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PSEUDONYMOUS LITERATURE AND WRITERS:

The habit of adopting literary disguises is a very old one in Hebrew literature. According to the views of higher criticism, there are a large number of books of the Old Testament which might be included under the foregoing heading. The cabalists of later days often chose the names of Rabbi Ishmael and Rabbi Akiba, whom tradition celebrated as the greatest teachers of esoteric doctrines. But the choice of names was not always as appropriate as in these instances. No one, for example, can tell why the "Sefer Yeẓirah" should have been ascribed to Abraham, and the "Sifra di-Ẓeni'uta," to Jacob. In these instances, however, it must be borne in mind that the pseudo-authorship is perhaps the invention of a later day, and that the books were originally anonymous (Zunz, "G. V." 1892, p. 175).

The employment of pseudonyms may be said to have been more in vogue among authors of imaginative and mystic writings, while those who wrote halakic works, If they did not acknowledge their authorship, left them anonymous. In their search for great names the pseudonymous writers not only leaped over centuries, but even ascended to heaven. Thus the "Sefer Raziel" is ascribed to an angel of that name.

Early Instances.

The pseudonymous literature of the Middle Ages is too extensive to be treated here exhaustively. The best-known works, besides those already mentioned, are: the "Otiyyot de-Rabbi 'Aḳiba"; the "Sefer Baḥir," ascribed to Neḥunya b. ha-Ḳanah; the "Sefer ha-Taggin," ascribed to R. Ishmael b. Elisha or to the high priest Eli (Zunz, l.c. p. 418, note b); and the Zohar, ascribed to R. Simeon b. Yoḥai. This last-named work is perhaps the greatest literary forgery of all times, considering the influence it exerted upon the Jewish people. Of a different character, but no less popular, were the two pseudonymous books "Yosippon," ascribed to Josephus, and the "Sefer ha-Yashar," said to have been found during the destruction of the Second Temple.

In modern times the use of literary disguises has been more widely adopted; but, at the same time,the number of literary forgeries has considerably diminished. Perhaps the last great literary forgery was the "Besamim Rosh" (Berlin, 1793) of R. Saul Berlin, which he ascribed to R. Asher b. Jehiel. Authors have now more often cause to conceal their identity; but the names they assume generally hold, as it were, the real name in solution.

Methods of Formation.

The most ordinary class of pseudonyms is that which is composed either of the initial or the final letters of the author's real name. Such, for instance, is AB (="father") for Abraham Berliner, and HaBeṬ (= "look")for Solomon Löb Rapoport. Occasionally an author will hide his identity under an anagram, composed of the letters which, in the arrangement of the alphabet, immediately precede or follow the initials or final letters of his name. Thus the pseudonym , which Abraham Baer Dobsewitch () employed, is composed of letters which in the alphabet immediately follow the final letters of his name. Another common method of forming pseudonyms is metathesis, e.g., for . Sometimes the pseudonym is nothing more than a Hebrew translation of the author's family name, as Ish Maḥshabot for Trachtmann. Less frequent is the pseudonym based on a Biblical allusion, as Ben Tamar for J. L. Perez, an allusion to Gen. xxxviii. 29. Still rarer is the pseudonym based on another pseudonym. This is met with in cases where a writer well known under one pseudonym forms another out of the first. Thus A. S. Friedberg, known under the pseudonym Har Shalom, often signs himself , which is an abbreviation of his pseudonym. The most complicated pseudonym, formed by a combination of several of the above-mentioned methods, is , which is the nom de plume of Joseph Brill of Minsk. By metathesis stands for "the native of Minsk," and for , according to II Sam. ii. 13: and , again, contains the initials of . Finally, there are pseudonyms entirely independent of the author's name, but indicative of the writer's attitude, as Aḥad ha-'Am ("one of the people") for Asher Günzburg, while others are rare Biblical names, as Buḳḳi ben Yogli (Num. xxxiv. 22), the pen-name of J. L. Katzenelson.

In the selected list of pseudonyms that follows here only those pen-names have been included which have been used by the authors themselves, or which, through long usage, have become inseparably associated with an author's works, as, for example, Rashi, which is always used for R. Solomon of Troyes when mention is made of his writings. Pennames like for Abraham ibn Ezra, for Abraham Geiger, or for De Rossi, belong rather to abbreviations and nicknames. Every name in the subjoined list is followed by a corroborative source, except in such well-known pseudonyms as require no corroboration. The letters within parentheses, refer to these sources as given in the bibliography at the end of this article. It should be added that, since the following list is bilingual, some of the letters of the pseudonyms must, of necessity, appear unrepresented in the real name, and, furthermore, that the letters א, ד, ה, ם, נ, ר of the pseudonym are not reproduced in the real name when they stand for . The same holds good for any combination of these words.

Authors and Their Pseudonyms.
  • = Isaac Euchel.
  • = Abraham Dobsewitch ("Ha-Meliẓ," 1869, p. 15).
  • = Abraham Ludwipol (S.).
  • = Abraham Mendel Mohr (Bj. p. 230).
  • = Victor Marmelstein ("Arba' Ḳushyot").
  • = A. Elyashov (S.).
  • = Eliezer Skreinka ( v. 66-71; R.).
  • = Abraham Elijah Sandler (Sch.).
  • = Abraham Aba Rakowski (S.).
  • = Abraham Berliner ("Or ha-Ḥayyim," p. 610, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1891).
  • = Abraham b. Judah Ḥasid; Asher b. Jehiel (L.).
  • = Abraham b. al-Nakkar (H. B. xvi. p. 65); Abraham b. Asher, (F. i. 6); Asher b. Elijah (Konstantin) Shapiro (Si.); Elijah Benamozegh (Si.).
  • = Abraham Baer Gottlober.
  • = Alter Droyanov (S.).
  • = Judah Löb Lewin (S.).
  • = Jacob Samuel Yatskan (S.).
  • = Benjamin Mandelstamm.
  • = Abraham b. Hezekiah Basan (D.); Isaac Benjacob (Bj. p. 184); Reuben A. Braudes (Si.): Arnold B. Ehrlich (, p. 153, New York).
  • = Israel Ẓebi Bornstein (Sch.); Albert Harkavy (, vi. 237); I. B. Hurwitz (S.); Abraham b. Judah ha-Levi Minz (M. p. 39).
  • = Israel Ẓebi Bornstein (So. p. 195).
  • = Abraham Jonah of Venice (Si.).
  • = Reuben Brainin (S.).
  • = J. L. Katzenelson (, p. 14).
  • = Abraham b. Isaac Joshua Latash ("Iggerot Shadal," p. 199).
  • = Adolph Neubauer (Sch.).
  • = Abraham b. Isaac Antibi (Si.).
  • = Abraham b. Nathan ha-Yarḥi (L.).
  • = Judah Löb Rittermann (Z. p. 430).
  • = Abraham b. Samuel Firkovich.
  • = Aaron Noah Kaminka (S.).
  • = Aaron b. Nahum Rosenfeld ("Ha-Boḳer Or." iv. 1475).
  • = Abraham Ehrlich (Sch.).
  • = (by metathesis ) = Hirsch Schereschewsky (S.).
  • = Abraham b. Kanders (Sch.).
  • = Abraham Levkowitz ("Ha-Boḳer Or," vi. 2); Abraham ben Aryeh Löb Rakowsky ("Ha-Ḳol," i. 6).
  • = A. L. Lewinski ("Luaḥ Aḥiasaf," i. col. 222).
  • = Abraham Shalom of Padua (, 1826, p. 56).
  • = I. Goldberg (S.).
  • = W. Goldstein (Sch.).
  • = Eliakim Getzel Kohen ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 163).
  • = Abraham Gagin of Jerusalem (Si.).
  • = Ephraim Deinard.
  • = Abraham Dob Cohen (Si.).
  • = D. M. Andermann (Sch.); Elijah Daniel del Bene (M. p. 7).
  • = Abraham Dob Bär Lebensohn.
  • = Aaron Halle ("Ha-Meassef," 1790. p. 122).
  • = Alexander ha-Levi Langbank ("Oẓar ha-Sifrut," i. 30-37).
  • = Judah Löb Mieses ("Tekunat ha-Rabbanim," Lemberg. 1879).
  • = Senior Sachs (, 1869, p. 54).
  • = Judah Löb Gordon (S.).
  • = Israel Salant (Bj. p. 656).
  • = Isaac Jacob Weissberg (S.).
  • = Asher Günzburg.
  • = Aryeh Löb Frumkin ("Eben Shemu'el," p. 110, Wilna, 1874).
  • = Ḥayyim Lazar Muschkat (Z. p. 248).
  • = Moses Lazar Eisenstadt; Isaac Jacob Weissberg ("Ha-Yom," i., No. 18; S.).
  • = Isaac Meïr Dick ("Ha-Oreaḥ," Königsberg, 1860; Bj. p. 30).
  • = Benjamin Solomon Ribeles ("Sefer Gebia' Gebia' ha-Kesef" [Shklov, 1804]; Zed. p. 656).
  • = Joseph Rosenthal (S.).
  • = Aaron Ḥayyim Volterra, ("Baḳḳashah Ḥadashah," Leghorn, 1740, W. No. 1559).
  • = H. Abraham Wagenaar ("Toledot Ya'abeẓ," Amsterdam, 1868).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = Abraham Ludwipol (S.).
  • = Abraham Joseph Danon ("Maskil le-Etan," Adrianople, 1888).
  • = Joseph Brill ("Ha-Shaḥar," Viii. 317).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = Aaron Judah Löb Horowitz ("Ha-Karmel," i. 16).
  • = Abraham Jacob Slucki (S.).
  • = David Frischmann ("Ha-Yom," 1887, No. 207).
  • = Aaron Joseph Randegger ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," xi. 169-177).
  • = Saul Jacob Elyashar (Si.); Eliezer Isaac Shapiro (So. p. 115); Israel Steiner (Sch.); Abraham Jacob Stern ("Ha-Nesher," v. 189).
  • = Asher b. Isaiah da Montagna (M. p. 41).
  • = Akiba Fleischmann ("Ḳadimah," p. 172).
  • = Abraham Joseph Solomon Graziano (Bj. p. 132).
  • = Albert Katz (S.).
  • = Jonas Gurland.
  • = Abraham Mendel Mohr (in notes to "Ẓemaḥ Dawid," Lemberg, 1847; Bj. p. 510).
  • = Eliezer David Libermann ("Ge Ḥizzayon," Warsaw, 1889; W. No. 1938).
  • = Jesiah David Silberbusch (S.).
  • = Moses Mordecal Pros (Si.).
  • = Jacob Samuel ha-Levi Trachtmann (S.).
  • = Moses Dob ha-Kohen b. Eleazar Aryeh Goldmann ("Shirim," Vienna, 1886).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann ("Migdanot," p. 45).
  • = Elimelech Wechsler.
  • = Elijah b. Moses Israel, author of "Ḳol Eliyahu" (Si.).
  • = Raphael ha-Kohen ("Ḥuṭ ha-Meshullash," Odessa, 1874).
  • = Meïr Friedmann.
  • = Israel Neumann ("Ha-Berit ha-Ḥadashah," Breslau, 1821; W. No. 1630).
  • = Albert Katz (Si.).
  • = A. Luria ("Ha-Karmel," i., No. 16).
  • = Aaron Chorin ("Iggeret Elasaf," Prague, 1826; W. No. 171).
  • = S. Rosenfeld (S.).
  • = Wolf Kaplan ("Migdanot," 1883, p. 33).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann (S.).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = Abigdor Levi of Glogau (Jew. Encyc. s.v. Abigdor ben Simḥa).
  • = Julius Fürst (Concordance, Leipsic, 1840).
  • = A. L. Katerzinski ("Ketab Yosher he-Ḥadash," Warsaw, 1885).
  • = Isaac Meïr Dick.
  • = Mordecai Penso (L.).
  • = Moïse Schwab (L.).
  • = Aaron Margolis ("Semel ha-Ahabah weha-Kin'ah," Vi. enna, 1877).
  • = David Caro ("Berit Emet," Dessau, 1820; Bj. p. 85).
  • = Leon of Modena, (Bj. p. 553).
  • = Moses Proser (S.).
  • = Mordecai Weissmann-Ḥajes ("Ha-Nesher." iii. 66).
  • = Joseph Eliezer b. Abraham Morpurgo (, vii. 95-96; R.).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann (, 1864, No. 7).
  • = Abraham Epstein. , xii.).
  • = Profiat Duran (L.); Eliezer David Finkel (S.).
  • = Abraham Farissol (H. B. xvi. p. 65); Abraham Palagi (Si.).
  • = David Frischmann (S.).
  • = Abraham Zuckermann.
  • = A. Droyanov (S.) = A. Rabbinowitz ("Leḳeṭ Shoshannim," Paris, 1878).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = Alexander Zederbaum.
  • = Isaac Ashkenazi Luria.
  • = Judah Löb Gamso (S.).
  • = Eliezer Naḥman Foa (M. p. 23).
  • = Abraham Shalom Friedberg ("Luaḥ Aḥiasaf," iii., col. 180).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = Baruch Jetteles ("Ha-Meassef," 1790; C. B. No. 3713).
  • = Israel B. Gedaliah Bristiner (S.); Beer Goldberg.
  • = S. Bernfeld ("Luaḥ Aḥiasaf," viii. 317).
  • = Bernhard Schlesinger ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," v. 60-62: R.).
  • = Bernhard Schlesinger (, iv. 191-192: R.).
  • = J. L. Katzenelson ("Ha-Yom," 1886, No. 25).
  • = Jacob Israel Ḥorgin ("Hed Harim," Berdychev, 1891. autograph copy).
  • = J. Ch. Tavyov (S.).
  • = A. S. Freidus ("Ner ha-Ma'arabi," i., No. 6, p. 37).
  • = Judah Löb Levin (S.).
  • = Hirsch Schereschewski (S.).
  • = M. M. Litewski (S.).
  • = Abraham L. Shalkovitz (S.).
  • = Isaac S. Fuchs (S.).
  • = Isaac Warschawski (S.).
  • = Judah Löb Kantor (S.).
  • = Micah Joseph Berdyczewski (S.).
  • = Aaron Libushitsky (S.).
  • = Herman Moeller ("Ha-Modia'la-Ḥadashim," i., No. 7, New York).
  • = Beer Jeruchamsohn ("Talpiyyot").
  • = E. Perlmann.
  • = Michael Rabbinowitsch ("Or Mat'eh," Warsaw, 1896).
  • = Beer Jeruchamsohn (see "Ben Ḥorim").
  • = J. S. Trachtmann (S.).
  • = J. David Silberbusch (S.).
  • = Moses Mendelssohn.
  • = Morris Winchevsky ("Ha-Modia'la-Ḥadashim," i., No.2).
  • = N. E. Mendrochovitz (S.); M. J. Rabinowitsch (Wiener," Yiddish Literature," p. 384).
  • = M. Sablotzki (S.).
  • = Ephraim Silber ("Peraḥ Shoshan," Drohobicz, 1896).
  • = Em. Benzion ("Oraḥ Ẓedaḳah," Odessa, 1876; W. No. 911); M. A. Eisenstadt (S.); M. Sablotzki (S.).
  • = Joshua Tulsky (S.); I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = Joseph Brill (see above ).
  • = Moses Rosensohn ("'Ibri Anoki," xvii., No. 19).
  • = Judah Löb Perez (S.).
  • = Jacob b. Asher.
  • = David Apotheker ("Ha-'Ibri," iii., No. 14, New York).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann.
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = Israel of Meseritz.
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = J. C. Rabnitzki ("Pardes," ii. 262).
  • = M. J. Berdyczewski (S.).
  • = Arthur Freeman ("Ha-Shaḥar," ix. 86).
  • = J. C. Rabnitzki (Wiener, l.c. p. 884).
  • = Adolph M. Radin ("Ner ha-Ma'arabi," i. No. 8).
  • = J. L. Lewin (S.).
  • = Joshua Eisenstadt ("Luaḥ Aḥiasaf," vii. 320).
  • = Baruch Jekuthiel Susmanowitz ("Ha-Dod Mosheh," Warsaw, 1893. W. No. 2318).
  • = Joel Löwe.
  • = Abraham Abulafia ("Sefer ha-Yashar"; Bj. p. 234).
  • = J. Ch. Rabnitzki (S.).
  • = Gershon Bader (S.).
  • = Gabriel b. Joseph Rawitsch ("Ha-Ḳol," i. 59).
  • = Gabriel Judah Lichtenfeld (D.).
  • = Gershon Letteris (Letteris, in "Ha-Ẓefirah," p. 88).
  • = J. L. Perez ("Keneset Yisrael," iii., cols. 409-411).
  • = Gabriel Polak ("Ben Gorni," p. 60).
  • = Lazar Atlas (S.).
  • = Michael Gordon.
  • = Eliezer Isaac Shapiro (S.).
  • = David Friedrichsfeld (C. B. No. 3713).
  • = Moses Schatzkes (Z. p. 55).
  • = David Kahan ("Ḥokmat Yehudah," 1892).
  • = David Franco-Mendes.
  • = David Moses Mitzkun ("Ha-Karmel," ii. 199).
  • = Ḥayyim Judah Löb Markon (ib. iv. 621-624).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = M. Weissmann ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 19).
  • = L. B. Libermann ("Ha-Shaḥar," vi. 45).
  • = Judah Löb b. Asher Gordon ("Ha-Karmel," viii. 139).
  • = David Kaufmann.
  • = Abraham Jacob Bruck ("Ha-Karmel," iv. 219).
  • = A. Lipschitz (, Mayence, 1872; Z. p. 214).
  • = Moses Abraham Romm ("Amet ha-Lashon," Wilna, 1855).
  • = Solomon Löb Rapoport ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," 1823, p. 139).
  • = Gabriel ha-Kohen Fischmann ("Sefer ha-Noten ba-Yom Derek," Warsaw, 1893).
  • = Elijah of Wilna.
  • = Isaac Ẓebi Eisenberg (S.).
  • = Beer Sufrin ("Mizmor Shir Ḥanukkah," Cracow, 1888).
  • = Hirsch Sommerhausen ("Haggadah le-Lel Shikkurim," p. ii.).
  • = Judah L. Landau (Si.).
  • = Aaron Halle (C. B. No. 3713).
  • = M. Sablotzki (S.).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = Leon Zolotkoff ("Ha-Yom," 1836, No. 4).
  • = J. L. Gordon (S.).
  • = Mordecai Ẓebi Mane (Si.).
  • = Mattithiah S. Rabener (Sch.).
  • = Moses Israel Hazan ("Naḥalah le-Yisrael," Vienna, 1851).
  • = Nachman Isaac Fischmann ("Ha-Nesher." v. 93).
  • = H. Neumanowitz (Si.).
  • = Nachman Krochmal (Letteris, "Zikkaron ba-Sefer," p. 52).
  • = G. Selikovitsch ("Ha-'Ibri," i., No. 8, New York).
  • = Ẓebi Benjamin Auerbach ("Ha-Ẓofeh 'al Darke ha-Mishnah," p. 54).
  • = Joseph Rosenthal (S.).
  • = L. Libermann ("Ha-Emet," p. 56).
  • = Moses Beer b. Shemariah Oretzkin ("Ha-Karmel," iii. 278).
  • = M. S. Feierberg (S.).
  • = A. S. Friedberg (Si.).
  • = Simeon Judah Stanislavski (S.).
  • = Moses Proser (S.).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.); Franchetta da Montpellier (M. p. 24).
  • = A. S. Friedberg.
  • = Mattithiah Straschun ("Ha-Karmel." iii.).
  • = Aaron Halle ("Ha-Meassef," 1790, p. 186).
  • = M. Rodkinssohn ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 126).
  • = M. Sablotzki (S.); J. H. Sagorodski (S.).
  • = Alexander Süskind Raschkow ("Weg zum Lebensbäume," Breslau, 1825).
  • = J. D. Silberbusch (S.).
  • = Selig ha-Kohen Lauterbach ("Ha-Shaḥar," ii. 177-184).
  • = S. Jacob Wichnianski ("Beromo shel 'Olam," Odessa, 1894).
  • = Selig Lauterbach (S.).
  • = Judah Steinberg (S.).
  • = Seligmann Pappenheim (Delitzsch, "Zur Gesch. der Jüdischen Poesie," p. 108).
  • = S. Fridkin ("Ha-Yom ha-Aḥaron be-Ḥayye ha-Niddon le-Mitah," Warsaw, 1898).
  • = Wolf Kaplan.
  • = Leon Solotkoff.
  • = Eliezer Isaac Shapiro (S.).
  • = A. S. Bettelheim ("Shishshah Miktabim," Kuschau, 1886).
  • = Ḥayyim Arkin ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 257).
  • = Israel Davidson ("Ha-'Ibri," viii., No. 23).
  • = Abraham Jacob Paperna (" Ha-Meliẓ," 1869, p. 44).
  • = J. L. Levin ("Ha-Teḥiyyah," 1900, No. 23).
  • = J. J. Lewontin (S.).
  • = Ḥayyim S. Eliaschewicz (Z. p. 22).
  • = Ḥayyim Selig Slonimski.
  • = Ḥayyim Jonas Gurland ("Ha-Shaḥar," iii. 687).
  • = Ḥayyim J. Katzenellenbogen ("Ha-Karmel," i., No. 19).
  • = Ḥayyim Joseph David Azulai.
  • = Ḥayyim Deutsch ("Bet Talmud," v. 149-153).
  • = Ḥayyim Jonas Gurland.
  • = Ḥayyim Judah Markon ("Ha-Karmel," iv. 129).
  • = Baruch Jeiteles ("Ha-Oreb," 1795; W. No. 523).
  • = Ḥayyim Judah Löb Katzenellenbogen ("Ha-Mebasser," ii. 82).
  • = Hananeel Nepi (S.).
  • = Hirsch Edelmann.
  • = Ḥayyim Ẓebi Lerner.
  • = Jacob Frances ("Meteḳ Sefatayim," p. 15).
  • = N. S. Libowitz.
  • = Lipmann of Mühlhausen (Bj. p. 83, No. 570).
  • = Joel Beer Falkowitsch ("Abinadab," Odessa, 1888; W. No. 25).
  • = Joseph Weisse ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," vii. 60-68; R.).
  • = J. C. Rabnitzky ("Ha-Shiloaḥ," iv. 96).
  • = Israel Landau (ed. "Orḥot 'Olam," Prague, 1793; W. No. 923).
  • = Judah Löb Perez (S.).
  • = Julius Meller ("Kokebe Yiẓḥaḳ," v. 41-45; R.).
  • = Jacob Mordecai Lewinsohn ("Gan Peraḥim," 1890, p. 63).
  • = Jehiel Michael Pines (S.).
  • = J. E. Salkinson ("Wa-Yegaresh ha-Adam," Vienna, 1871).
  • = Israel E. Goldblum (So. p. 16).
  • = Joshua Eliezer Rotin ("Ha-Karmel," iii. 123); Isaac Roller ("Dibre Ya'er," Berlin, 1881; W. No. 2143); Joseph Aaron Randegger ("Ẓiyyon," i. 131).
  • = Isaac b. Aaron Rittenberg ("Oẓar ha-Sifrut," i. 81).
  • = Israel Tropp ("Ha-Karmel," vi. 293).
  • = Joel Löwe ("Ha-Meassef," 1788).
  • = Israel Bahmer ("Kerem Ḥemed," ix.); Micah Joseph Berdyczewski ("Ha-Kerem," p. 63).
  • = Morris Winchevski ("Asefat Ḥakamim," No. 2).
  • = J. Eisenstein ("Oẓar ha-Ḥokmah weha-Madda'," No. 2, p. 25).
  • = Israel David Müller ("Ha-Shaḥar," vi. 645-648).
  • = Saul Berlin ("Ketab Yosher," Lemberg, 1784; Bj. p. 248, No. 336).
  • = S. Mandelkern ("Ha-Karmel," iv. 136).
  • = Judah b. Jonas Jeiteles ("Shir Tehillah," Vienna, 1835; Bj. p. 578).
  • = Phinehas Turberg (S.).
  • = Samuel Ẓebi Kamenetzki ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 35); Judah Lewik (S.); Isaac Lewinski ("Keneset ha-Gedolah," ii. 148).
  • = Joshua Mesach (S.).
  • = Judah Löb Levin.
  • = Ezekiel Leavitt (S.).
  • = J. H. Schorr.
  • = Joseph Brill ("Ha-Ḳol," i. 44).
  • = Joseph Almanzi ("Abne Zikkaron," p. 4).
  • = Joseph Elijah Triwosch ("Mi-Mizraḥ umi-Ma'arab").
  • = Joseph Brill ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 43).
  • = N. M. Schaikewitsch ("Mumar le-Hak'is," Warsaw, 1879).
  • = M. A. Günzburg ("Maggid Emet," Leipsic, 1843; "Ha-Moriyah," pp. 34-48).
  • = Joseph Schechtmeister ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 262).
  • = Joseph Elhanan Melamed ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 592).
  • = Israel Ḥayyim Sagorodski ("Ha-Asif," ii. 149).
  • = Ḥayyim Judah Löb Markon ("Ha-Karmel," iv., No. 10).
  • = David Frischmann ("Ha-Yom," 1887, No. 234).
  • = Isaac Ḥayyim Cantarini of Padua.
  • = Joshua Ḥayyimowitz of Neu Sager (; "Ha-Karmel," vi. 89).
  • = I. N. Goldberg (Wiener, l.c. p. 383).
  • = Judah Löb Böhm ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," vi. 107; R.).
  • = Israel Bahmer (W. No. 868).
  • = Israel ha-Levi Landau ("HoḲ le-Yisrael," Prague, 1798; Bj. p. 199).
  • = Jehiel Mendelssohn ("Ha-Boḳer Or," iv. 4).
  • = J. L. Gordon; J. L. Gamso (S.).
  • = J. L. Bensew (Delitzsch, l.c. p. 106); J. Lewik (S.).
  • = Naphtali Mendel Schorr (Z. p. 349).
  • = Jacob Mordecai Netter ("Shelewim Min ha-Yom," Vienna, 1860).
  • = Joel Mordecai Reinhertz ("Ha-Meassef." p. 4, Warsaw, 1886).
  • = N. H. van Biema ("Reshemat Yenahel," Amsterdam, 1905).
  • = Israel Jacob b. Ẓebi Emden.
  • = Hirsch Schereschewski ("Boser Abot," Odessa, 1876).
  • = Wolf Jawetz ("Ha-Shaḥar," x. 467-470).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann ("Aguddah Aḥat," p. 43).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann ("Ha-Boḳer Or," v. 6). = Isaac Baer Levinsohn ("Dibre Ẓaddiḳim," Vienna, 1830; W. No. 2236).
  • = Z. H. Masliansky ("Ha-Yiẓhari," Manchester, 1895).
  • = Saul Berlin (Z. p. 380).
  • = Josel Pik Rochnove (Delitzsch, l.c. p. 108); Israel Rall.
  • = M. J. Berdyczewski ("Oẓar ha-Sifrut," iv. 1-40).
  • = Joseph Gabreelow ("Ha-'Ibri," iii., No. 24, New York).
  • = Mendel Mirlinski (Z. p. 435).
  • = Saul Jacob Elyashar (Si.).
  • = J. S. Bik.
  • = Jacob S. b. Isaac Olschwang ("Ha-Meliẓ," 1869, p. 19).
  • = Israel Jonathan Jerusalimsky ("Ha-Kerem," p. 119).
  • = Israel Isaac Black ("Shebile ha-Yahadut be-Angliyah," Manchester, 1903).
  • = M. Johalemstein, ("Ha-Meliẓ," 1888).
  • = Hirsch Schereschewski (S.).
  • = Jacob Samuel Fuchs (S.).
  • = Joseph Shabbethai Farḥi (Si.); Israel Pieskin ("Ha-Maggid," vii., Nos. 45-51).
  • = Isaac Samuel Reggio.
  • = Joseph Solomon Delmedigo.
  • = J. S. Olschwang (see ).
  • = A. Harkavy (S.).
  • = Joseph Masel ("Megillah Ḥadashah le-Purim," Manchester, 1902).
  • = A. A. Rakowski ("Masseket Sheṭarot," Warsaw, 1894; "Ha-Modea' la-Ḥadashim," ii. 17).
  • = I. J. Weissberg ("Ha-Yom," 1886, No. 113).
  • = Leopold Dukes ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," vi. 75).
  • = J. L. Perez (S.).
  • = J. L. Perez ("Die Zukunft," New York, 1902).
  • = J. L. Kantor ("Ben Ammi").
  • = Michael Weber (S.).
  • = M. Sablotzki (S.).
  • = Mendel Levin ("Masse'ot ha-Yam," Lemberg, 1859; Z. p. 165).
  • = Abraham Mendel Mohr ("Kol Bo le-Purim," Lemberg, 1855; Bj. p. 240).
  • = Moses Mendelssohn ("Ha-Meassef," 1784, p. 133).
  • = M. M. Lilien ("Kokebe Yiẓḥaḳ," xiii. 67-69; R.).
  • = Moses Kunitz ("Mosedot Tebel," Prague, s.a.; Bj. p. 306).
  • = Moses Eliezer Belinson ("Kokebe Yiẓḥaḳ," xxviii. 24-25).
  • = J. L. Smolenskin ("Ha-Shaḥar," vi. 79).
  • = N. S. Libowitz ("Efrayim Dainard u-Sefaraw be-Ameriḳa," New York, 1901).
  • = Meïr Friedmann ("Bet Talmud," i. 24).
  • = M. Braunstein ("Ha-Yeḳeb," p. 72).
  • = Moses b. Uri ("Ha-Meassef," 1810; see Delitzsch, l.c. p. 108).
  • = Jacob Kaplan ("Keneset ha-Gedolah," iii. 65).
  • = M. Braunstein (see ).
  • = Mordecai Ghirondi ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," vi. 57; R.).
  • = Ẓebi Schereschewski (S.).
  • = Meïr ha-Levi Letteris.
  • = A. B. Gottlober.
  • = Meïr b. Baruch of Rothenburg (Zunz, l.c. p. 40); Meïr of Lublin (Bj. p. 275, No. 37).
  • = Moses Schatzkes ("Gan Peraḥim," 1882, p. 50).
  • = Naḥman of Breslau ("Liḳḳuṭe "; Bj. p. 265).
  • = Solomon Alfasi of Tunis (Si.); Samuel Edies (Bj. p. 183, No. 468).
  • = Solomon Luria.
  • = Mordecai Weissmann-Chajes (see ).
  • = M. Sablotzki (S.).
  • = M. Sablotzki (S.).
  • = Mordecai Dob Friedenthal (W. No. 2353).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann (S.).
  • = M. J. Berdyczewski ("Oẓar ha-Sifrut," ii. 234).
  • = Raphael Kirchheim (ed. "'Alilot Debarim"; "Oẓar Neḥmad," iv. 178).
  • = Micah Joseph Lebensohn.
  • = Samuel L. Citron ("Ha-Eshkol," iii. 153-160). ] = M. J. Rosenfeld ("Oẓar ha-Sifrut," i. 121; W. No. 1141).
  • = Meïr Letteris (, iv. 181; C. B. No. 6134).
  • = Meïr Lebush b. Jehiel Michael ("Mashal u-Meliẓah," Warsaw, 1877).
  • = Moses L. Lilienblum ("Asefat Ḥakamim," p. 72).
  • = Menahem Mendel Löwenstamm ("Bikkure ha-Shanah," 1843, p. 48; R.).
  • = Nahum Sokolow ("Ẓaddiḳ we-Nisgab," Warsaw, 1882).
  • = J. L. Kantor ("Ha-Yom," 1886, p. 151).
  • = Selig Lauterbach (S.).
  • = M. N. Litinski (S.).
  • = Simeon Judah Stanislavski ("Ha-Yom," 1886, No. 22; S.).
  • = Shalom Jacob Abramowitsch.
  • = Michael Friedlander (; Delitzsch, l.c. p. 108).
  • = Lazar Atlas (So. p. 6).
  • = M. Creizenach ("Ẓiyyon").
  • = Moses Kleinmann (S.).
  • = Moses Reines ("Oẓar ha-Sifrut," iii. 95); Mordecai Roch ("Ha-Meassef," 1794; Delitzsch, l.c. p. 108).
  • = M. Reines (S.).
  • = Mordecai b. David Strelisker ("Ha-Shaḥar," i. 31).
  • = Moses Rosensohn ("Ha-Karmel," iv. 768).
  • = Moritz Adelmann ("Ha-Shaḥar," vii. 504-508).
  • = Hirsch Schereschewski (S.).
  • = Ḥayyim Lazar Muschkat ("Tiḳwat Ḥanef," Warsaw, 1888; Z. p. 438).
  • = Moses b. J. Schatzkes ("Ha-Ḳol," iii. 241).
  • = Moses Simeon Antokolski ("Ha-Karmel," iii. 492).
  • = Isaac Euchel ("Ha-Meassef," 1790, p. 171; see Letteris, , in "Ha-Meassef," p. 44, Vienna, 1862).
  • = Meïr Friedmann ("Bet Talmud," i. 62-63).
  • = Moritz Steinschneider ("Ha-Karmel," iii. 309).
  • = Reuben Brainin (S.).
  • = A. B. Dobsewitch (see above).
  • = Moses Aaron Rachamim Piazza (, Leghorn, 1786; Roest, "Cat. Rosenthal. Bibl," ii. 932).
  • = Benjamin b. Jacob Espinoza ("Yafeh Naf," Leghorn, 1773; Bj. p. 228).
  • = Naphtali S. Tur ("Ha-Karmel," ii. 121).
  • = N. S. Libowitz ("Ner ha-Ma'arabi," ii. 106).
  • = J. B. Lewner (Wiener, l.c.).
  • = J. L. Kantor ("Ha-Shaḥar," v. 23).
  • = J. L. Kantor ("Asefat Ḥakamim," p. 40).
  • = Isaac Satanow (W. No. 1898).
  • = David Apotheker (, iii., No. 14, New York).
  • = Nahum Sokolow.
  • = N. M. Mendrechowitz (S.).
  • = Naphtali Ẓebi Judah Berlin (Si.).
  • = Naphtali Keller ("Ha-Ḳokabim," p. 32).
  • = Reuben Brainin (S.).
  • = N. S. Libowitz.
  • = Solomon Gotthold ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," i. 120-136).
  • = Ezekiel Lipschitz ("Galgal ha-Ḥozer," Warsaw, 1886).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann (S.).
  • = Saadia Meïr b. Tobias Jonah ("Aḥiasaf," vii. 301).
  • = Phinehas Menahem Heilprin ("Teshubot be-Anshe Awen," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1845).
  • = H. Witkind (, i. 75).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann (S.).
  • = Isaac Euchel (, 1790; see C. B. No. 3713, and Martinet, "Tif'eret Yisrael," p. 186).
  • = O. Blohstein (S.).
  • = I. Goldberg ("Ha-Yeraḥ," Berdychev, 1895; S.).
  • = Joseph Perl ("Kerem Ḥemed," iii. 53-61).
  • = Saul Berlin ("Miẓpeh Yoḳtel," Berlin, 1789; see Jew. Encyc. s.v.).
  • = Joseph Perl.
  • = M. Proser (S.).
  • = A. Feigin (S.).
  • = J. Löwe ("Ha-Meassef," 1784; C. B. No. 3713).
  • = J. Ch. Tavyov (S.).
  • = I. J. Linetzki ("Ha-Meliẓ," 1869, pp. 113-114).
  • = Jacob Frances ("Metek Sefatayim," p. 105).
  • = I. Freidsohn ("Zikronot," Warsaw, 1902).
  • = N. S. Libowitz ("Ner ha-Ma'arabi," ii. 51). . See .
  • = Abraham b. Elijah of Wilna ("Gebulot Ereẓ," Berlin, 1801; W. No. 1836); Phinehas M. Heilprin ("Eben Boḥan," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1846; W. No. 51); Zechariah Isaiah Jolles (W. No. 2316); Moses Cohen ("Dabar be-'Itto," Warsaw, 1895; W. No. 2052); A. G. Lewitan ("Debar Torah," Warsaw, 1890; W. No. 2069); J. L. Perez; Alexander Zederbaum ("Ha-Ḳol." i., No. 19).
  • = Hirsch Schereschewski (S.).
  • = M. Reichersberg ("Ha-Ḳol." iii. 384).
  • = I. Kaminer (ib. iii. 223).
  • = J. C. Tavyov (S.).
  • = Joseph Elias Triwosch (S.).
  • = Moses b. Uri Philippson ("Ha-Meassef"; see C. B. No. 3713).
  • = Baruch Jeiteles ("Ha-Oreb," Vienna [?], 1795; W. No. 523).
  • = A. B. Lebensohn ("Tokaḥti la-Beḳarim," Wilna, 1868: "Kol Shire Adam we-Mikal," i., p. xvii., ib. 1895).
  • = H. Dan Bawll ("Shoresh Dabar," Wilna, 1866).
  • = Hirsch Rabbinowitz; Herman Rosenthal.
  • = Herman Rosenthal.
  • = I. B. Hurwitz ("Gan Peraḥim," 1890, p. 108).
  • = Moses L. Lilienblum.
  • = Perez Smolenskin ("Ha-Shaḥar," xi. 569).
  • = David Maggid (S.).
  • = I. J. Weissberg (S.).
  • = J. L. Kantor ("Ha-Yom," 1887, No. 15).
  • = Eliezer Isaac Shapiro (S.).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann (S.).
  • ר = Joseph Rosenthal (S.).
  • = Reuben Brainin (S.).
  • = Abraham Mendel Mohr (see ).
  • = Eliezer Isaac Shapiro (S.).
  • = Asher b. Jehiel.
  • = Ḥayyim Tschernovitz ("Sefer ha-Yobel," p. 309. Warsaw, 1904).
  • = Isaac Ẓebi Brodotzki (, Berdychev, 1899).
  • = J. C. Rabnitzki (see ).
  • = A. L. Lewinski (S.).
  • = David Ḳimḥi.
  • = Abraham b. Samuel Abulafia (Bj. p. 43, No. 833).
  • = Isaac Kaminer ("Ha-Shaḥar," viii. 69).
  • = Joseph Brill ("Keneset, Yisrael," i., col. 593).
  • = Isaac Baer Levinsohn ("Yalḳuṭ Ribal," Warsaw, 1878).
  • = Isaac Alfasi.
  • = Moses Isserles.
  • = Moses b. Maimon.
  • = Moses b. Naḥman.
  • = M. Selikowitsch ("Yalḳuṭ ha-Ro'lm," Odessa, 1869).
  • = Obadiah of Bertinoro.
  • = Meïr Obernik ("Ha-Meassef," 1784; C. B. No. 3713).
  • = Solomon ben Adret.
  • = Samuel b. Meïr.
  • = Solomon b. Isaac of Troyes.
  • = Solomon Mandelkern ("Keneset Yisrael," i., col. 1000).
  • = Joseph Elias Triwosch ("Ha-Shaḥar," x. 574).
  • = Eliezer Skreinka ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," v. 50-52; R.).
  • = S. I. Gräber ("Oẓar ha-Sifrut," i.); Samuel Aba Gorodetzki (S.).
  • = David Frischmann ("Ha-Asif," ii. 764).
  • = Simeon Eliezer Friedenstein ("Keneset ha-Gedolah," i. 103).
  • = S. Bernfeld.
  • = S. Bernfeld.
  • = Samson Bloch ("Kerem Ḥemed," i. 95).
  • = Shabbethai b. Ḥayyim Korngold ("Ha-Karmel," viii. 74).
  • = Simeon b. Isaac Bacharach (Simon Bacher).
  • = Solomon Gelbblum ("Sefer ha-Millim," Wilna, 1892).
  • = Arnold B. Ehrlich ("Miḳra ki-Peshuṭo," Berlin).
  • = Samuel David b. Hezekiah Luzzatto ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," ix. 76).
  • = Samuel David Luzzatto.
  • = W. Federow ("Yerushalayim," Vienna, 1876).
  • = Samuel Weissmann-Chajes (S.).
  • = David Frischmann (S.).
  • = S. Ostowske ("Shabat ha-Malkah," 1900).
  • = Senior Sachs ("Kerem Ḥemed," ix. 49).
  • = S. J. Halberstam.
  • = Samuel Ḥayyim b. David Dolli ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," ix. 76).
  • = Idem; S. J. Halberstamm(ib.).
  • = Hirsch Schereschewski (S.).
  • = S. I. Fuchs (S.); Samuel Joseph Fuenn.
  • = Solomon J. Rapoport.
  • = Shabbethai ha-Kohen.
  • = Samuel Löb Goldenberg; Samuel Löb Gordon (S.).
  • = Solomon Rabinowitsch.
  • = Idem (S.).
  • = Friedrich Albert Christian, editor and translator of "Ẓaḥḳan Melummad u-Mitḥareṭ," 1683 (Libowitz, , p. 115).
  • = S. Epstein ("Kaweret." pp. 64, 70).
  • = Joseph Freidkin.
  • = Hirsch Mendel Pineles.
  • = Gershon Bader (S.).
  • = Shalom Cohen (C. B. No. 3595).
  • = S. Mandelkern ("Ha-Shaḥar," ix. 107); N. M. Scheykewitsch ("Mot Yesharim," Warsaw, 1887).
  • = Senior Sachs ("Kanfe Yonah," p. 38).
  • = Shema Satanow ("Ha-Meassef," 1787, p. 191; Delitzsch, l.c. p. 108).
  • = Phabi Jolles (Sch.).
  • = Tobias P. Shapiro ("Ha-Meliẓ," 1869, p. 75).
  • = Phinehas Turberg ("Me-'Et le-'Et," 1900).
  • = Samuel Feigensohn (ed. "Siddur Ḳorban Tamid," Wilna, 1893; S.).
  • = Samuel P. Rabbinowitz.
  • = S. Rosenfeld (S.); Bernhard Schlesinger ("Bikkure ha-'Ittim," ix. 59-60; R.).
  • = Simḥah Reuben b. C. J. L. Edelmann ("Shoshannim," Königsberg, 1860).
  • = Joshua Meisach.
  • = A. B. Dobsewitch ("Ha-'Ibri," ii. Nos. 6, 15, New York).
  • = A. S. Rabinovitch ("Ha-Dor," i., No. 42).
  • = S. F. Diker (Si.).
  • = Lebusch Holisch (C. B. No. 3595).
  • = Aaron Luria ("Ha-Karmel," iii. 219).
  • = J. S. Trachtmann.
Bibliography:
  • Benjacob, Oẓarha-Sefarim [quoted in the foregoing article as Bj.];
  • G. H. Händler, Lexikon der Abbreviaturen als Anhang zu Dalman's Aramäisch-Neuhebräisches Wörterbuch [D.]:
  • L. Löwenstein, Abbreviaturen ( , pp. 255-264, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1903) [L.]:
  • M. Mortara, Indicc [M.];
  • M. Roest, , Amsterdam, 1867 [R.]:
  • M. Sablotzki, , Berdychev, 1902 [S.];
  • M. Schwab, Initiales et Pseudonymes Hébreur, in Répertoire, Supplement, pp. 200-207, Paris, 1903 [Sch.];
  • D. Simonsen, Abgekürzte Hebräische Schriftstellernamen, in Zeit. für Hebr. Bibl. iv. 87-92 [Si.];
  • N. Sokolow, , Warsaw, 1890 [So.];
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. [C. B.], pp. xxvii., xcvii., cxxxii.;
  • idem, Hebr. Bibl. [H. B.] xvi. 65; xxi. 103;
  • L. Wiener, The History of Yiddish Literature in the Nineteenth Century. pp. 383-384, New York, 1899;
  • S. Wiener, [W.], St. Petersburg, 1893;
  • Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-Mendels. Leipsic, 1891-95 [Z.];
  • Fürst, Bibl. Jud. [F.];
  • Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. [Zed.]. Essays on the literature: N. H. Getzow, in , pp. 158-162;
  • S. Lauterbach, in , i. 61-64;
  • I. S. Reggio, (Letter 1);
  • J. H. Schorr, in , ix., x.;
  • L. Schulmann, in , ii. 104.
J. I. D.
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