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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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MOṬOṬ, SIMEON BEN MOSES BEN SIMEON – Jewish mathematician of the fifteenth century; probably lived in Lombardy. No Jewish author mentions him, nor is anything known of his life. That he lived in the middle of the fifteenth century has been concluded from the fact...
MU'AṬI – Rabbi in Constantinople in the middle of the seventeenth century. He wrote "Yashir Mosheh" (Leghorn, 1655; Amsterdam, 1735), a commentary on Isaac ben Reuben Albargeloni's "Azharot" (comp. Jew. Encyc. ii. 371b, s.v. Azharot),...
MUDAWWAR, ELIAS IBN AL- – Arabic poet and physician; lived at Ronda, probably in the first half of the twelfth century (the year 1184 which Jacobs gives in his "Sources," p. 179, as the date of death, refers to another physician of the same name). He was...
MUGNON, DAVID – Spanish scholar and author; died at Venice in 1629. He wrote a work in Spanish entitled "Tratado de la Oracion y Meditacion y Conocimento Proprio y del Dio" (Venice, 1654), a treatise on prayer and on the knowledge of oneself...
MUSA IBN ṬUBI (ABU 'IMRAN MUSA IBN ṬUBI AL-ISHBILI) – Spanish-Arabic poet; flourished in Seville in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was the author of an Arabic poem of didactic character, entitled "Al-Sab'aniyyah" (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2095, 4). This...
MYRTLE – An evergreen, aromatic shrub which flourishes in the spring and summer on hillsides and near watercourses. In the Bible it is mentioned definitely in the later books only ( , Isa. xli. 19, lv. 13; Zech. i. 8, 10, 11; Neh. viii....
NABATÆANS – Semitic tribe or group of tribes which overran the ancient Edomite country and established a kingdom which extended from Damascus on the north to Hegra (Al-Hajr) on the south. Their power at one period was felt in central Arabia...
NAHASH – 1. King of the Ammonites. At the beginning of Saul's reign Nahash attacked Jabesh-gilead, and when the people of that place asked for terms of surrender he gave them the alternatives of having their right eyes thrust out or of...
NAḤMAN BEN ḤAYYIM HA-KOHEN – French tosafist; flourished toward the end of the twelfth century. As Gross concludes from "Kol Bo" (ed. Venice, 1562), No. 101, Naḥman was the son of Ḥayyim ben Hananeel ha-Kohen. He was the author of "Sefer Naḥmani," which...
NAḤMAN B. SAMUEL HA-LEVI – Frankist; rabbi of Busk, Galicia; lived in the first part of the eighteenth century. When Mikulski, the administrator of the archbishopric of Lemberg, invited the representatives of Judaism to a disputation with the Frankists...
NAḤMANI, SAMSON ḤAYYIM BEN NAḤMAN RAPHAEL – Italian Talmudist; flourished about the latter half of the eighteenth century. He was the pupil of Ephraim Cohen of Ostrog, rabbi of Modena; of Abi'ad Sar-Shalom Basilla, rabbi of Mantua; and, in Cabala, of Benjamin Alexander...
NAḤMOLI, JOSEPH – Talmudist and rabbi of Larissa in the eighteenth century; father-in-law of Isaac ibn Shangi (author of "Be'er Yiẓḥaḳ," on the Pentateuch), and pupil of Ḥayyim Abulafia.He wrote: "Eshel ha-Neḥalim" (Smyrna, n.d.), containing...
NAHSHON BEN ZADOK – Gaon; head of the Academy of Sura from 874 to 882, in succession to Mar Amram ben Sheshna. He wrote explanations to difficult words in the Talmud, not in alphabetical order, as did his contemporary Gaon Ẓemaḥ ben Paltoi of...
NAHUM ELIEZER BEN JACOB – Rabbi of the second half of the seventeenth and the first half of the eighteenth century; born about 1660; diedabout 1746; pupil of R. Jacob Striemer. He was one of the leading rabbis of his time, and held the rabbinate of...
NAHUM THE MEDE – Tanna of the first generation (first century); lived in Jerusalem. According to R. Nathan, he was one of the three most renowned "dayyane gezelot" (criminal judges) in Jerusalem (Ket. 105a; Yer. Ket. xiii. 1; Frankel, "Darke...
NAMES OF GOD – Biblical Data: Like other Hebrew proper names, the name of God is more than a mere distinguishing title. It represents the Hebrew conception of the divine nature or character and of the relation of God to His people. It...
NAMES OF GOD – Biblical Data: Like other Hebrew proper names, the name of God is more than a mere distinguishing title. It represents the Hebrew conception of the divine nature or character and of the relation of God to His people. It...
NAPHTALI – Second son of Jacob and Bilhah, and younger full brother of Dan. According to Gen. xxx. 8, the name means "my wrestling," and has reference to the jealous rivalry of the sisters Rachel and Leah. According to Gen. xlvi. 24, he...
NAPHTALI, TRIBE OF – According to the two enumerations of the Israelites given in the Book of Numbers (i.-iii., xxvi.), the adult males of Naphtali, when at Sinai, numbered 53,400. In the march from Sinai the place of Naphtali was with Dan and Asher...
NAPHTALI HIRSCH BEN MENAHEM – President of the community of Lemberg in the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Perush ha-Millot," explanations of difficult words in the Midrash Rabbah (Cracow, 1569).Bibliography: Benjacob, Oẓar ha-Sefarim, p. 468, Nos....
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE – Emperor of the French; born in Ajaccio, Corsica, Aug. 15, 1769; died at St. Helena in 1821. Only those incidents in his career need be noticed here that have direct bearing upon the history of the Jews. His first recorded...
NARBONI, DAVID BEN JOSEPH – Rabbi; lived at Narbonne, France, in the first half of the twelfth century. He was probably the son of Joseph Gaon of Narbonne, who is mentioned by Abraham ben Nathan of Lunel in his "Sefer ha-Manhig" (p. 86). Narboni...
NATHAN BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN HABABLI – Babylonian historian of the tenth century. He was the author of a history of the exilarchate that gives many interesting details in regard to the exilarchs, particularly his contemporary 'Uḳba. Extracts from this history were...
NATHAN JEDIDIAH BEN ELIEZER – Italian poet; born at Orvieto in 1607. In 1625, being then at Sienna, he paraphrased in Hebrew terza-rima three "widduyim": Baḥya's, beginning (following the Italian paraphrase in verse of his maternal grandfather, Johanan Judah...
NATHAN BEN MACHIR – French Talumdist of the eleventh century. He was the brother of the liturgical poet Menahem b. Machir, to whom he gave responsa on halakic questions ("Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ," § 290), and a cousin of R. Isaac b. Judah. He was the...