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LANGENSCHWARZ, MAXIMILIAN LEOPOLD (pseudonyms, N. Z. Charleswang and Jakob Zwangsohn):

German author and hydropathist; born 1801 at Rödelheim, near Frankfort-on-the-Main; died before 1860. His parents being very poor, a few wealthy citizens sent him to the gymnasia of Darmstadt and Frankfort-on-the-Main. He joined several wandering theatrical troupes, and is said to have embraced Christianity at Vienna. In 1830 he appeared at Munich, gaining successes as a declaimer and improvisator. He also made successful tours through England, France, and Russia. In 1842 he settled in Paris as a hydropathist under the name Langenschwarz-Rubini; and in 1848 he returned to Germany.

Langenschwarz wrote: "Arnoldo," Vienna, 1829; "Die Fahrt in's Innere," ib. 1830; and "Der Hofnarr," poems, 1832, and edited the magazine "Satirische Brille für Alle Nasen" (1830).

Bibliography:
  • Jüdischer Plutarch, ii. 156-157;
  • Brümmer, Lexikon der Deutschen Dichter und Prosaisten des 19. Jahrhunderts.
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