JOSHUA, BOOK OF.
The first book of the second greater division in the Hebrew canon, the "Nebi'im," and therefore also the first of the first part of this division, the "Nebi'im Rishonim." It bears in Hebrew the superscription ; in the Septuagint, using the post-exilic form of the name (; Neh. viii. 17), Ἰησοῦς (in some manuscripts with the addition of υἱὸς Ναυῆ); in the Peshiṭta, "Ketaba de-Yeshu' bar-Nun Talmideh de-Mushe" (Book of Joshua, son of Nun, the Disciple of Moses). It belongs to the historical books of the Old Testament, its theme being the invasion and conquest under Joshua of west-Jordanic Palestine and its apportionment among the tribes, with an account of the closing days and death of the great leader.
The book, which comprises twenty-four chapters, readily falls into two main parts and an appendix, which may be summarized thus: (1) the events following Moses' death; the invasion and capture of the land; (2) the division of the country; (3) the conduct of the Reubenites, etc.; two hortatory addresses by Joshua shortly before his death, followed by a brief gloss on his burial-place and the disposition made of the bones of Joseph. In detail the contents are as follows:Part I., ch. i-xii.
- i.: After Moses' death, Joshua, by virtue of his previous appointment as Moses' successor, receives from Yhwh the command to cross the Jordan. In execution of this order Joshua issues the requisite instructions to the stewards of the people for the crossing of the Jordan; and he reminds the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half of Manasseh of their pledge given to Moses to help their brethren.
- ii.: Joshua sends out from Shittim two spies to explore the city of Jericho. They are saved from falling into the hands of the king by the shrewd tactics of Rahab. The spies return and report.
- iii.-iv.: Camp is broken at Shittim. A halt is made at the Jordan. Joshua addresses the people; assuring them that Yhwh, the living God, is in the midst of them, that He will drive out the Canaanites, and that the Ark will cross the Jordan, whereupon a miraculous change will be worked in the waters of the river. The predicted miracle takes place as soon as the priests with the Ark wade into the water. In commemoration of the event, Joshua orders two monuments to be erected: one in the river-bed; the other on the west bank, at Gilgal. The Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half of Manasseh number 40,000 warriors. The priests are bidden to come up out of the river's bed after the people have crossed over. This happens on the tenth day of the first month; and the camp is pitched at Gilgal.
- v.: Joshua is bidden to make flint knives wherewith to circumcise the Israelites, for those born in the desert had not been circumcised. This is done; Pesaḥ is celebrated; and the manna ceases. Joshua in front of Jericho receives the visit of a "captain of the host of the Lord" in the guise of a man, who declares that the soil on which Joshua is standing is holy ground.
- vi.: The siege and capture of Jericho; after thirteen circuits—one every day for six days, and seven circuits on the seventh day—with seven priests blowing seven rams' horns and the people shouting, the walls cave in. Jericho is put under the ban; but Rahab is excepted. A curse is pronounced against any one who should rebuild the city. Joshua becomes famous throughout the whole land.
- vii.: The miscarriage of the expedition against Ai, undertaken, upon the counsel of spies, with a very small force, strikes terror into the heart of the people and brings Joshua to the verge of despair. But Yhwh announces that the people have sinned. As stated in the first verse, Achan has not respected the ban. The people must be reconsecrated. The sinner must be discovered by the casting of Yhwh's lot. This is done. By a process of elimination the guilt is limited to the tribe of Judah, then to the clan of the Zarhites, then to the sept of Zabdi; the individual members of Zabdi are then brought forward, man by man, and finally Achan is detected as the culprit. He admits having taken a costly Babylonian garment, besides silver and gold; and his confession is verified by the finding of the treasure buried in his tent. Achan is taken into the valley of Achor, and there stoned to death.
- viii.: Expedition against Ai, this time with the whole army. The city is taken by clever strategy, 30,000 men being placed overnight in an ambush. The attacking force feigning flight, the King of Ai is drawn far away from the city; Joshua points with his lance toward the city; whereupon the men in ambush rush into it, while Joshua and the army with him face about. Thus the pursuing enemy is taken between the two sections of Israel's array. Not one man escapes; the city is burned; 12,000 inhabitants are killed, and the spoils are taken. The King of Ai is hanged to a tree until nightfall, when his body is thrown into a pit, where on a stone heap is raised. Joshua erects an altar on Mount Ebal as Moses had commanded, offering to Yhwh holocausts and sacrificing peace-offerings.On the stones of the altar he engraves a copy of the law of Moses; the people being ranged in two sections—one facing Ebal; the other, Gerizim—while the blessings and curses are read as ordained by Moses.
- ix.: Confederacy of the native kings to fight Joshua. The Gibeonites by craft obtain a treaty from the Israelites, which even after the detection of the fraud practised upon the invaders is not abrogated. They are, however, degraded to be "hewers of wood and drawers of water" for the altar of Yhwh.
- x.: Adoni-zedek brings about an alliance between the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon, and they ("the five kings of the Amorites") besiege Gibeon. In their distress the Gibeonites implore Joshua's help. Joshua, assured by Yhwh of victory, comes up from Gilgal by a forced night march and attacks the allies suddenly. Thrown into confusion, the Amorites flee as far as the ascent of Beth-horon. To this battle is referred a song from the Book of Jashar, commanding the sun to be still at Gibeon and the moon in the valley of Ajalon. The five kings are captured, first being incarcerated in the cave where they had hidden for safety, then, after the pursuit had been discontinued,—scarcely one of the enemies escaping—being by order of Joshua humiliated and hanged. Then follows a detailed enumeration of the cities captured and put under ban. Joshua becomes master of the whole land—the hill-country, the southland, the lowland, and the slopes—leaving not one king alive, and banning all men from Kadesh-barnea unto Gaza, and all the district of Goshen unto Gibeon. After this expedition he returns to Gilgal.
- xi.: Jabin, King of Hazor, and his allies rendezvous at Merom. Joshua is assured by Yhwh of their total defeat, which in fact is brought about by a sudden attack on the part of Joshua. Pursuing them to a great distance (the cities are named), he hamstrings their horses and burns their chariots, capturing Hazor, killing all of its people, and burning the town. Other royal residences he takes by the sword, putting them under the ban. The spoils are taken, and the men are put to death. The cities on the hill are allowed to stand. Joshua drives the Anakim from the mountains, from Hebron, and from other places. Only in Gaza some remain. Finally the land has peace.
- xii.: Recapitulation of Joshua's conquests, with statistical details of the number of the kings (30) captured and subdued.
- xiii.: After an enumeration of the places still unconquered (mainly the coast districts of the Philistines) Joshua is bidden to apportion the land, the unconquered as well as the conquered (verse 6b), among nine and one-half tribes of Israel, the other two and one-half tribes having under Moses been given their portion on the east of the Jordan (verses 14b-32).
- xiv.: Résumé of the foregoing reference to Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh, with a gloss concerning Levi's non-inheritance save as regards detached cities, while Joseph receives a double heritage (verses 1-5). Caleb's claim to Hebron is allowed.
- xv.: The "lot" of Judah (verses 1-12). Caleb's share (13). Expulsion by him of the three Anakim (14). Story of Kirjath-sepher (16). Othniel takes it and wins, as promised, Caleb's daughter for wife (17). Her successful plea for the gift of wells (18). Catalogue of the heritage of Judah (20 et seq.). Gloss on the continued dwelling of the Jebusites in Jerusalem (63).
- xvi.: Lot of the Josephites (1-3). The Ephraimites own cities in the territory of Manasseh (9). Gloss to the effect that the Canaanites dwelling in Gezer had not been driven out, but had been reduced to slavery (10).
- xvii.: Lot of Manasseh, Machir as a warrior taking for his prize Gilead and Bashan (1). Delimitation of Manasseh (7). Manasseh's assignments in Issachar and Asher (11). Gloss stating that these cities had not been captured (12). Protest of the Josephites against receiving one share only (14). Joshua advises them to conquer the wooded hill-land (15). Plea on their part that the mountain is not extensive enough, while the plains are held by Canaanites equipped with iron chariots (16). Joshua's consolatory encouragement (17).
- xviii.: Erection of the Tabernacle at Shiloh (1). Seven tribes without allotment. Joshua urges these to appoint commissions of three men out of each tribe to go and take the land and to report to him, when, after dividing it into seven portions, he will cast the lot (2-7). The commissions carry out the errand and lay their book of record before Joshua, who then casts the lot (8-10). Benjamin's share (11). The boundaries (12-20). List of the cities (21-28).
- xix.: Simeon's share, in the territory of Judah. List of the cities (1-8). Reason why Simeon's lot was in Judean territory (9). Zebulun's share; its boundaries (10-14). Twelve cities not specified (15b). Issachar's share; its cities and boundaries (17-23). Asher's lot; its boundaries; summary gives twenty-two as the number of its cities (24-31). Naphtali's share; its boundaries and fortified cities (32-39). Dan's share; its cities enumerated (40-46). Why the Danites took Leshem = Dan (47). Joshua receives as his own share Timnath-serah (49-50). Eleazar and Joshua had assigned the lots before Yhwh at the gate of the Tabernacle at Shiloh (51). Cities of refuge established (51b-xx.).
- xxi.: The Levites' assignment (1-8). Concluding paragraph, emphasizing God's fulfilment of His promise to the fathers (43-45).
- xxii.: Dismissal to their homes of Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh with Joshua's blessing and an admonition to take heed of Yhwh's Law as commanded by Moses. Now that they have become rich in cattle, silver, gold, iron, and garments they are to divide the booty with their brethren (1-8). Return of the east-Jordanic tribes; they build an altar at the stone-heap on the bank of the Jordan; the Israelites desire to punish them for this act; but they first send Phinehas and ten princes to the Reubenites, etc., to censure them, recalling the Peor episode and advising them to remove to Palestine. The Reubenites explain that in building the altar their intention was to show their fidelity to Yhwh,that their descendants might not be taunted with being untrue to Him. The delegation rejoices at the explanation, and upon their report the Israelites abandon the projected punitive expedition (9-34).
- xxiii.: Joshua, now old, calls an assembly of all Israel, at which he admonishes the people to remain loyal to the Torah of Moses.
- xxiv.: An account of a gathering of Israel at Shechem, at which Joshua delivers an impressive address, reviewing the past, and makes the people vow to remain faithful. He erects a great stone as a witness to the promise (1-28). Joshua dies (29). Joseph's bones are buried in Shechem (32). Eleazar dies and is buried (33).
The Rabbis ascribe the authorship of the book, as of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy, to Joshua (B. B. 14b); the account of Joshua's death (Josh. xxiv. 29-32) was added, according to them, by Eleazar, the son of Aaron (B. B. 15a), and that of Eleazar's demise (Josh. xxiv. 33) by Phinehas (B. B. l.c.). But this view has been rejected by Isaac Abravanel (see preface to his commentary on the Earlier Prophets), who correctly observes that the use of the phrase = "unto this day" (Josh. iv. 9, vii. 26, ix. 27, xiv. 14, xv. 62, xvi. 10) controverts this assumption, and that certain events mentioned in the Book of Joshua are recorded in the Book of Judges (xix. 45) as occurring "long after the death of Joshua" (Abravanel, "Comm. in Prophetas Priores," pp. 2b, col. 2; 3a, col. 1; Leipsic, 1686).Views as to Authorship.
Christian commentators have for similar reasons contended that the book was by a later author, who had access to documents composed by Joshua or by contemporaries of his (Theodoret, "In Josue Quæst." xiv.). In the "Synopsis Sacræ Scripturæ" (xxviii., col. 309), attributed to St. Athanasius, the title of the book is explained not as the name of the author, but as indicating the hero of the events. Alphonsus Tostat ("Opera," Cologne, 1613; "In Josue I. Quæst." xiii.) rejects the authorship of Joshua, and advances the theory that the book is the work of King Solomon, while Maes ("Josue Imperatoris Historia," Antwerp, 1574) ascribes it to Ezra, who had access to ancient Hebrew archives. These and modern Catholic critics also (Cardinal Meignan, "De Moïse à David," Paris, 1896) thus make the book posterior to the time of Joshua, but, for the greater part, pre-exilic and always based on documents coeval with the events reported.
Among modern Jewish critics L. Wogue ("Histoire de la Bible," Paris, 1881) defends the traditional view, with reference to B. B. 14b and 15a. More recently the passage in Ecclus. (Sirach) xlvi. 1 has been invoked in proof of the authorship of Joshua; προΦητεῖαι in Ecclesiasticus means "books," so that Joshua being designated (ib.) as διάδόχος Μωϋσῆ ἔν προΦητείαίς would imply that he was the "author" of the "book." The Hebrew text, however, has (see Israel Lévi, "L'Ecclésiastique," Paris, 1898), but this has also been construed, with reference to II Chron. ix. 29, where means "book," as supporting the traditional view.
Keil in his commentary has endeavored to defend this view by urging the force of = "until we had passed over" (Josh. v. 1) as demonstrating that the narrative must have been written by an eyewitness; but the ancient versions show this reading to be erroneous. Nor is xviii. 9 conclusive: at the utmost it proves that the catalogue of cities (xviii. 11-xix. 46) was abstracted from a document contemporary with Joshua. In the same way xxiv. 26 may be taken as evidence only that xxiv. 1-25 is by him, though upon closer inspection even this passage is seen to be merely the honest opinion of a later writer. The objections by Abravanel have not been answered.Comparison with Judges.
Later Biblical books exhibit incidents which demonstrate that the situation assumed in Joshua could not have been that of the period of invasion. For instance, Jericho, represented in Joshua as completely overthrown and upon the rebuilding of which a solemn curse is invoked, is found to exist at a much later date, even as a city of the Prophets (see Elisha; comp. Josh. vi. 2-27, xvi. 1; Judges iii. 12-30; II Sam. x. 5; II Kings ii. 5, 15; v. 19-22; I Chron. xix. 5; for the curse see I Kings xvi. 34). Ai, reported burned, is known to Isaiah (as "Aiath"; Isa. x. 28). Gezer (Josh. xvi. 10), described as being reduced to vassalage, is not rendered tributary until the time of Solomon (I Kings ix. 16). But a comparison with the Book of Judges suffices to discredit the theory that the Book of Joshua is an autobiography of its eponymous hero. The narrative in Judges reveals the fact that the invasion was not directed by a general-in-chief, nor undertaken at one time by the tribes united under a national commander, nor accomplished in the lifetime of one man, much less in two decades.
Nor is the book the work of one man. Contradictions abound, e.g., in the chronology: in iii. 1 the crossing is set for the next day; iii. 2, three days intervene; iii. 5, the start is again delayed one day; comp. v. 10 with iv. 19 and v. 2-9. In xi. 21 the Anakim are expelled by Joshua, while in xv. 13 Caleb is reported as having performed this feat. Double and variant versions are given, as, for instance, the explanation of the name Gilgal (iv. 20; comp. v. 9 and xiv. 6 et seq. with xv. 13 et seq.).
The Book of Joshua must be regarded as a compilation; and analysis of its contents makes it certain that its sources are of the same character as those of the Pentateuch. This, to a certain degree, was the impression of the Rabbis. According to Mak. 11a, the chapter (xx.) concerning the cities of refuge was taken from the Pentateuch. The Book of Joshua was regarded by them as written in the light of the Deuteronomic legislation (Gen. R. vi. 14). At all events, Joshua and the Pentateuch are treated as of one character in the saying that the sins of Israel alone necessitated the adding of other books to these (Ned. 22b). Joshua is often compared with Moses (Ta'an. 20a; Soṭah 36a; B. B. 75a; Sanh. 20a; Mak. 9b).
While modern critics generally are agreed that the Book of Joshua is a compilation from sources that have been utilized in the Pentateuch (J, E, JE, D, and P), with additions by the editor (R = Redactor), they differ very widely as regards the details. According to Steuernagel ("Joshua," in Nowack's"Hand-Kommentar"), Albers' attempt in his "Die Quellenberichte in Josua," i-xii., 1891, to separate the components of J from E in part i. (i.-xii.) is unsatisfactory. In fact, Steuernagel assumes that J and E combined as JE never were accessible to the compiler of Joshua, the two being then still uncombined. A few fragments from J (after Budde, in Stade's "Zeitschrift," vii.), parallel with passages in Judges i., and others somewhat more numerous from E, are all that he finds in Joshua. He insists that for i.-xii. another work, D, was the main source. This D is not identical with the author of Deuteronomy, but is rather D2 (= the author of Deut. i.-iii.), and is on the whole an independent elaboration of E. The few fragments of J and E in Joshua he concedes were added by R, and only after D2 had been combined with P (mostly in part ii.).
Steuernagel's analysis has not been accepted by Holzinger ("Josua," in Marti's "K. H. C."), who rejects D2 and works out a scheme on the basis of J, E, and JE, with a pronounced Deuteronomic coloring: Deuteronomist, Priestly Code, and Redactor. Contrary to the Pentateuchal R, who makes P the original document, in Joshua JED is the basis, supplemented by extracts from P. Still later additions are noticeable as well as changes in phraseology (e.g., the use of in vii. 13, 19 et seq.; viii. 30; ix. 18, 20; x. 40, 42; xiii. 14, 33; xiv. 14; xxii. 16, 24; xxiii.; xxiv. 2, 23). For a detailed analysis on this basis see Holzinger, "Das Buch Josua," pp. xvii.-xxi.
Steuernagel in his translation prints the different sources in different types. W. H. Bennett in "The Book of Joshua" (in "S. B. O. T." 1895) indicates the various documents by the use of different colors.Redaction.
Summing up, these various analyses have certainly demonstrated that, on the whole, in the narrative portion of the book (i.-xii.) the introduction (i.) is Deuteronomic, as is the conclusion of the whole book (xxi. 43-xxii. 6, xxiii.), and that Deuteronomic coloring is to be found in both parts, naturally in a greater degree in the narrative chapters. The basis of the book was a Deuteronomic history of Joshua, founded on material from J and E perhaps not as yet combined as JE, thus excluding Rje (=Redactor of JE). The main current of the narrative is not originally Deuteronomic, the Deuteronomic editor heightening its coloring, and dwelling on the moral and religious implications of the story. The narrative is not always consistent. In xiii.-xix. many fragments are for the most part parallels to Judges i., which make it appear that the conquest was a slow, laborious process, the tribes acting without concerted plan and nowhere under united central command. These belong to J.
But even in the narrative portion, strictly so-called, as distinct from the statistical, a twofold account is almost always discernible: one apparently older and more prosy; the other, with a clear tendency to magnify the importance of the events and the absolute annihilation of the inhabitants (though this may be set down as by Rd), and to emphasize the miraculous. The older recalls the method of J in the Pentateuch; the younger, that of E. P's share in the narrative section is very limited. Additions of a few verses may be ascribed to it. In xiii.-xxii. the contributions from P are much more extensive. The boundaries and the lists of the cities of refuge and of the Levitical towns belong to it. The combining of the Deuteronomic Joshua (Rd, J, E, perhaps JE [Rje]) with P was the work of R, who made verbal changes to suit his ends. But even after this additions were made, e.g., xxii. 9-24 (comp. Num. xxxii.-xxxiii.; Judges xx.). Ch. xvi. and xvii. have come down in mutilated form. When they were abridged can not be determined. The duplication of Joshua's farewell also is by a later hand; or it is possible that one account of it (xxiv.) is from E, while the other is clearly Deuteronomistic, resembling Deut. iv. 29-30.Historical Character of the Book.
After eliminating the pragmatic elements and toning down the Deuteronomic coloring, the critical study of the Book of Joshua penetrates to a bed of traditions that in a more or less confused way reflect actual occurrences; but these did not take place in the sequence here assumed, nor in the manner detailed. The division of the land is, on the whole, the work of a theorist who utilizes actual conditions to a certain extent, but always to bring into prominence his priestly program. Local legends, snatches of folk-lore and folk-songs, the tendency to concentration in one man of the experiences of tribes and generations (always characteristic of legend), have had a decisive share in the shaping of the original material. Explanations of names (Achor, Gilgal), old local shrines, and reminiscences of former religious usages are also detectable as the raw data upon which popular fancy had been at work long before the various literary sources had leaped into existence. To deny in toto, with Eduard Meyer (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," i.), the historical character of the book is dogmatic. It may, however, be noticed that, in contrast with Judges, the Book of Joshua has no chronological scheme (comp. xi. 18, xiv. 10, xxiii. 1, xxiv. 31).The Hexateuch.
In view of the identity of its sources, and also of the fact that throughout the Pentateuch the conquest of the land is presupposed and emphasized as the goal (Gen. xiii. 14-17, xv. 13-16, xxvi. 3, xxviii. 13-15; Ex. iii. 8, 17; xxxii. 13; xxxiii. 1-3; Num. xiii. 17 et seq., xiv., xxxii.; Deut. i. 38, iii. 21, xxxi. 3-6; P Gen. xvii. 6-8, xxviii. 3; Num. xxvii. 18-23, xxxiii. 50-54, xxxiv., xxxv.; Deut. xxxiv. 9), critics have held that Joshua at one time formed with the Pentateuch the so-called Hexateuch. If this was the case, it must have been at a time anterior to the separation of the Samaritans from the Jews, as the Samaritans have only the Pentateuch; but the books of Ezra and Nehemiah give no intimation of the existence of a hexateuch. In all probability the sources J, E, as well as D and P, carried the narrative to the conquest of the land; but in their present forms the Pentateuch and Joshua were never combined. Volck (in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc." ix. 390), assuming that P is older than JE and D, argues that before D was incorporated into the present Pentateuch, Joshua (i.-xxiv.) formed a part of a work composed of P, JE, and Deut. xxxi. 14-23, xxxii. 1-44, 48-52, xxxiii., xxxiv.1-9, and that it was when Deut. v.-xxviii. was incorporated that Joshua was made a separate book. This theory, while not convincing, helps to make plain that the sources must have contained the story of the conquest. That Hosea, Amos, and Micah knew this Hexateuch (minus Deuteronomy) is not proved by such passages as Micah vi. 5 et seq. (or Hosea ix. 10, xii. 4 et seq., and Amos ii. 10, v. 25, vii. 4). The traditions at the base of the histories were known to these early prophets. More than this can not be inferred from their references to Shittim and Gilgal (e.g., in Micah vi. 5 et seq.).The Text.
The fact that in Joshua the Pentateuchal archaic forms ( for or for ) are not found is not evidence against the Hexateuchal hypothesis. This circumstance merely indicates that at the time (post-exilic) when the consonantal text was fixed Joshua was not one work with the Pentateuch. Jericho is pointed for Pent. . The text is in fairly good condition. The Septuagint is without some of the glosses (v. 4-7, vi. 3-5, xx. 4-6). The omissions in the Hebrew (in xv. 59, names of eleven cities; in xxi., a passage between verses 35 and 36) are supplied in the Greek. At the end of xxiv. the Septuagint presents additions of interest.The Samaritan Book of Joshua.
The Samaritan Book of Joshua, an extracanonical book written in Arabic, pretends to be a translation from the Hebrew ("Chronicon Samaritanum CuiTitulus Est Liber Josuæ," ed. Juynboll, Leyden, 1848). It relates the consecration of Joshua (Deut. xxxi.), the Balaam episode, and the war under Joshua as general against the Midianites; then, with a new title ("Book of Joshua the Son of Nun"), the conquest of the land and its division, continuing the story from Joshua's demise to Eli's death. Interpolations (xxvi.-xxxvii.) deal with other personages, and in the concluding chapters Nebuchadnezzar, Alexander, and Hadrian are the heroes. This book is a medieval compilation of the time when the Samaritans were under Mohammedan rule, but contains also old haggadic material (see Shobach).
- The introductions of Driver, Cornill, König, Baudissin, Reuss, Bleek-Wellhausen, Schrader-De Wette, and Kuenen;
- the histories of Israel by Guthe, Stade, Piepenbring, Kittel, Winckler;
- the Bible dictionaries of Cheyne and Black, Hastings, Riehm (2d ed.), Schenckel, Hamburger, Winer (3d ed.);
- Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc. viii.;
- Vigouroux, iii.;
- L. König, Alttest. Studien, i.;
- idem, Die Authentie des Buches Josua, Meurs, 1836;
- Keil, Kommentar über das Buch Josua, Erlangen, 1847;
- J. Hollenberg, Die Deuteronomischen Bestandtheile des Buches Josua, in Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1874;
- idem, Die Alexandrinische Uebersetzung des Buches Josua, Meurs, 1876;
- Wellhausen, Die Komposition des Hexateuchs (originally in Jahrbuch der Theologie, 1876-77);
- Budde, Richter und Josua, in Stade's Zeitschrift, 1877, pp. 93 et seq.;
- J. S. Black, The Book of Joshua, Cambridge, 1891;
- E. Albers, Die Quellenberichte in Josua (Josh. i.-xii.), Bonn, 1891;
- Dillmann, Numeri, Deuteronomium, und Josua, in the Kurzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch, Leipsic, 1886;
- Oettli, commentary to the book in Deuteronomium, Josua, Richter (Strack-Zöckler, Komment. zum A. T. 1893);
- Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 4th ed.;
- Holzinger, Einleitung in den Hexateuch, 1893;
- idem, Das Buch Josua, Tübingen and Leipsic, 1901;
- Steuernagel, Das Buch Josua, 1900;
- W. H. Bennett, The Book of Joshua, in S. B. O. T. Leipsic and Baltimore, 1895.