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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ISRAEL'S HEROLD – See Periodicals.
ISRAELS, JOSEPH – Dutch genre painter; born at Groningen, Holland, June 27, 1824. It was his mother's desire that he should enter the rabbinate, but other influences prevailed, and at an early age he adopted a commercial career, which his father,...
ISSA – See Jose.
ISSACHAR – 1. Biblical Data: Ninth son of Jacob and fifth of Leah, born a considerable length of time after her other children (Gen. xxx. 17, 18; comp. xxix. 35). This name belongs to that class of words which, according to Masoretic...
ISSACHAR, TRIBE OF – Biblical Data: A tribe of Israel, descended from Issachar. The numbers accredited to Issachar are: 54,400 in Num. i. 29; 64,300 in Num. xxvi. 25; and 145,600 in I Chron. vii. 1-5. The territory occupied by the tribe was the...
ISSACHAR BÄR B. TANḤUM – Russian rabbi; born (in Grodno ?) 1779; died at Wilna July 31, 1855. He became one of the "more ẓedeḳ" ("dayyanim") of Wilna in 1819, and held that position till his death. He made a special study of the religious usages of...
ISSACHAR DOB BEN JACOB JOSHUA – Rabbi of Podhajee, Galicia; born at Lisko, Galicia, 1712; died in Berlin Oct. 28, 1744. His father was the author of "Pene Yehoshua'," novellæ on the Talmud, and Issachar Dob himself was a pupil of Hirsch, rabbi of Halberstadt....
ISSACHAR BEN ISSACHAR COHEN GERSONI – Bohemian printer and author; lived in Prague in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In 1691 he was employed at Fürth on the "Sefer Me'irat 'Enayim." He afterward went to Prague, where he worked for different printers....
ISSERLEIN (ISSERLIN), ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH ASHKENAZI – The foremost Talmudic authority of Germany in the first half of the fifteenth century; born in the last decade of the fourteenth century, probably at Ratisbon; died at Neustadt, near Vienna, 1460. Isserlein belonged to an old...
ISSERLES, MOSES BEN ISRAEL (ReMA) – Polish rabbi, code annotator, and philosopher; born at Cracow about 1520; died there May 1, 1572. His father was a rich and prominent Talmudist, and it may be concluded from the terms "ha-ḳaẓin" and "ha-parnes" which his son...
ISSI (ISI, ISSA) – See Ise and Jose.
ISTRIA – A small peninsula at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea, having about 320,000 inhabitants, of whom 285 are Jews. Ethnographically it is Italian, although politically it is under Austrian rule. At times it has included the city...
ITALY – Kingdom of southern Europe, with a total population of about 32,000,000, in which there are about 34,653 Jews (1901). This country, which the Israelites, punning upon the name, called "I Ṭal Yah" = "the land of the dew of the...
ITHAMAR – Youngest son of Aaron by Elisheba (Ex. vi. 23). Together with his father and three brothers he was consecrated to the priesthood (ib. xxviii. 1; Lev. viii. 13). On the death of Nadab and Abihu, Ithamar and his elder brother,...
ITIL – See Atel.
ITINERANT MENDICANT – See Schnorrer.
ITINERANT TEACHERS – See Baḥur.
ITUREA – Greek name of a province, derived from the Biblical "Jetur," name of a son of Ishmael (comp. Gen. xxv. 15, 16). The name of the province is mentioned only once (Luke iii. 1), while in historical sources the name of the people,...
ITZE (ISAAC) OF CHERNIGOV – Russian scholar of the twelfth century, frequently consulted by his contemporaries on questions of Biblical exegesis. He is probably identical with Isaac of Russia, found in the English records of 1181. His explanation of the...
ITZIG – Wealthy German family which did much in the eighteenth century for the development of modern culture among the Jews.Babette Itzig: Born 1749; married Salomon; her daughter Leah became the wife of Abraham Mendelssohn and was the...
IVAN III., VASSILIVICH, THE GREAT – Czar of Russia 1462-1505. His attitude toward the Jews was friendly. Under his reign the Jew Skhariyah (Zechariah), who arrived in Novgorod with the suite of Prince Mikhail Olelkovich, founded a Judaizing sect to which several...
IVAN IV., VASSILIVICH, THE TERRIBLE – Page from Jacob ben Asher's "Oraḥ Ḥayyim," Printed at Ixar, 1485.(In the British Museum.)Czar of Russia 1533-84. In his time the prejudice against the Jews in the Muscovite dominions was very pronounced. They were feared as...
IVISA – See Balearic Islands.
IVORY – The Hebrew word for ivory, i.e., "shen" (= "tooth"), shows that the Israelites knew what ivory was. The other term used to denote ivory, "shenhabbim" (I Kings x. 22; II Chron. ix. 21), is usually explained as a compound of...
IWRE-TEUTSCH – See Judæo-German.