TODROS BEN KALONYMUS:
French scholar and liturgical poet; lived at Narbonne in the first half of the twelfth century; son of Kalonymus the Great, who flourished at Narbonne in the eleventh century, and reached the age of eighty years, being renowned for his learning and the services which he rendered to his coreligionists. A war of succession between the city of Narbonne and the Count of Toulouse, which lasted nearly ten years, entailed much suffering on the Jews, then numbering about two thousand; and Todros gave his family in bondage for the special taxes which were imposed upon the Jews to meet the expenses of the war. He was the author of "Azharot," or liturgical poems. He had a son, Kalonymus Nasi, as well as a nephew, Todros ben Moses, who flourished at Narbonne about the middle of the twelfth century, and is probably identical with the Todros b. Moses who, together with other rabbis of Narbonne, signed a responsum written about 1150.
- Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 406-407.