The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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A king mentioned in the superscription to Prov. xxxi., which is addressed to him by his mother. Various theories have been proposed in explanation of the superscription. Cheyne reads "Jerahmeel." Others (e.g., Wildeboer) join the phrase "Lemuel the king" with the following word, "massa" (A. V., following the Masoretic punctuation, "prophecy"), which they take as a proper name, and read "King of Massa," an Ishmaelite people (Gen. xxv. 14). Toy ("Proverbs," p. 539) rejects this together with any symbolical interpretation. The word "Lemuel," like "Lael," means "Godward" (comp. Gray, "Hebrew Proper Names," p. 207, s.v. "Nemuel").

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