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TOBIT, BOOK OF – A late Jewish work, never received into the Jewish canon, and included in the Apocrypha by Protestants, although it was pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage (397) and the Council of Trent (1546). It takes its name...
TOCKELS, MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM – German Talmudist; born at Lissa; died in Berlin June 12, 1743. As a poor young man he went to Berlin, where he was adopted by a Frau Tockels, whose name he adopted in gratitude for her kindness. Tockels' first wife was the...
TODESCO, HERMANN – Austrian financier and philanthropist; born at Presburg 1792; died there Nov. 23, 1844. At first engaging in the silk trade, he later won fame and wealth in the cotton business; and he established in Marienthal, near Vienna, one...
TODROS OF BEAUCAIRE – 1 (called Ha-Ḳaẓin). One of the chief poets of the second half of the thirteenth century; resided in Montpellier. In 1277 he was one of the five representatives of theJewish community to which James II. of Aragon granted a...
TODROS OF CAVAILLON – French physician of the latter part of the fourteenth century, who flourished, according to Carmoly, about 1375. He was the author of a treatise entitled "Sha'are ha-Harkabot" (MSS. Paris, No. 1191, 1; Cat. p. 219), a sort of...
TODROS BEN ISAAC – Talmudist; lived in Italy or in southern France in the latter part of the thirteenth century and the early part of the fourteenth. He was the author of novellæ on the Talmud treatise Nazir, which are still extant in manuscript...
TODROS BEN KALONYMUS – French scholar and liturgical poet; lived at Narbonne in the first half of the twelfth century; son of Kalonymus the Great, who flourished at Narbonne in the eleventh century, and reached the age of eighty years, being renowned...
TODROS BEN MESHULLAM BEN DAVID – Provençal translator; born at Arles in the early part of the fourteenth century. Of his life no details are known except that in 1337 he lived at Trinquetaille, where he completed his translation of Aristotle's "Rhetoric." Many...
TODROS BEN MOSES YOM-ṬOB – French physician; flourished at Cavaillon in the second half of the fourteenth century; identified by Steinschneider with Todros of Cavaillon. In 1394 he prepared a Hebrew translation of a Latin treatise on fever by Johanan ibn...
ṬOHOROT – 1. Name of the sixth and last order in the Mishnah and the Tosefta. "Ṭohorot" is a euphemism for uncleanness, all the treatises of this order dealing with the laws governing impurity. The order comprises twelve treatises, which,...
TOKAḤAH – The term used to connote the prediction by Moses of due punishment in case of disobedience of the divine law on the part of the children of Israel. It was first pronounced in Lev. xxvi., and repeated in Deut. xxviii., the...
TOLA – 1. A son of Issachar who had journeyed to Egypt with Jacob (Gen. xlvi. 13). In the census of the people made by Moses and the high priest Eleazar after the plague the Tolaites appear as a tribe (Num. xxvi. 23), and during the...
TOLEDANO – A family taking its name from Toledo, the city in which it originated, and including printers, Talmudic scholars, rabbis, and diplomats in Turkey, Africa, Holland, and England, being still represented in Salonica, Jerusalem,...
TOLEDO – Interior of the Church of St. Maria la Blanca, Toledo, Formerly a Synagogue.(From a photograph.) Interior of "El Transito," Toledo, Formerly a Synagogue.(From a photograph.)Metropolitan city of Gothic and Moorish Spain, and...
TOLEDO, OHIO – See Ohio.
TOLEDOT YESHU' – See Jesus in Jewish Legend.
TOLERANZPATENT – See Joseph II.
TOLL – See Leibzoll.
TOMASHOV, JACOB B. SIMEON – Polish rabbi of the seventeenth century. His father is styled "ha-Ḳadosh," a term generally given to a martyr, so that Simeon may have been martyred during the massacres instigated by Chmielnicki. Jacob was probably rabbi at...
TOMBS – From the earliest times the Hebrews practised burial of the dead ( , whence "ḳeber" = "tomb"), so that cremation, which was customary among the Moabites and Edomites, was regarded by the Jewish prophets as sinful and inhuman...
TOMBSTONES – None in Palestine in Biblical or Talmudic Times. Cemetery at Rome.(From a photograph.)The custom of marking a grave by a stone which bore an inscription describing the qualities of the deceased and giving his age and the date of...
TOPAZ – See Gems.
TOPEKA – See Kansas.
TOPHET – Old Testament term used chiefly by Jeremiah (vii. 31, 32; xix. 6, 11, 12, 13, 14) and once in II Kings (xxiii. 10) to designate a place in one of the valleys just outside the walls of Jerusalem. The meaning of the word is much...
TORAH – Name applied to the five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The contents of the Torah as a whole are discussed, from the point of view of modern Biblical criticism, under Pentateuch, where a...