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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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EFODI – See Duran, Profiat.
EFRATI, AMRAM BEN NATHAN – Rabbi of Valencia in the second half of the fourteenth century. He was a contemporary of Nissim b. Reuben, rabbi of Barcelona, and of Simeon b. Ẓemaḥ (RaSH-BaẒ), whom he consulted on rabbinical questions. He occupied the...
EGER – Bohemian town, on the right bank of the River Eger. The population of Eger in 1890 was 17,148, including 508 Jews. The oldest document mentioning the Jews is dated March 12, 1314, and refuses them permission to inhabit a new...
EGER – A family established for a long time at Halberstadt, Germany. It appears to have been originally known by the name of "Gins" or "Ginsmann," by which appellation the first two definitely authenticated members, Mayer and David,...
EGESIPPUS – See Joseph b. Gorion.
EGGS – Biblical Data: The Old Testament refers to eggs of birds (Deut. xxii. 6) and of vipers (Isa. lix. 5, A. V., "cockatrice"), and to the well-known fact that the ostrich leaves the egg in the warm sand and allows it to come to...
EGLAH – Mother of Ithream, David's sixth son (I Chron. iii. 3). The expression "wife of David" (II Sam. iii. 5) probably means the favorite wife of David. According to the Targum, Eglah is identical with Michal, the daughter of Saul,...
EGLATH-SHELISHIYAH – A place mentioned in ancient oracles against Moab (Isa. xv. 5, R. V.; Jer. xlviii. 34, R. V.), together with Zoar, Luhith, and Horonaim. It has been identified with the Aγαλλα mentioned by Josephus("Ant." xiv. 1, § 4) in...
EGLON – A king of Moab, who overcame the Israelites and captured the "city of palm-trees," by which is probably meant Jericho (Judges iii. 13). He held the Israelites in subjection for eighteen years, and they were then delivered by...
EGOZI, MENAHEM BEN MOSES – Turkish Talmudist; lived at Constantinople during the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Gal shel Egozim," expositions on Genesis, published at Belvedere, near Constantinople. He also edited the responsa of the Geonim,...
EGOTISM – See Altruism.
EGRA, MESHULLAM BEN SAMSON – Austrian rabbi; born in Galicia 1733; died at Presburg Sept. 21, 1785. Egra's father was of Buczacz, Galicia, but Meshullam Egra was at Brody as a boy of nine. At about that age he delivered a casuistic homily in the large...
EGYPT – Ancient and Biblical: The valley of the Nile north of the first cataract, having an area of 9,000-12,000 square miles of arable ground. Almost rainless, the country depends upon the inundations of the Nile and artificial...
EḤAD MI YODEA' – Initial words of a Hebrew nursery-rime which, with ḥad Gadya, is recited at the close of the Seder on Passover eve. It consists of thirteen numbers, and was probably recited originally as a dialogue, if not in chorus.Question:...
EHRENKRANZ, BENJAMIN WOLF – Galician Yiddish poet; born in Zbaraz, Galicia, about 1812; died about 1882. He spent many years in Rumania and southern Russia, wandering from place to place, and singing his songs, sometimes extemporaneously composed, in cafés...
EHRENREICH, MOSES LEVI – Italian rabbi; born at Brody, Galicia, 1818; died at Rome Dec. 27, 1899. Having graduated from the gymnasium of his native city, Ehrenreich, attracted by the reputation of Samuel David Luzzatto, went to Padua to study at the...
EHRENTHEIL, MORITZ – Hungarian educator and writer; born at Szilágy-Nagyfalu in 1825; died at Budapest Dec. 27, 1894. After teaching in various cities, he established himself in Budapest (1867), and devoted his time to literary work.His published...
EHRLICH, ADOLPH (ABRAHAM ABELE) – Russian educator and rabbi; born in Mitau, Courland, Sept. 20, 1837. In 1858 he became teacher of the Hebrew language and religion at the Jewish government school in Friedrichstadt, Courland. In 1861 he studied at Berlin under...
EHRLICH, ARNOLD – Bible critic; born in Volodovka, near Brest-Litovsk, Russia, Jan. 15, 1848. Educated at the universities of Leipsic and Berlin, he later became assistant librarian of Oriental books in the Royal Library in Berlin. In 1878 he...
EHRLICH, HEINRICH – German composer, pianist, and musical critic; born at Vienna Oct. 5, 1822; died Dec. 20, 1899. He began his musical career at Bucharest and Jassy, and for some years was court pianist to George V. of Hanover. From 1855 to 1862...
EHRLICH, MESHULLAM – Polish philologist; born at Lublin 1818; died at Paris 1861. He was one of the leading Talmudic scholars of his time, as well as a master of Oriental and modern languages. His numerous works all remain in manuscript, with the...
EHRLICH, PAUL – German physician; born at Strehlen, Prussian Silesia, March 14, 1854. He studied medicine at the universities of Breslau, Freiburg-in-Baden, Leipsic, and Strasburg, being graduated from the last-named in 1878. After holding some...
EHRMANN, DANIEL – Austrian rabbi; born at Muttersdorf, Bohemia, in 1816; died at Brünn Nov. 15, 1882. After studying at Budapest and Prague, he became rabbi and preacher at Kuttenplan and Dürrmaul in 1843; and a year later succeeded Abraham Kohn...
EHUD – Biblical Data: Second judge of Israel; a Benjamite, the son of Gera. Concealing under his garment a two-edged sword, he carried a present to Eglon, the Moabite king who had held Israel in subjection for eighteen years. After...
EIBENSCHÜTZ, ALBERT – German pianist; born in Berlin April 15, 1857; studied pianoforte under Reinecke and composition under Paul at the Leipsic Conservatorium. He was professor at the musical institute at Kharkof, Russia, until 1880, and then...