Tanna of the second century (fourth tannaitic generation); contemporary of Simon b. Gamaliel II. These two rabbis are often quoted together, either as opposing, or as agreeing with, each other (Tosef., 'Er. iv. [v.] 2; ib. Yeb. xiii. 5). Joshua b. Ḳarḥah also appears to have been of their circle, and the trio joined in opinions on marital questions (Tosef., Yeb. l.c.; Tosef., Ket. ix. 2; comp. Yeb. 42b, 75a; See Sanhedrin). Once Ishmael is cited as opposing his father, Johanan b. Baroḳa, on a question of civil law (B. Ḳ. x. 2; ib. p. 114b; comp. Alfasi and Rosh ad loc.). While his name is connected with about forty halakot, on dietary laws, sacrifices, and Levitical cleanness, as well as on civil law, he is but little known in the province of the Haggadah. He says, "Whoso learns in order to teach is aided by Heaven to learn and to teach; but whoso learns in order the more fully to discharge his duties, him Heaven enables to learn and teach and practise" (Ab. iv. 5). Elsewhere he points out that the pious man must not live in the neighborhood of the wicked, for when punishment providentially falls upon the latter the former suffers also (Ab. R. N. ix. [ed. Schechter, p. 20a; comp. p. 34b]).
Bibliography:S. S. M.
- Bacher, Ag. Tan. ii. 369;
- Brüll, Mebo ha-Mishnah, i. 209;
- Frankel, Darke ha-Mishnah, p. 185;
- Weiss, Dor, ii. 167.