – Island in the Mediterranean, about 55 miles south of the Morea. Jews had settled there long before the Christian era (I Macc. xv. 23 mentions Jews in Gortynia, Crete). Philo speaks of the Jews of Crete ("Legatio ad Caium," ed....
CRIME – An act forbidden by human law and punished by human authority, in contrast to sinful acts which are thought to be evil in the eyes of God.In the Mosaic legislation the principal crimes against person and property—murder,...
CRIMEA – A peninsula of southern Russia, on the northern shore of the Black Sea. It was formerly known as Krim-Tartary, and in ancient times as Tauric Chersonese. As shown by inscriptions (see Bosporus) unearthed in various parts of the...
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE – The method indicated by law for the apprehension, trial, and for fixing the punishment of those persons who have broken or violated the law. The prosecution and trial of criminals in Biblical times is enveloped in doubt. The...
CRIMINALITY – The average tendency to commit crime. The critics of the Jews have always contended that the general standard of morality among the Jews was lower than that of their Christian neighbors, and their tendency toward crime therefore...
CRISPIN, ISAAC IBN – Spanish moralist and poet; lived at the beginning of the twelfth century. Judah al-Ḥarizi praises him among the renowned poets of the twelfth century; and, judging from the title ("The Great Prince"), which he prefixes to...
CRISPUS – The ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who became a Christian, with all his house, through the preaching of Paul (Acts xviii. 8). In one of his letters to the church at Corinth (I Cor. i. 14), Paul speaks of Crispus as one of...