German jurist; born Sept. 6, 1853, at Würzburg. He studied at Würzburg, Heidelberg, and Berlin (LL.D., Würzburg, 1878). In 1880 he established himself as privat-docent at the University of Jena, where he was appointed assistant professor in 1883, and full professor of public law and the history of German law in 1896. His works include: "Die Rechtsfolgen des Ehebruchs nach Canonischem und Deutschem Recht," 1880; "Beiträge zur Deutschen Stadtrechtsgeschichte," 1883. Nos. i., ii.; "Die Behördenorganisation Kaiser Ferdinands I." 1887; "Geschichte des Gerichtswesens und der Verwaltungsorganisation Baierns," 1889, vol. i.; "Internationales Eisenbahnfrachtrecht," 1894. He has also contributed various articles to Conrad's "Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften."