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Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D.

Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa.

Contributions:
BAAL-BERITH – Biblical Data ("the Ba'al of the Covenant"): A form of Ba'al-worship prevailing in Israel (Judges viii. 33), and particularly in Shechem (Judges ix. 4). The term "Ba'al" is shown by the equivalent "El-berith" (Judges ix. 46, R....
BAAL-PEOR – Name of a Canaanitish god. Peor was a mountain in Moab (Num. xxiii. 28), whence the special locality Beth-peor (Deut. iii. 29, etc.) was designated. It gave its name to the Ba'al who was there worshiped, and to whose service...
BAAL-ZEPHON – Biblical Data: An Egyptian locality in the neighborhood of the Red Sea. In spite of all attempted combinations (Dillmann-Ryssell on Ex. xiv. 2) its situation is still unknown. An Egyptian god, B'irati Dapuna—that is, Ba'alat...
BABA – Originally, "gate," a Talmudic technical term for section, part, or clause. A single Mishnah may be divided into two or three parts: "resha" and "sefa," "beginning" and "end"; or "resha," "meẓi'ata," and "sefa," "beginning,"...
BABA BATRA – The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. This "massekta" (treatise) is not, like Baba Ḳamma and Baba Meẓi'a,...
BABA BEN BUṬA – Teacher of the Law at the time of Herod, and perhaps a member of the prominent family known as "The Sons of Baba" ("Bene Baba"), who, at the time of the siege of Jerusalem by Herod (37 B.C.), resisted its surrender, and whom...
BABA ḲAMMA – The first of a series of three Talmudic treatises of the order Neziḳin dealing with damages. Baba Ḳamma is on compensation for damages. The regulations discussed in this tractate have their source in the judgments that Moses was...
BABA MEẒI'A – The second of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin. It treats of man's responsibility with regard to the property of his fellow-man that has come lawfully into his possession for the present, and of which he is...
BABEL, TOWER OF – Biblical Data: The story of the building of the city and the Tower of Babel as found in Gen. xi. 1-9 is briefly as follows: The whole human race spoke one and the same language, and formed one community. This community or clan...
BAIL – In English and American law, the obligation of sureties in a sum named, that the person under arrest in a civil or criminal cause will, if set at large, deliver himself up to stand trial and submit to judgment. Such obligation...
BAILMENTS – Delivery of personal property for the purpose of a trust. A bailment arises when one person (the bailee) is lawfully put in the possession of goods belonging to another (the bailor) with the understanding that he will return...
BAKING – Biblical Data: The bread of the ancient Hebrews, like that of the Palestinians today, was not in the shape of thick loaves, but of thin cakes (see Bread). Originally these were baked by kindling a fire on the sand or on small...
BALAAM – Balak Solicits His Aid. —Biblical Data: A son of Beor and a prophet of Pethor in Mesopotamia. The narrative relating to Balaam is found in Num. xxii.-xxiv. According to this narrative, Balak, king of Moab, sent messengers to the...
BALAAM – Balak Solicits His Aid. —Biblical Data: A son of Beor and a prophet of Pethor in Mesopotamia. The narrative relating to Balaam is found in Num. xxii.-xxiv. According to this narrative, Balak, king of Moab, sent messengers to the...
BALAK – Biblical Data: According to Num. xxii.-xxiv., Balak was king of Moab when the Israelites emerged from their wanderings in the wilderness to the conquest of the East Jordanic land. Alarmed by the victories and numbers of the...
BALSAM – Word used as the translation (R. V., margin) of the Hebrew (Cant. v. 1) and of (ib. v. 13, vi. 2), for which the A. V. has "spice." An aromatic gum or spice, probably the product of a Balsam tree or plant. The Balsam tree of...
BANISHMENT – Biblical Data: In ancient Israel an exclusion, permanent or temporary, from the native land, as a divine punishment. Adam's Banishment from the garden of Eden (Gen. iii. 24) and Cain's from the presence of the Lord (Gen. iv. 16)...
BANKRUPTCY – In modern law, the proceeding taken by the courts of justice with regard to debtors unable to pay their debts in full, when all the creditors become parties to the proceeding. The object of bankruptcy laws is twofold: first,...
BANNAAH, BANNAY, BANNAYAH – A Palestinian semi-tanna (see Bar Ḳappara) at the beginning of the third century. Not much of a halakic nature from him has been preserved; but he is distinguished as one of the great haggadists of his time. Probably he also...
BANNAIM – A supposed sect of an Essene order, among Palestinian Jews of the second century. The only passage in which the name occurs is Miḳwaot ix. 6 (Tosef. ib. vi. 14 [vii. 1]), where the following Halakah is recorded by a tanna of the...
BAR DALA, BARDALA, BAR DALIA, BARDALIA – A place near Lydda, which once harbored a rabbinic seat of learning (B. M. 10a et seq.; see Rabbinowicz, "Diḳduḳe Soferim," ad loc.; Beẓah 14a, see Rabbinowicz, ib.; Yer. 'Er. vi. 24a; Yer. Kil. i. 27a; Yer. Sheb. ii. 33d). It...
BAR ḲAPPARA – Palestinian scholar of the beginning of the third century, occupying an intermediate position between tanna and amora. His real and complete name was Eleazar (there seems to be no ground for the form "Eliezer") ben Eleazar...
BAR MIẒWAH – Religious Maturity. Hebrew term applied to a boy on completing his thirteenth year, who has then reached the age of religious duty and responsibility. The name "Bar Miẓwah" occurs in B. M. 96a, where it is applied to every grown...
BAR YOKNI – A gigantic bird mentioned several times in the Talmud. An authority at the beginning of the third century, in relating a number of wonders, says that this bird was so large that once one of its eggs dropping from a height...
BARAITA – Definition. An Aramaic word designating a tannaite tradition not incorporated in the Mishnah; later it was applied also to collections of such traditions ("Barayata," plural of Baraita). The Aramaic form is , which in an old...