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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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CHERAN – A name occurring in the genealogy of Seir the Horite (Gen. xxxvi. 26), and in the corresponding list in I Chron. i. 41. Dillmann (commentary on Gen. xxxvi. 26) suggests that it comes from "kar" (a lamb). The names in the lists...
CHIEF – Term used by the English Bible versions as an approximate rendering of a number of Hebrew words. The leaders of the Levites are called "chiefs" ( ), Num. iii. 24, 30), although elsewhere the same word is rendered "prince" (Num....
CHILD, THE – Since the days of Abraham (Gen. xv. 2), to possess a child was always considered as the greatest blessing God could bestow; and to be without children was regarded as the greatest curse. The Rabbis regarded the childless man as...
CHINA – The southeastern and main division of the Chinese empire. The subject of the Jews in China is here treated in two sections: I. Their history; II. Their religious customs, etc.I. History: Whether China was known to Biblical...
CHOSEN PEOPLE – Biblical Data: Name for the Jewish people expressive of the idea of their having been chosen by God to fulfil the mission of proclaiming His truth among all the nations. This choice does not imply a superior claim, but a...
CHOVEVEI ZION – Associations, in Europe and the United States, of persons interested in agricultural settlement of Jews in Palestine and in the connection of Jews with the future of the Holy Land.This movement, which was the predecessor of...
CLEAN AND UNCLEAN ANIMALS – Distinction Between "Clean" and "Unclean." —Animals ceremonially pure and fit for food, and such as are not. Biblical Data: The distinction between clean and unclean animals appears first in Gen. vii. 2-3, 8, where it is said...
CLOUD, PILLAR OF – Biblical Data: When Israel was marching through the wilderness, Yhwh, wrapped in a pillar of cloud, preceded the people in order to show them the right way. During the night the cloud turned into a pillar of fire (Ex. xiii. 21;...
COCK – The male of the domestic fowl. The original habitat of the domestic fowl is generally supposed to be India, whence it was introduced at an early time into Babylonia and Greece. It is difficult to say when it was brought to...
COHEN – The most usual surnames of European Jews. It indicates a family claiming. descent from Aaron, the high priest. "Cohen" is the usual transliteration and orthography in English-speaking countries; but "Cowen" and "Cowan" also...
COLOGNE – Chief city of Rhenish Prussia. There are indications that a Jewish community existed here long before Christianity had become dominant. The first official document, however, concerning the Jews of Cologne dates from the time of...
COMO – City on the Italian lake of the same name. Como never possessed a Jewish community, although a single Jewish family, with employees and servants, lived there for a time and conducted a banking business which was handed down from...
CONCORDANCE – An alphabetical list of all the words in a book, with references to the passages where each word is found. The appellation indicates the concordance or similarity of all such passages. In Jewish literature the term is applied...
CONFESSION OF SIN – Biblical Data: The Scriptures repeatedly prescribe confession of sin as a means to expiation and atonement. "It shall be that when he is guilty of any one of these things, he shall confess that he hath sinned in that thing"...
CONFLICT OF LAWS – A disagreement between the laws of two states with reference to litigation affecting private rights claimed to be subject to their jurisdiction.The Mosaic law recognizes no distinction between a native and a foreigner (Ex. xii....
CONRAD (CUNTZE) OF WINTERTHUR – Burgomaster of Strasburg during the Black Death, in 1348. Together with the councilors Goffe Sturm (Schöppe) and Peter Schwarber, he opposed the mob which, believing the Jews had caused the Black Death by poisoning the wells and...
CONSTANZA – Rumanian town in the province of Dobrudja. During the Russo-Turkish campaign of 1828 some Jewish purveyors came with the Russian army to Constanza, and, settling in the place, formed the nucleus, of a small community. A separate...
CORI (Chore) – Village of Campania, Italy, about thirty miles from Rome. There is a small Jewish community there, the origin of which is not positively known, though it is probable that it was formed by settlers from Rome. The community is...
COSENZA – City in southern Italy. Ferdinando Ughelli, in the ninth volume of his "Italia Sacra," reproduces two documents referring to the Jews of Cosenza. One was given by King Ferdinand I. to Pirro Caraccioli, Archbishop of Cosenza...
COVENANT – Biblical Data: An agreement between two contracting parties, originally sealed with blood; a bond, or a law; a permanent religious dispensation. The old, primitive way of concluding a covenant ( , "to cut a covenant") was for...
COVENANT – Biblical Data: An agreement between two contracting parties, originally sealed with blood; a bond, or a law; a permanent religious dispensation. The old, primitive way of concluding a covenant ( , "to cut a covenant") was for...
CRETE – Island in the Mediterranean, about 55 miles south of the Morea. Jews had settled there long before the Christian era (I Macc. xv. 23 mentions Jews in Gortynia, Crete). Philo speaks of the Jews of Crete ("Legatio ad Caium," ed....
CROWN – Biblical Data: The translation employed for five distinct Hebrew words in the Bible. It renders, first, "zer," a technical term used frequently in the Priestly portions of Exodus for the golden molding with which the Ark (xxv....
CUSH – Biblical Data: A nation whose founder is mentioned in Gen. x. 6; I Chron. i. 8 as brother to Mizraim (Egypt) and as a son of Ham; with the exception of the passages in Genesis, A. V. renders it "Ethiopia." This African country...
CUSTOM – An old and general usage, or a religious practise, not based on any particular Biblical passage, and which has, through the force of long observance, become as sacred and binding as laws instituted by the proper...