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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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LAZARUS, JULIUS – German physician; born at Neusalz-on-the-Oder April 6, 1847; educated at the gymnasium of Görlitz, Silesia, and at the University of Breslau, where he studied medicine. The Franco-Prussian war interrupted his studies, Lazarus...
LAZARUS, LEYSER – German Talmudist; born at Filehne 1820; died at Breslau April 16, 1879; brother of Moritz Lazarus. He first attended yeshibot, then went to Sondershausen as fellow teacher of Rabbi Heidenheim, and there attended the gymnasium....
LAZARUS, MORITZ – German philosopher; born at Filehne, in the Prussian province of Posen, Sept. 15, 1824; died at Meran, Tyrol, April 13, 1903; son of Aaron Levin Lazarus, a pupil of Akiba Eger, and himself president of the bet din and the...
LAZARUS, MOSES – American merchant; born in New York city June 29, 1813; died there March 9, 1885. He was identified with the sugar-refining industry until 1865; thereafter he lived in retirement. In 1840 he married Esther Nathan, a member of...
LAZARUS, NAHIDA RUTH – German authoress; born Feb. 3, 1849, at Berlin; a descendant of a German Christian family. She was married first to Dr. Max Remy (in her writings she still signs herself "Nahida Remy"), after whose death she became a convert to...
LEASE – See Landlord and Tenant.
LEATHER – Biblical Data: Skins of animals were employed for clothing as soon as man felt the need of covering his body to protect himself against cold and rain. With the advance of civilization such clothing was everywhere replaced by...
LEAVEN – Fermenting dough ( = "to be sour," "fermented"; Aramaic, ). Leavened bread was probably a common article of food among the ancient Israelites (Hos. vii. 4), while unleavened bread ("maẓẓot") was prepared when food was required...
LEAVENWORTH – See Kansas.
LEBANON – Name of a range of mountains in Syria. In prose, with the exception of IIChron. ii. 8 (Hebr.), the name is always written with the article, while in poetry it occurs as often without as with the article. The name (= "white") is...
LEBENSOHN, ABRAHAM DOB BÄR BEN ḤAYYIM – Russian Hebraist, poet, and grammarian; born in Wilna, Russia, about 1789; died there Nov. 19, 1878. Like all Jewish boys of that time in Russia he was educated as a Talmudist, but became interested in Hebrew grammar and...
LEBENSOHN, MICAH JOSEPH – Russian Hebrew poet; born in Wilna, Russia, Feb. 22, 1828; died there Feb. 17, 1852. His father, the poet Abraham Bär Lebensohn, implanted in him the love of Hebrew poetry, and Micah Joseph began very early to translate and to...
LEBERT (LEWY), HERMANN – German physician; born at Breslau June 9, 1813; died at Bex, Canton Waadt, Switzerland, Aug. 1, 1878. He studied medicine at the universities of Berlin and Zurich, graduating in 1834, and spent the following year traveling...
LEBERT, SIEGMUND (SIEGMUND LEVY) – Music-teacher and writer on music; born at Ludwigsburg, Württemberg, Dec. 12, 1822; died at Stuttgart Dec. 8, 1884. After completing his studies under Tomaschek, Weber, Tedesco, and Proksch, at Prague, he taught music at Munich....
LEBRECHT, FÜRCHTEGOTT – German educator; born at Memmelbach, Bavaria, Nov. 16, 1800; died at Berlin, Sept. 1, 1876. He studied at Fürth, and later at Presburg under Moses Sofer, devoting himself mainly to the Talmud and to the Hebrew literature of the...
LECCE – Town of southern Italy, capital of the province of the same name (formerly Terra d'Otranto); contained one of the most prominent Jewish settlements in the Neapolitan kingdom before their expulsion. There are traces of the...
LE-DAWID BARUK – Familiar title for Ps. cxliv., from the initial words of the Hebrewtext, with especial reference to its employment, together with Ps. lxvii., as an introduction to the evening prayer at the close of the Sabbath. Alone among the...
LEDERER, ABRAHAM – Hungarian educator and writer; born Jan. 9, 1827, at Libochowitz, Bohemia. In 1840 he went to Prague, where he studied at the Teachers' Seminary and at the university. In 1853 he taught at Lundenburg, Moravia; and in 1854 he...
LEDERER, JOACHIM K. – Austrian play-wright; born at Prague Aug. 28, 1808; died at Dresden July 31, 1876. Lederer received only a meager education under a private tutor. He began the study of medicine, but after a year's experience discarded it for...
LEE, SIDNEY – English editor; born in London Dec. 5, 1859; educated at City of London School and Balliol College, Oxford. Almost immediately on leaving college he became associated with Sir Leslie Stephen as assistant editor of the...
LEEDS – Manufacturing town in Yorkshire, England. It possessed a small Jewish community before the year 1840, divine service being held in a small room in Bridge street, little better than a loft, access to which was gained by means of...
LEESER, ISAAC – American rabbi, author, translator, editor, and publisher; pioneer of theJewish pulpit in the United States, and founder of the Jewish press of America; born at Neuenkirchen, in the province of Westphalia, Prussia, Dec. 12,...
LEEUW, JACOB HEYMANN DE – Dutch Talmudist; born at Leyden 1811; died at Amsterdam Sept. 15, 1883. He removed to the latter city in 1874, and was appointed rabbi at the bet ha-midrash. He was the author of the following Talmudical works: "Shoshannat...
LEFMANN, SALOMON – German philologist; born at Telgte, Westphalia, Dec. 25, 1831, his family being old Westphalian settlers. He was educated at the Jewish school of his native town, at the seminary and academy at Münster, and at the universities...
LEGACY – See Will.